Influence of hydrocolloid addition and microwave treatment conditions on the drying behavior of foamed raspberry puree (2023)

Food Technology Magazine

Bind 240,

January 2019

, pages 83-91

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In this study, whipped raspberry puree was dried in the microwavefreeze drying(MWFD). Through the combined use of microwaves and a foam structure, the drying process should be accelerated and at the same time an innovative product structure with an intensive aroma effect for consumption as a luxury food should be createdSnack. The influence of potato protein asfoamyAgent, maltodextrin as a foam stabilizer and the influence of microwave (MW) on the drying properties of raspberry foam under MWFD were studied. Conventional freeze drying (FD) tests were performed for reference. It has been shown that the MD concentration has a significant influence on the product temperature. Because higher MD concentrations produced smaller bubbles and a more even bubble size distribution, lower drying temperatures were required to achieve the same final moisture content.

Different MW powers had no significant influence on the drying time. MWFD at 1.0 Wg−1resulted in a three to fourfold reduction in overall drying time compared to FD. The addition of 10% protein resulted in the gentlest drying at high MW power, as structural changes allowed less resistance to water vapor mass transfer. There was a high correlation between the foam properties and the drying behavior. An overflow of over 450% resulted in gentle drying at all tested microwave power levels. Foam bubble size and bubble size distribution correlated well with drying rate. Overall, MWFD has proven to be a significantly faster and gentler alternative to FD for fruit foam production.


Raspberries are popular with consumers because they contain high levels of ascorbic acid and anthocyanins. Along with the increasing demand for ready meals, there has been a clear trend towards the production of healthy snack products in recent years. In general, a modern snack product is expected to offer high quality nutrition combined with an attractive appearance and mouthfeel. With increasing health awareness, vegan foods are growing in popularity, which has led to an increasing demand for fruit-based products. In addition, the consumer generally expects a minimally processed product with a natural and intense flavor that is close to that of unprocessed food. One way to produce dried snack products is by freeze drying (FD), a method that is considered safe and produces products with a near-natural appearance. However, FD is slow and therefore expensive, and products (e.g. dried whole fruit like raspberries) are slow to rehydrate. As an alternative to dried whole fruit, an attractive fruit product concept could be achieved by first processing whole fruit into pulp or puree and then whipping it into foam. Such foamed pulps could then be dried. This made it possible to produce a snack product with a highly porous structure that, when chewed, shows a new and intense sensation as the aroma is released immediately (Carvalho et al., 2017).

The foamed structure could also lead to a faster drying process as the open structure offers less resistance to the escape of water vapor during drying (Huang et al., 2015). Liquid or semi-liquid foods are whipped into a mechanically and thermodynamically stable foam using foaming agents and foam stabilizers such as hydrocolloids. In particular when a foam structure is to be dried, a certain foam stability is important; An unstable foam can collapse before or during the drying process. In order to obtain a stable fruit foam, various foaming and stabilizing agents such as egg white, soy protein isolate, methylcellulose or milk proteins have been described in the literature (Abbasi and Azizpour, 2016, Franco and Perussello, 2015, Kadam et al. al., 2011, Karim and Wai, 1999, Rajkumar et al., 2007, Sankat and Castaigne, 2004, Thuwapanichayanan et al., 2008). Recently, food manufacturers have shown great interest in replacing animal proteins with plant proteins (Glusac et al., 2018). Among the plant proteins, high quality hypoallergenic potato proteins have gained interest. Because of its functional properties as a potato protease inhibitor, a major portion of the soluble potato protein was used as a foaming agent. Especially in low pH ranges, PPI is stable against Ostwald ripening at pH 3, the pH of raspberries (Van Koningsveld et al., 2002). Carbohydrates such as maltodextrin can be used to improve foam stabilization due to their neutral taste and high solubility (Jafari et al., 2017). Hydrocolloids, which are mainly used as gelling agents when dispersed in water (Saha and Bhattacharya, 2010), are also used. Typically, a gelling agent such as pectin can help stabilize a foam and prevent dewatering, coalescence, breakage of the film between bubbles, Ostwald ripening, and other destabilizing events.

