Proto-Micronesian Reconstructions-I - Document - Gale Literature Resource Center (2023)

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Authors: Byron W. Bender,Department H. Good enough,Frederick H. Jackson,Jeffrey C. Marck,Kenneth L. RehgAndoh my son

Given: June 2003

Out of:Oceanic Linguistics(Volume 42, Issue 1)

Editor: University of Hawaii Press

Document Type: Article

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Part I presents about 980 reconstructions for Proto-Micronesian, Proto-Central Micronesian and Proto-Western Micronesian. Part 2 (represented in Volume 42 [2]) provides reconstructions for two additional subgroups within Proto-Micronesian: Proto-Pohnpeic and Proto-Chuukic and their immediate ancestor, Pinto-Pohnpeic-Chuukic. A handful of putative bonds are also identified, and a single English finder's list is provided for all of their constructions.

INTRODUCTION. Lexical data for a number of Micronesian languages ​​were systematically collected in the mid-1960s as part of the development of language teaching for the United States. Peace Corps and in conjunction with other Micronesian language projects that followed at the University of Hawaii. This data was stored on a mainframe computer using programs developed at the time (Hsu and Peters 1984), and dictionaries were eventually published for a number of the languages ​​included in this study (Elbert 1972, Abo et al. 1976, Lee 1976, Sohn and Tawerilmang 1976, Harrison and Albert 1977, Jensen 1977, Rehg and Sohl 1979, Goodenough and Sugita 1980, Jackson and Mark 1991). Comparative work using this data began with Marck in 1977 and focused on the group of languages ​​referred to as core Micronesian. Over the next several years, the authors of the current study computerized and substantially supplemented the baseline data by collecting information directly from Micronesian language speakers who were students of the Micronesian Bilingual Education Project at the University of Hawai'i. Hsu (1976) was particularly useful in related searches. This early activity culminated in a transcript identified as Bender et al. has been identified. 1984. Preliminary results and some of the computer programs used in the comparative work are summarized in Bender and Wang 1985. Recent work and the initial compilation of this presentation of the data was primarily done by this second author.

CLASSIFICATION OF SUBGROUPS IN NUCLEAR MICRONESE. In this etymological dictionary we attribute Proto-Micronesian (PMc) to an inherited lexical element shared between a Chuukian or Pohnpeian language or Marshallese or Kiribati (Gilbertese) on the one hand and Kosraic (Kusaian) on the other. We have also attributed to PMc some lexical items in just one Micronesian language that are shared with another Austronesian language and cannot be attributed to borrowings, although no systematic search for such items has been performed. According to Jackson (1983), we ascribe Pinto-Central Micronesian (PCMc) to elements shared by Kiribati and every other Micronesian language further down the tree in Figure I, but not found in any other Austronesian languages, and we ascribe them to Pinto-West Micronesian to (PWMc) elements shared by Marshallese and every other language further down the tree, but not found in any other Austronesian language. (The Micronesian languages ​​not shown in figure r include Sonsorolese [SNs] and Tobi [TOB] [which should be placed in accordance with PuA], the Tanapag dialect of Caroline [CRN] [which should be included in PUL, CHK and MRT in PECK ] and Pingelapese [PNG][include in PON and MOK under PPC]). Protoforms from all three languages ​​- PMc, PCMc, and PWMc - are scattered in a single alphabetically ordered list in Part I of this dictionary. Part 2 (in a future release) will provide protoforms for Proto-Chuukic (PCk), Proto-Pohnpeic (PPON), and Proto-Pohnpeic-Chuukic (PPC), for which no higher-level reconstructions are possible. Consonant correspondences are given in Tables 3 and 4. Vowel correspondences are tentatively discussed in Jackson 1983:321-323 and Goododenough 1992.

Future work includes a careful review of the evidence for Marshallese and Kiribati loanwords, not only in Kosraic but also in Pohnpeian and Chuukian languages ​​(see Rehg and Bender 1990). The inhabitants of the sea atolls of the Marshall and Kiribati Islands were frequent travelers to the high islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei to the west. There were also Polynesian-speaking settlers there - or at least there were Polynesian contacts - confirmed by loanwords such as Pohnpeian sakaw ('kava' <PN t-kawa) and sangaro ('a god' <PN Tangaroa). There were also massive loans to Kiribati from Samoan and to a lesser extent, more recently, from Tuvaluan. Kiribati speakers have expanded their settlements both south into northern Tuvalu and north into the southern Marshall Islands over the past few hundred years. Marshallese shows what are clearly Kiribati loanwords (Bender 1981). Marck (1994) has reconstructed some Proto-Chuk and even a few Proto-Micronesian forms in which irregularities in phonetic correspondences raise the possibility that they are the result of a chain of borrowings rather than inherited relatives. Such deviations are noted on the relevant forms. Complicating the problem are some forms that seem to have survived in some Micronesian languages ​​as inherited relatives and were reintroduced by them into other Micronesian languages ​​as loanwords. Duplicates, related forms such that one fits the pattern of phonetic equivalents of the inherited vocabulary and the other does not, also attest to such internal borrowings.

ORTHOGRAPHIC SYMBOLS USED. For ease of comparison, the proto-languages ​​PMc, POc, PCK, and UAN (Dempwolff's Uraustronesian) use the velar nasal symbol(s), and the nuclear languages ​​compared use the ng, g, n, and so on in place of the ng, g, n, and so on in their orthoographies. W of labiovelars in the different languages ​​is made the heading and this is replaced by primes of p' and m' used by Marck (1977,1994) and Jackson (1983). We use #1 to represent the palatal nose of PPC, PMc, POc and UAN; We use R to represent the retroflex continuation of Puluwatese, CRN Carolinian, and Satawalese, but otherwise defaults to PEO, POc, PMP, or UAN, and PAN. We have used a and u to represent the low front unrounded, middle unrounded, low back rounded, and high central unrounded or rounded vowels in the various Chuukian languages. We use [member of] for the lax middle vowel of Pohnpeian and Pingelapese; Mokilese e and [[x] are both written after Harrison and Salich (1977). We use o for the loose middle back round vowel that is written oa in all Pohnpeian languages. For Marshallese we use the phonemic transcription of Abo et al. (1976), but replace M with b, [mw] for m, n for g, [kw] for q, and we use the superscript w to show the rounding of [nw] ] ], {w and [r .sup.w], For Kosracan we rewrote the digraph vowels to make their phonetic value more transparent, as shown in Table I. Our orthography for PO is that of Ross (1988), to which we add S to his s. Our spelling for PCK is that of Jackson (1983), to which we add y. Our spelling for PMc is that of Jackson (1986), except that we replace its d and S with its z and add y and Z. The # symbol marks an entry that we consider an analog inversion.


PMC *-a (obj.prn.) 'ham, her, it': CHK -y, -ye-; -w,-vi-; WOL -ja, -wa; PUA-a; PCK*a; KIR-a; PEO*-a; PKB*a; POC*a (Ross 1988).

PMC *-a, -Ta 'reality mode markør (attached to subj.prn.)': CHK -a; MRI-a; PUL-yes; in the blocked list; STW -a, -ya; WOL -sa, -go; ULI-a; They are PUAs; PCK *..a, -Ta; MRS routes; KIR-a; KSRIA; PEO *-ta (SAA -'en 'present or ordinary time'). problems here.

PCMC *aa-, aa-ni- 'foreign body (with possible suf.), acquire a a. O.'; CHK aa- 'general class of a. o.', aa-ni'a a.o. own or acquire', verse 'an a.o. use'; PUL yaa-, go, go; CRL aa-, go -li, go; CRN aa, aa-ni, STW extension; WOL flow-, flow-li-(i), flow; PUA yaa-; PCK *go.., go-er-, go; PON aa-, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]- 'a o.'; MRS haha-; KIR a-'a o.', ana-a 'take or get (s.t.)'. See FIJ put'thing'; UAN * means "possession".

PWMc*[aapw]a 'nej': CHK [aapw]; PUL[yaapw]; Wol beebe;? PON [app.sup.w] 'Männer'; MRS [yahab.sup.w].

PMC? *[ae.sub.1], 'to crawl': CHK a, aa- 'to swim, to swim'; KIR ae "to crawl" and ae-(rake) "to go ashore". POc *jaRa 'moving, crawling, floating, spilling' (Ross 1988) (KWATala-(fafo) 'shallow, swimming close to the surface',tala-[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e'enia] 'arriving at a place, washing high '). See PCMc *afe 'to swim'.

PMC? *[ae.sub.2] 'this': KIR ae 't. here, that there'; poker aRe (LAK ale 't., this'; FIJ [ko]-yaa,[a]-yaa 'that [removed], this'). Cf. KIR is 'who, what, that over there'.

PMC *mouth- and coconut crab: CHK eef, #eefi-; CRL aff,affi-; WOL release; PCK *affi; PON [UNKEYABLE SYMBOL]mp; KIR(te)-aai; KSR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i.

PMc *afa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'north': CHK efen,efe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'n., passat wind season', efeni-(lur)'dove n., n. wind'; MRT efe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(n) 'towards n.', (le)-efe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'dry season'; PULyefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], yefe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'n., be n. (of wind or direction), trade wind season'; CRL efu[KEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], afa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]; STW effa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'n.', (le)-efan 'winter, trade wind season'; WOLyefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'n., northerly direction, trade wind season'; PUA (i)-eda[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PCK *yafa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i; PON (pali)-epe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRS ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], (yi)-ye[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'n.', (ha[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]da)-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'winter time, dry season'; KIR(me)-aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Cf. KSR epa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], glossed over as 'south' in the dictionary, looks like a loan (p unexpected, see PPC*auru 'south'). See Marcks (1994:310-323) PPC*fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'dry season'.

PMC *afara 'shoulder': CHK afar, afara-(n) 's., hiss.', (ewuw)-efar 's. carrying pole', (ewuw)-efara 'to carry (s.t.) on a pole'; MRI awufar, awufara-(n); PUL yefar 's.', yayefar 's., load carried on s.'; CRL aifar, aifar, ayufar,aifara-(l) 's., bear a burden on s., his s.'; STW efar,efara-(n); WOL yfare, yafera-(le); PUA yadala 'p.', yadadala 'cany on p.'; PCK*yafara; PON ap[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'his p.'; MOK apro 'hiss'; PNG monkeys; MRS Hayer, Hayray; PEO*qafaRa (Gcraghty 1990); POC*qapaRa, qabaRa (ULA 'apala's.'; PKB *[kq]apala); PAN*qabaRa (Ross 1988). There appears to have been a corruption of the word for "shoulder-bearing bar" and its reinterpretation as "shoulder" in MRT, PUL, and CRL. Cf. KSR paelpael 'to carry on the shoulder', polo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to carry with a pole on the shoulders'; ARO abara 'Cany under the arm'.

PCMC *afe 'swollen': PUL yaf, yafe-; STW Yaaf (sic);; ULI CRL from, year-; PUA PCK *Breath; FRU hahah; KIR (tea)-ae 'driven'. Cf. KIR uaua 'to swim', SAM 'a'au' to swim' and PMC ? * [ ae . sub.1] 'creep'.

PMc *[of 1] 'fire': CHK aaf of-; PUL yaaf; CRL(a-ghuu) - for "light a beacon"; traffic signal fire for CRN (a-guu); WOL sorry, sorry; thought PUA. yadi-; SNS Yafi; PCK *sorry;PON woe; MOKoy; PNG [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y; KIR (te)-ai; KSR and; POC *Bee (Ross 1988) (PPN *Bee; PNK *Fruit); UAN *fire.

PMC *[afi2], 'draw on a line': CHK ef, efiyef'p. on a l. (as in fishing)', efi-i-(y) 's. on (a line)';PUL yaaf (sic), yafi-i-(y); CRL afi-i-(y) . it in (like a fish on a line)'; PUA Yadiedis. like a rope'; SNS Yafiefis. on a rope'; PCK *yafi, yafiyafi; PON api-i 'p.' (s.t., mostly with rope)'; MOK oppop, oppop's.', opi's. At'; PPC*afi, afi-i-; PEO *Raf[ci] 'p.' (Geraghty 1990). Cf. MRS hayik'tow (as a boat), to drag, pull', hayik-ey 'to drag s.t.'; KIRaa-i 'to pull', aeae-a 'to pull, to pull (s.t.)', (te)-aeae-a'a to pull'.