Foam drying, also known as foam mat drying, has been studied since the 1920s. It has become popular because liquid or semi-liquid products can be dried faster this way than with traditional methods (Ratti and Kudra, 2006). Greater efficiency is achieved because the air bubbles increase internal surface area and create a structure that is less resistant to mass transport of water vapor, resulting in evaporated water being removed much faster than a non-foamed liquid structure. On this basis, Brygidyr et al. (1977) and Thuwapanichayanan et al. (2012) reported that foam drying could be achieved at lower temperatures; and foam hardly experiences overheating, which can achieve higher product quality (Ng and Sulaiman, 2018). It has also been found that foaming agents and stabilizing agents can help prevent bubble collapse during drying as they increase the glass transition temperature of the sample (Ratti and Kudra, 2006).

It seems that drying fruit with foam mats is one of the most effective ways to dry sticky and very dense fruit purees. It has been applied to various fruits and fruit products such as mango (Lobo et al., 2017), jambolan (Carvalho et al., 2017), cowpea (Falade et al., 2003) and cantaloupe (Sangamithra et al., 2015a). However, until now foam mat drying of raspberries has not been reported in the literature.

As mentioned above and proven by a number of researchers (Jiang et al., 2011, Michalska et al., 2016, Monteiro et al., 2015), freeze drying has always been the best method to obtain high quality dried food from the drying process is performed at very low temperatures in an oxygen-free environment. However, the lower drying rates observed in freeze drying result in high energy consumption and hence lower energy efficiency (Ratti, 2001, Zhang et al., 2006). Dehnad et al. (2016) emphasized that what is best for functional properties is a trade-off between drying time and temperature. Therefore, there is a pronounced need for an equally gentle drying process that can deliver fruit products of comparable quality but higher process efficiency. Microwave-assisted freeze-drying (MWFD) appears to be a promising method. Because microwave electromagnetic radiation volumetrically heats the product in large quantities without direct contact, the application of microwave energy (MW) to a freeze-drying process results in faster drying rates and therefore shorter overall processing times. However, there are still some difficulties in implementing MWFD on an industrial scale due to the non-uniform temperature distribution. It is important to regulate microwave power and chamber pressure to avoid hotspots during the process (Fan et al., 2018).

To the best of the authors' knowledge, no work on the foaming properties of raspberry puree and its behavior during microwave drying has been published in the literature. The hypothesis of this work was that the freeze drying of foamed fruit puree can be accelerated by microwave energy, resulting in a high quality product and a specific end product structure.

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the drying properties of raspberry foam. We evaluated the influence of potato protease inhibitors (PPI) as a foaming agent, the concentration of MD as a foam stabilizer, and the influence of MW input on drying behavior to determine the optimal MWFD conditions for fruit foam. As a reference, the MWFD method was compared with conventional FD.

section excerpt

foam preparation

FrozenWillametteRaspberry variety from Serbia was provided by Main Frucht (Gochsheim, Germany). The required amount of frozen raspberries was thawed in a 2-hat appliance at 20°C. A puree was then made using a food grinder. PPI was used as the foaming agent. Maltodextrin (DE 6) (MD) and pectin (P) were used as foam stabilizers. Table 1 and Table 2 show the foam formulations, all of which have proven to be suitable for a stable drying process in preliminary tests. Whisk the raspberry puree mixture until fluffy

results and discussion

In this section, we report the MWFD drying behavior of raspberry fruit foams containing different concentrations of active ingredients affecting foam formation and foam stabilization. In section 3.3 we compare the MWFD drying rate with that of conventional FD.


Our results show that moderate foam overflow is beneficial for efficient drying and is a compromise between large internal surface area and thin lamellae. The diffusion limitation, which typically occurs with very dense structures, especially towards the end of drying, can be circumvented in this way. From this point of view, it is important to find a favorable concentration of the foaming agent in order to achieve an open, porous, yet stable foam for the highest possible drying speed. The


This research project was supported byThe Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology(via AiF) and FEI (Research Association of the Food Industry e.V., Bonn, project AiF 19015N). We thank Püschner Microwaves (Schwanewede, Germany) for technical support and Main Frucht (Gochsheim, Germany) for the supply of raspberries.


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