PMc *afi, afi-Si- 'carry on the hip or under the arm': MRT afiyaf 'c. under the arm', afi-ti 'c. (a child) on the hip'; PUL yafi-ti-(y) 'two C. (a child) on one side'; CRL aft-ti, afi-ti 'c. (a child or object) on own side'; STWafiyaf'c. on the hip (as a baby)', afi-ti 'c. (a child) in the arms on the side'; WOL yafiyefi 'c. under one arm';yafi-ti-(i)'c. that under the arm'; PUA yadi-ti 'c. that under the arm'; PCK *afiafi, afi-di-; PON api-d 'two C. (s.t.) on the side or under the arm'; MOK api-d'c. (s.t.) under the arm'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to hold on the hip', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to hold or carry (s.t.) on the hip'; PEO*afi (BUG avi-ni 'carry in the arms'). See MRS [hab.sup.w]-jayjey'c. tucked under one arm'; BUG achi 'carry under the arm'. See also PEO *[q0]afi-na 'armpit' (Geraghty 1983). See PCK *API.

PMC *-aki 'passive suffix': CRL (ripis)-agh 'to break into pieces, crush' (ripiiy 'splinter s.t.'), (bunker)-agh 'to block, clog' (pileey 'to close,' lid, lid on s.t.'); WOL (liuwet)-ag 'thrown' (liuweti 'to throw s.t.'), ([m.sup.w]ulot)-ag 'curled'([m.sup.w] ulot-i 'lure s.t.', (feshin )-eg 'picked'(feshin-i 'pick s.t.'); PCK *-aki; PON (dier)-ek 'to befound' (diar 'to find'), ([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][m.sup.w] ir)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'become crumpled'([am.sup.w]ir 'crumple'); MRS ([wek.sup.w]t)-ak 'bechanged' (wiket-ey 'change ' st .'), (wekj)-ak 'overturned, overturned' (wikej 'overthrown s.t.'); KIR (arir)-aki 'tightened' (arir-a 's.t. tighten'); KSR( otwe) - [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'woven' (otwe 'to weave'), (usruk)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be shaken' (usruk 'toshake') Reflexes of this suffix recorded for CHK (see examples under PMC *aki -ni below) all have it followed by reflexes of *-ni; see the statement of CHK -asi (-esi) in Goodenough and Sugita 1980.

PMC *-aki-ni 'passive suffix': CHK -asi-ni, -esi-ni(suf. to verb base) 'be ~ because of (s.o. or s.t.). be ~ because of (s.a. or s.t.), be ~ with (s.a. or s.t.)', (be)-embarrassed about him'; PUL -yaki-n-, heard-n-; CRL(kkapasa)-aghi-li 'intercede for someone' (kkapas 'word, speak, speak, language, speak'), (phasa)agha-li 'laugh at someone, make fun of someone, mock' ( ffas 'laugh'); WOL-laughing-(i), -laughing-(i); PUA -he-is; PCK *-account-of-; KIR -aki-with 'transitive suffix' (Bender et al. 1984); KSR -ki-n 'fossilized transitive suffix' (Bender et al. 1984); PEO *-he-is (SAA -ai-he [sic]; BUG -agi-is).

PWM? *aki, okok 'to hide, to hide': PON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to hide, to conceal', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]id-i-(la) 'h. It's gone'; MRS(to)-yekyek 'h., to be blurry'.

PMc *ako 'tie together': CHK ooyo 'strap or rope handle, strap of rope or string'; PUL. yooyo 'rudely sennited for flogging and caulking, for calcifying'; WOL yagoyago 'to t.together, bind'; PCK*yakoyako; PEO *Rak[ou]t 't., the fast' (Geraghty 1990) (LAK lao-a 'to fasten, have intercourse with', lakolako 'to hold (like tape)'). Note that LAK forms can also be related to Fu rako, rakorako "to fit or to fit well", UAN *Dakep "to unite".

PMc *ako, akoka 'to steer a boat': WOL. (go) side; PUA(ka)-me; PCK *(ka)me; KSR ikwik 'rudder, tiller, to s.'. See MRS[kahyiyek.sup.w], [kahiyewek.sup.w]'s. direct to'.

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PMc *[ala.sub.I] 'path, road': CHK aan, ane-(n)'p.' r., route, p. of'; MRI aol, ala-(n) 'r., hisr.'; PUL try, yela-(n) 's., r., street, his p.'; CRL ad,ala-(l) 'p., r., be p.'; STW thought he-(n) 'r., his r.'; WOL tried he-(li) 'p., r., p. of', yen-(neck) (< *yard-lapa)' s., roadway'; PUA yaana, black - "road, right, lane"; SNSyaara 'r., s., wise'; PCK *add; PON al 'p., r., trail', MOK and PNG al; MRS yiya[ls], yiyya[ls]. See PEO *be'p. (Geraghty 1983); POC *Excerpt. (Ross 1988) (FIJsala, PPN *here; SAA see; BUG hatha-[utu] 'a road'; LAU see, 'way, s.'; ARO tara-[na] KWA see; PKB *go, be) . ; PAN *Zalan See also Marck (1994:321) PMC *ala.

PMc *[ala.sub.2] 'take, get': PON ale 't., g.,(s.t.), alaal-(di) 'take or get'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'g., t., collect (s.t.)',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'g., t., collect';KIR ana-(a) 'two T'; POC *ala-(p) 'to take'; UAN *ala-(p)'take'. Cf. MRS haley 'store, storehouse', hafey 'fish caught by circling'.

PMc *ala[iu], alala[iu] 'long': CHK aney, anney 'l., high, length', aneyi-(n) 'length or height of',-naaney 'l.'; PUL yellow, yellow 'l. (as hair)','length, height', yelaye-(n) 'length or height of',laalay 'his l., high, last l.'; CRL laalaay 'be L., large', alley. impure, impure 'to be very 1.'; WOL yelai, yelai-(li) 'length, length of', yennai 'his 1st, extended'; PUA yanai'be 1.'; PCK *lay, lay, lay; MRS leyelley "long distance, father"; KIR brother, brother 'l.', (the)-brother, (the)-brother 'length'; POC *[ao]lau, [ao]lalau PKB *(ma)-laqu'l., high, long'). Cf. PON aned 'l., high'; KSR loes'l., large, 'loe-loes' very l. or big

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PCMc *ale 'coral species': CHK aan, ani-(n) 'k. Officials (alive, white and branched), c. of', ane-([p.sup.w][p.sup.w]o)'a k. of c.'; PUL yaal, yale-(y); CRL Yaal, eel; PCK *Ale; KIR(te)-ane 'live c.' Compare PCMc *laxa 'coral species' and PMc? *laZe 'coral species'.

PMc *alele 'count, sing': CHK annaya, anneya 'read, count (s.t.), read, count'; PUL yalley 'think over, meditate', yalleya 'read, count (s.t.)'; WOLyanne 'wise, be clever'; PCK *all, all-a; MRS hal 's. 'song, music'; KIR anene 'to sing', anene-a 'to sing (a song, hymn, etc.)'; KSR ael[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ll[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l 'to sing'; PEO *alele (SAA alele "rejoice, enjoy a song"; ARO arere "be happy", arere-hi "happy because"). Cf. FIJ lele 'mourning'; ARO is arere'call a spirit'; KWA lala, bale 'makes rattling noises'. There is no basis for associating KIR-Anene with PEO *taReRe juice as suggested by Geraghty (1990). See also PPC? *kaulu 'sing, sing' and PCK *everyone counts, counts'. Cf. also BUG-sål 'to sing, aong', sale-a 'to sing (s.t.)'. There can be two different roots here.

PWMc *-ali, -aliali, [m.sup.w]a-aliali 'circle, circles, dizzy': CHK fa-an 'go into a c.', fa-aniyen 'a c., ring, totalk round a subject', eni-(kes) 'wind up the warps', [m.sup.w]a-aniyen 'vertigo, be d.'; MRT fa-ali 'form ac.'; PUL fa-aliyal 'he c.', [m.sup.w]a-aliyel 'be d., confused'; CRL [m.sup.w]an alliance 'd.'; CRN fa-aliyel "round, round, spherical"; STW(a)-fa-an 'make a c.', fa-aniyan 'go into a c.'; WOL fa-aliyeli 'to c., go around', [b.sup.w]a-aliyeli 'go to a c., be round', husband-aliyeli 'round', [m.sup.w]a- ali-yeli 'to be, dizzy, dazed'; PUAda-anieni 'two c., go around'; PCK *-have, have, father-have, [m.sup.w]a-have; PON[m.sup.w]a-ali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'bed.' [m.sup.w]a-ali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li 'his brain',sa-ali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'd., insane or retarded'; MOK[m.sup.w]e-eleel 'd.', [m.sup.w]e-eleel-(the) 'unconscious'; MRS (hajji)-[m.sup.w]a-halhal 'd., sway, nod'. Cf. SAA kali 'surrounded', kalikeli 'around'; LAU is "round, round"; FOR they are 'c., round, around' See also PCK *ka-falli 'pay attention, pay attention', PCK *[m.sup.w]alli 'confused, wrong'.

PMc *ali-ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'mangrove krabbe': CHKani-mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; CRL ali-mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'largesea c. med rot orange skal'; PON e1i-mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], MOKel-mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] hummer (sic)variety'; PPC*ali-ma[UNTASTATURFÄHIGES SYMBOL]o; PMP *qali-ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aw (Blust1980:39). Jf. KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] i 'c.' hvor vi ville forvente *acl.

PMc *al[iu]ta 'beard': CHK enis, enisa-(n) 'b., moustache, moustache, his b.'; MRT alus 'b., moustache, moustache'; PUL yaluh, yaluha-(n) (sic); CRL alus, aalis, ails, alusa-(l); CRN aluminum; WOL yaluse yalusa-(le); PUA yanuda 'sideburns'; PCK *yaluta; PON ails, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lise'b., mustache, his b.'; MOK alij oljo, 'b., moustache, hisb.'; KSR alt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(1) 'his b.', aelut 'bearded'. Note PUA d instead of expected t; there could be a problem here.

PMc *alo 'sun': CHK (nee)-yono-(var) 'noon, noon' (lit. 'time of high sun'), (nee-kkunu)-yon 'late afternoon' (lit. 'solstice time' ). ') ; MRI boy, wool; PULyool, yolo-(n) 's., s. of', (le)-yolo-(wah) 'dinner'; CRL.(lee)-alo-(var), (lee)-olo-(var) 'High Noon'; STW'(lee)-yolo-(var) 'noon'; WOL yalo, yalo-; ULI yal; PUA yaano,yano-; SNS Yaaro; PCK *yalo; MRS hall; PEO *qalo (SAA salo 'sky, sky, clouds'; LAU salo 'cloud, storm'; ARO aro 'sky, the sky'; KWA lalo 'sky'). YAP yaal' 'sun' is probably on loan from ULI. See also PCK *yalle-puta 'a tree (Pittosporum)' and compare PCK *yaado 'legendary woman', PMc*a[sS]o 'time'.

PMc *alo, aloalo, aol-[fo]i 'to wave, to wave': PON olool'to w., to signal', ol[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] to w. or signal to'; MOK (jei)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l, (jei)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li'to w., w. at (see above)'; MRS (jeyya)-ha[ls] 'b. by moving the hand downwards or by waving the arm'; KIR anoano 'two b.', (te)-anoano 'wave', ano-a 'two b. to (see above)',ano-i-(a) 'b. Him'; PEO *qalo, qalo-fi (FIJ yalo, yalo-va'b.'; TON (ta)-'alo 'to w., b.'; SAA salo 'tob., invite'; BUG athoatho, atho-vi 'two b., signal'; ARo saro 'to b.'; BAU karo-lu 'two b.'); PMP *qalep 'b.,w.' (Blust 1989:123). The MOK form appears to be on loan from MRS. Cf. LAU salo-fi 'to prepare, to clear a way, to sweep'.

PCMc *amata 'underboiled, roasted': CHK amas, dough-; MRTames; PUL yemah; WOL at night; PUA-Yamete; PCK *am[ae]ta; PON Lover; MRS ham;KIR milk. Cf. KSR (tael)-[m.sup.w]ek, (taek)-[m.sup.w]ek 'r.,ungekocht' Cf. auch POc *to kill (Ross 1988) (PPN *to kill; KWA not); UAN *ma(n) also, mint.

Proto-Micronesian Reconstructions-I - Document - Gale Literature Resource Center (3)

PCMc *a[m.sup.w]a 'belonging to education': CHKfa-a[m.sup.w] 'birth, birth, birth',(a)-fa-a[m.sup.w] a 'live it (a baby)'; WOL fa-a[m.sup.w]e 'adopt, be adopted, be cared for', fa-a[m.sup.w]a-(a) 'adopt him/her'; PUA da-a[m.sup.w]a 'adopt a child, take care of him/her'; PCK *fa~a[mw]a; KIR (te)-a[m.sup.w]a-(rake)'food'. Cf. FIJ yaga 'useful, valuable, necessary'.

PMc? *[a[theta]][m.sup.w]i, [a[theta]][m.sup.w]i-ni- 'sich die Hände waschen': PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][m.sup.w ]mi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][m.sup.w], a[m.sup.w]i-n; MRS ha[m.sup.w]in,ha[m.sup.w]in-iy; KSR winwin, winwin-i. Der kan være lån her.

PCMc *a[m.sup.w]ii 'bunch or cluster of nuts': PON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][m.sup.w]ii 'heap of them (palm nuts)'; PNG[UNKEYABLE ICON][m.sup.w]i; KIR a[m.sup.w]ii 'full flock or heap'. Could be a loan in PON and PNG from KIR.

PMc *ancane 'wish, need': CHK anayan, aneyan 'to drag'; PUL yaniyan 'two w.'; WOL yaleyale 'two w.'; PCK*Ancan; PON anaan 'necessary, to be indispensable', anaane 'ton., require (s.t)'; MOK anaan[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to n., want(s.t)'; MRS(k)-enahan 'will, like, w.'; KSRenen[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to n. (s.t.), be necessary',nen[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to n. (s.t)'; PEO *ane (FIJ yana 'to take another's goods without his consent').

PMc *anitu 'god, spirit': CHK enu, enuu-(n), anu,anuu-(n) 'god, heavenly spirit, G. of'; MRT anu, anuu-(n) 'mind,g. from'; PUL yanu "old god"; CRL. anu, anuu-(1)s ghost, ghost, sides of'; CRN anu 'spirit, ghost'; STW anu,anuu-(n) 'spirit, g. from'; WOL yalusu 'god, spirit, ghost'; PUA yanudu 'god, spirit, ghost'; 'spirit, ghost'; PCK*yanutu; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ni 'ghost'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ni 'demon, spirit'; PNG eni 'spirit, spirit'; MRShanij 'god', hanijnij 'witchcraft, enchantment, magic, witchcraft', hanji(n-iy) 's.o. enchant'; KIR(te)-anti-"god, spirit, specter"; KSR inut 'god, spirit, ghost', inti'at to enchant, to enchant (see above)'. UAN *anitu; PAN*qaNitu (Wolff 1993). See UAN *qantu and PPN *aitu. See also PCK *fauru-anutu 'to recite an incantation'.

PMc *anu[sS]en 'small, uninhabited island': WoL yalutes. uninhabited in.'; STW Yaluts. uninhabited in.'; PCK*anuda; PON and 'name of an atoll west of Pohnpei; POc *anusa'i.'; PEO * (q)anuza (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ yanuca). Cf. UAN *nusa 'island'. See also PMc *fanua 'inhabited land' and Marcks (1994:307) *anu[sz]a 'small island'.

PMc *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][a.sub..], 'hold or take in hand, handle': CHK a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(ta) 'hand up, hold in hand reaches up', a [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-e-(y) '(s.t) take in hand', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-([m.sup.w]ann)'take without permission', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] a-s 'beadept'; et[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(ta) 'work too hard, work until it breaks', et[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(kkay) 'manageable', et[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(can) 'catch fish with it means an amazing fish trap', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(maaw) 'snatch, take roughly in hand', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(mma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'take in hand slowly', ana-( [ UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aw) handle things badly or clumsily', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'work', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'put (see above)UN to workEYBOARD,a. aa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(ffat) 'work without pay'; MRT ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]et[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'work'; PUL yan 'to take,,ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(ta) 'to be tired (like from work)',ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(ta), ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(ta) ' toeach up', ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-a-(y) 'to bring, take(s.t.),, ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'work, to work'; CRL a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'work, work',a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(neli) 'reach for (st.)',a UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] e-eti, a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-eti 'to touch(s.o. or s.t,)'; STW ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'work'; WOL yane 'to reach out, to reach out, to reach out', ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(kkuwe) 'to touch things all the time', ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(nnaw) 'do s.t. imperfect, clumsy, sloppy', ye[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e 'to work, work', ye[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-si 'to reach for, touch'; PUAya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'to grab'; PCK*ya[UNKEYABLE ICON]a, ya[UNKEYABLE ICON]aa[UNKEYABLE ICON]a, ya[UNKEYABLE ICON]a-ti-; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] – "to reach for"; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'reach by stretching'; KIR (ka)-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'difficult to make', (ua)-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(ua) 'ambidextrous', a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] a a-(ua) ]a-(main) 'left-handed', et[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(atai) 'right-handed', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(bai) 'fits loads from hand to hand' , et [ UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a -(ra) 'awkward (like using your left hand)'; PEO *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a. a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-ti (SAA a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-'i 'carry, act as a catcher'; LAU a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-i 'lift, carry'; AROa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'a carry bag, in to carry in a bag',a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a- 'i 'to lift'; KWAa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-[luaa] 'to put back in place when carrying').

PMC *a[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][a.sub.2] Eller *ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'edderkoppeskal (Strombidae): CHK ne-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],nne-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'any true conch s. (slægten Strombus orgenus Lambis)«; PUL le-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(y) 's. s., s.s. af'; CRL li-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s. S'.; WOL le-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ne 'slags hav.'; PCK *le-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PON la-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'edderkopkonkylie sp.'; MOK le-e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's. med spidslignende fremspring'; PPC *le-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; Frau Yans. af familien Strombidae“; KSR e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'artof s.'; PEO *Rana (Geraghty 1990) (FIJ yaga; ARO ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a).


PMC *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'turmeric, turmeric, ginger, yellow': CHK #o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(n) (?<*a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-ni) 'C. Attachment'; CRL o[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]eyo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], yo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]eyo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'yellow, colored yellow',o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-(shigh) 'the leaves and flowers of the ginger'; STW yo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oyo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'faint light haze on the horizon'; WOL yaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o'gardenia, cape jasmine', yaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e'ginger', yano-(shigi) 'C. plant', yanoyano 'yellow, yellowish'; TOB (tene) -on 't.' (Kubary); PCK *yano-, yanoyano; PON [UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL], [UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL]-(n)'t.', [UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL]'yellow', [UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL] 'its yolk'; MOK[UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL] 't.'; KIR (te)-a[UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL]'a tree (Bender et al. 1984: 'Premna sp.', yellow substance arising from its roots)'; KSR is 'plant art'; PEO *yano'k. of ginger' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ cago 't. plant [C. longa]'; TON a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'a ginger [C. longa]; BUGa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'yellow '; PKB-[i]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'yellow'); UAN *(za)Ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aw 'a plant'. See PMc *re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'turmeric color'; PCK *yaloyalo. See also LAK lagu 'yellow complexion'; and cf. SAA saosaola 'yellow', aro 'wild ginger'; Kwa sa'o 'a tree with sweetly scented yellow flowers.

Proto-Micronesian Reconstructions-I - Document - Gale Literature Resource Center (4)

PWMC *apara 'make alignment': CHK #para- 'aligned, oriented', apar, aper 'aim, make an alignment (as with posts or plants)', apara, apera 'aim, line (s.t.) upwards, align' ,#(kk)-aper 'aim, aim', #pere-(yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iin) 'turn on one side, lean or tilt sideways, list, slide between things by turning the body sideways turns' , # pere -(yiniin) 'square or rectangular'; PUL yepar 'calculation (for navigation), aim (like a gun), yepare-(kacc) 'to aim well'; WOL yepare 'assign to locate where you are in the navigation'; PCK *yapara; MRS Hapar 'Stone Markers along the Road'. See PEO *baRa 'Fence' (Geraghty 1990). Note that CHK appears to have reinterpreted this form to have a causative prefix and derived the secondary forms denoted #appropriately. The WOL and MRS forms cannot be taken to have a causal prefix.

PMC *apili 'a fish': PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]pil 'goat fish'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]pil 'goat fish';MRS yapil 'a f.'; Ksa apil 'a kind f.' (a probable loan from MRS).

PMc *ara-mata 'Person, Leute': Se PMc *mata, ara-mata 'Person, Leute'.

PMC *are, are-ki 'to drag, drag, drag': CHK ar 'selected, chosen'; MRS yar'h. a canoe or ship on land', yare-k 'h. (a boat) on land'; Kma aeae-a 'to drag, tow (s.t.)', ae-ka 'to bring (a passenger) ashore in a canoe, to take (food) from the fire'; Ksael [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 'lift, pull, scoop (st.)'. The following forms would indicate a low stem vowel instead, like PMc *ara: Km aa-i 'to pull'; PEO *ara (FIJ yara, yara-ka'to h., pull'; SAA ara-na 'to move (a thing) along'; BUGjara -ha 'pulled the fishing net ten fathoms long between two canoes'; ARO ara , ara -si 'to set a net'; KWA ala 'to fish by setting a large net with several workers', ala-si-[a] 'to raise [fish] out of the water in a large net').

PCMC *ar[eo][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'coconut cream, grated coconut': CHK arun, aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(n) 'c. c., c.c. for (a meal)'; (a)-aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'breadfruit pudding served with c. c.'; MRT yaru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'c.c.'; PUL yaru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'c. c.',yaru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(w) 'mix it with c. c.'; CRLaru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'c. c.', aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(w)'add c. c. to (a food)'; WOL yare[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'c.c.'; PUA yala[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'c. Milk'; SNSyale[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'c. c'; PCK *yare[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]rin 'mature c.'; MOK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'brown stage ofc.'; KIR (te) -ao[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'scraped c. mixed with other food', e.g. [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'seasoned with scratchc.'. Cf. MR is yal, yali- 'C. Milk'; KSR or 'c.milk'.

PMC *ari 'to scoop up': PUL yeri-(y) 's. (s.t.)out (as coconut meat)'; CRL ari-ti 'stir (s.t.) from bottom to top (as in cooking) to scoop up from bottom of pot'; WOL yariyeri 'to s. up, grab up (from a shell)', yere-ti-(i) (sic) 'to s. it up, grab it out'; PCK*ari; MRS harhar;[harhar.sup.w] 'pick food from teeth, pick splinters, extract (like meat from a shell)', [har.sup.w]i-j(i) 's.t. out of'; PEO*ari (FIJ yari, yari-a 'scrape the soft pulp of a drinking coconut with your thumb'); Cf. BUG jari 'a dug canal'. Unexplained rounding in MRS forms; possible contamination with reflections from PMC*aru, which are now almost homonymous with the MRS reflections cited here. The semantics of the CRL form help explain possible confusion between these two etyma, PMC *arian and *aru.

PMC *aro- 'coast, beach, near': CHK oor, oru-(n)'v., immediate surroundings, surroundings, v. from; outer surface of the skin, hiso. s.', (wini)-yor 'v., quarter', oro-(s-set),aro-(s-set) 'coast, shore, coast'; PUL yero-; CRL aro- 'about, around, near'; WOL yaro-(li) 'v. from, near'; PCK*yaro-; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r 's., land near the ocean, landing place for boats'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r 's.'; MRS har, hare(n) 'lagoon beach', KIR(te)-ao-(ataata) 'beach above the high tide line'; KSR y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l)'his v.', yuru-(n) 'v. from'. Cf. PMC *Soru- 'beside the side'.

PMC *aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'a Carangid Fish, Pompano,Skipjack': CHK aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], oro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(n) 'sp. from s.f., s.f. from'; CRNaro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'fourth of five growth stages thereof.'; WOL yaro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'kinda off. (C.melampygus)'; PCK *aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o; PON oro[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'blue jack crevally (C. melampygus); MRS [hare[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w] 'African S. (Hynnis cubensis)'; KIR(te)-ao[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'ajackfish (C lugubria)'; PEO*aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o (TON alo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'a kind of shark with a head like a ray'). See KSR lo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'sort of.'; TON lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'ashark'.

PMC *aru, aruaru, aru-ti- 'stir': CHK eruwer 'stirring stick, to s. with stick or spoon', eru-u-(w) 's.(s.t.) with stick'; MRT aruyar 'to stare', aru 'to stir'; PUL yaru-(w) 'to pp. (a liquid)'; CRL ariar 'untensilto s.with, to s.thing', aru-(w) 'to s.that'; CRN aru'to s. (soup or stew)'; STW yariyar 'to s.', yaru-(w)'s. The'; WOL yaruyeru 'stir, to s.'; garu-su 'to mix, mix, merge'; PUA yaluyalu 'to s.', yalu-du 'to s. (st.)'; PCK yaruyaru, yaru-ti-; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ri[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r 'two s., two probe', an-i 'two. (s.t.)'; Mrs. Harhars. or stab food or fire with a stick', [har.sup.w]i-j's. or sting (s.t.)'; KIR ai-a, aiai-a 'to swing (s.t.) round and round'; KSR aeryaer 'to s.',aer[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 's., poke (s.t.)'. Note that the initial g of WOL garusu is unexpected unless the form is a misrepresentation of *(ga)-aru-su with a causative prefix. Cf. MOK oorror 'to dismantle an earth oven' or 'to dismantle (an earth oven)'.

PMC *asi 'gallbladder, bile': CHK eti-n 'g.' (Kaser 1990:28); PUL yaat 'spleen, g.'; CRL aat, du-(l) 'g., his g.'; STW yaat, yati-(n) 'g., his g. (Bender et al. 1984); PCK *off; PON [epsilon] from 'his bile'; MOK and PNG ad "bite" (Bender et al. 1984); MRS wife- 'g.'; KIR (te)-ari'gall, g.'; KSR [epsilon]s 'g. Cf. PEO *qas[iu] (TON 'see 'g.'; NGG see 'g.'; ARO asu 'evil', se- 'stomach, heart, mind').

PMC *a[sS]a 'tear, scrape': CHK (ma)-ataat 'berough to touch (but not to the eye)', (a-ma)-ata 'tog.(s.t.)'; PUL (a-ma)-at took. St. (like raw taro)', (a-ma)-ata 'took. The'; CRL (ama)-at 'to g., s., or mashs.t.'; PUA yatata (sic) "to rub"; PCK * (ma)-ada, (ma)-adaada; PON adaad 'sharpen, put an edge on st', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'sharpen (s.t.)'; PPC *ada,adada; PEO * [q[theta]]aza 'to grind' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ yaca,yaca-a 'to g., to grind'; SAA sata-/a'i/ 'to rub, rub'; BUG aaha 'to B .to knock on a stone'; ARO atc, ata-i'at to scratch, to rub').

PMc *a[sS]e 'jaw, chin': CHK #eet, #eti-n 'c., c.of'; PUL jaat; CRL aat, ate-l; STW yaat; WOL yate, yate-li; PuA yate, yate-; SNS yacht; PCK * ate; MRS hat-(lal) 'lower j.', hat-(le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'upper j.'; KIR (te)-are-(i-eta) "upper set of teeth", (te)-are-(i-nano) "lower set often"; POC *qase (Ross 1988) (SAA sasate; KWA late; BUG ahe, atheathe'atme'; PKB *haze 'mouth'). Note that the expected CHK forms are *aat, ati-n.

PCMC *asi 'spathe, unopened bud': CHK #eet, eti-(n) 'unopened husk or pod of a coconut or banana, usa of'; PUL yat,yati-(n) (sic) 'first stage of formation of certain fruits (such as banana), flower (of various taros), s. (of coconut), b. (from hibiscus), s. from ' ;WOL yaati, yati- 'coconut s.', yati to bear flowers or fruit, tob.'; PCK *yadi; KIR(te)-ari 'coconuts.'

PMC *a[sS]o 'time': CHK otu-(n), atu-(n) 'h. of the ancestor (s.t.)'; PUL yoto-(n)'t. from, duration of'; CRL ato-(l)'t. from'; CRN ato-(n)'t. from'; WOL yato-(li) 'time from, at the time, when'; PCK *yado- PEO *qazo 'sun, day' (Geraghty1983) (TON 'aho 'day'; SAA sato 'sun, sunshine'; BUGaho 'sun'; LAU saso 'day'; ARO ato-(aa) 'noon '(lit. 'high sun');PKB *hazo 'sun, day'); UAN *qa(n)pine 'day, sun' Cf. KIR (te)-aro, (te)-aro 'habit, way, way'; PMC * or 'sun'.

PMC *a[sS]u 'smoke': CHK eet, etu-(n) 's., s.of', et, etuwet 'to s., be smoky', (a)-atu to smoke or steam( s.t.)'; MRT eet, etu-(n) 's., s.of', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]tiyet 'smoky'; PUL yaat 'p.', yatiyat, yatuyats. foam, smoke, foam”; CRL (araa-lu)-ut 'smell of s.', ([b.sup.w]a)-at 'smoky', ([b.sup.w]a)-atiyat 'smoky light'; STW yatuyat 'smoked'; WOL yatu 'to splash water, splash water around', (gera)-atu 'to be smoky, misty', (gera)-atuyetu 'mist, dust, haze, cloud'; PUA ([b.sup.w])-atu (sic) "to be smoked"; PCK *adu; PON adi 'its vapour, s., fog',[epsilon]di[epsilon]d 'cloudy, hazy, smoky'; MRS([b.sup.w]a)-hathat 'two p.', hatiytiy 'two p., dried fish orcopra by heat'; KIR ([b.sup.w]e)-ari 'smoky smell; smelly smelling from smoking [as in magical rites], sweaty, with a burnt smell', ari-(a) 'to inhale a smoky breath; for perfumes.o. or s.t.'; PEO *qazu 'p.' (Geraghty 1983) (PPN *qahu; SAAsasu, sa'usesu and ULA saisesu; BUG ahu; LAU sasu; ARO asu-[na]'its s.', asu- 'a 'smoky', sasu 'cloudy, smoky' ); POC*qasu (Ross 1988); UAN *qasu(h). See KWA lasu's.' See also Marek (1994:324) PMC *asu.


PMC *ata 'upper part, above': CHK aas 'u. sā, tā, summit, east side', asa-(n)his u.s. above him', -yas, -ya 'high, east'; MRT -yas 'above, east'; PUL yah 'be high, exalted, above, east', yeho-(n), yaaha-(n) 'above (s.t.)', yeyah 'be east'; CRL -like 'high, on t.'; STW yaas't., on land', -yas 'up, throw'; WOL -yase 'above, above', (i)-yate 'above, above'; PCK*yata; PON yyasa-(da) "to be raised"; MRS -yei (suffix in place names) 'u.,east'; KIR '(i)-eta 'up, on high, above',(te)-ata-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a) 'an u. plank in a canoe',(te-ao)-ataata 'beach above the high tide line'; KSR yat 'eastern part of a village', (f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]lw)-[epsilon]t 'big, big'; POC *qatas 'peak' (Ross 1988) (ARO [ato]-aa 'noon' [lit. 'high sun']; PNK*-ata 'above'); UAN *qa(n)tas. Cf. SAA 'a'a 'rise clear (from the moon)'. Sec Marck (1994:323) PMC *ata.

PMC *ata-i- 'to know': PON [epsilon]s[epsilon] 'tok., understand (s.t.)', (s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to not k. '; MOK(je)-ej[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'not be aware of, not k.(s.t.)' (Bender et al. 1984); MRS(j)-ahjey 'not k.'; KIRata-i 'to k., have knowledge', ala-a 'k. (s.t)'; KSRet[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'k., understand (s.t.)', eta-(twen) 'understanding, kind, sympathetic, helpful', (se)-eta-(twen) 'not understanding, not perceiving'.

PCMC? *atarei 'Kind': MRS hajriy 'c., Kind, Kleinkind'; KIR ataei 'c., Kinder'. Vgl. PMC *tari 'Kind'.

PMC * aß 'Hebel': CHK yaaya; MRT waa-(n) (sic)'hisl.'; PUL yaaya; CRL-ase-(1) 'hans l.'; STW yaayaa-(n) 'hans1.'; WOL yaase, yase-; PUA yaade, yade-; SNS yaade; PCK *jat; PON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hans l.'; MOK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'l., hans l.'; MRS yaj 'I., Milch'; KIR (te)-ato (det er uventet); KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s, esy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l)'l., his l.'; POC *qate (Ross 1988) (Fu ate; PPN *qate; SAA sae 'Herz, Geist, Brust, 1.'; BUG ate; ARO sae 'sind, hjerte, tanke, l. af en gris'; KWA sae- /founa/; PKB *hader); UAN *katay.

PMc *atu 'Fish, Beautiful': CHK ewun 't., Weißer Thun'; PUL yellow (sic); CRL blue-(le) 'cleine sp. von t.';CRN blue-(lay) 'a smaller sp. von t.'; outer STW (Bender et al. 1984); WOL yaule; PCK *he sits, he sits; Mas hajiy-(lewed) 'Caught school for B. in the lagoon'; KIR (tea)-you; PEO *qatu (Fu yatu BUG tu; SAA sau; KWA sau); POC *market *1 the PCK reconstruction depends entirely on the PUL and CRN Forms, which may be the result of the loss.

PMC *aTo 'straw': CHK oos, rain-(n) 't. cut, roof, across from 'osu-ni, ossu-ni' on t., turn t. on (a house)' on; MRI not see. Roof'; PULL you, you-(n), you.(n); CRLoos 't.', ose-(y) 'to t. (s.t.)'; CRN oh; STW then, so- 'take'; WOL forward, forward-; PUA thought, thought – 't., tag'; SNS thought; PCK *from To; PON oos 'ivory nut palm' (a source of t.); MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j 't., roof'; PNG[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s 'dry pandan leaves for t.'; MRS has 'bitch'; KIR(te)-ato 'to kill'; POC *qato (PPN *qato't.'; SAA for 'sago palm'; BUG ato 'sago palm, sago palm, t.'; LAU for 'sago palm, t.'; ARO ao 'sago palm'; LAKhato 'sago palm, t. '); PAN *follows 'sago t. (Ross 1988).

PMC *-au (suf. obj. prn.) 'med': CHK CRL - input; WOL - yes; FLOWER; PCK*-crazy; PON -y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL];FRU yeh; KIR-I; KSR -y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; POC *-au (FIJ -au, SAA -au; ARO -au; PKB *au).

PCMc *au- 'appearance, condition, shape': CHK ewu- 'width, thickness', ewu-(chik) 'slender, narrow, thin'; PUL yawu- "physical quality", yawu-(Rik) "to be physically small", yawu-(RiRRik) "to be thin"; CRL ai-(shigh) 'be thin, slender, slender'; CRN ai-(Rig) 'be thin, skinny, slender'; STWyau-(chchan) 'atmosphere'; WOL yau- 'a., c., s.', yau-(shigi) 'be thin, thin, slender, narrow', yau-re 'size (used with long, thin objects), thickness', yau-( chchaali) 'atmosphere, weather conditions' yau-(libongi) 'atmospheric conditions at night'; PUA yau 'air, climate. condition, a',yau-(siki) 'be long, narrow, slender, thin', yau-(lani) 'weather, firmament, air'; PCK yau-; PON [epsilon]y-(paay) 'walk with swinging arms'; MRS hayi-(dik) 'skinny, thin in body'; KIR ai-(n-toa) 'powerful, with great muscular strength', ai-(baba) 'foolish'. This does not appear to be related to PEO*[q0]aRu 'dew' (Geraghty 1990). See also L: CHK ewu-ni-yar.

PMC *ouch. of fish': PUL yaawuwo-(tur), -(turu-) (sic) 'a lagoon f. much sought after for food, probably a milkfish',yawuwu-(chch), -(chchi-) 'k. from small lagoon f.', yauwa-(tur),-(ture-) 'greater growth stage of the latter f.'; STW yawuw 'k. mullet'; WOL yauwe'k. of fish'; KIR aua 'a f.'; PEO*qaRua 'f., young mullet' (Geraghty 1990).

PMC *Fish line plate: CHK oo, oo-; PUL becomes; CRL will; STWyoo, WOL will, will-; PUA loan, loan; PCK *borrow; Mok you; Mrs. Yew; KIR(te)-ao, KSRae; PEO *space (PPN *space).

PMC *ayu, ayuSa 'stream': CHK ewut, fra- 'stream' and fra-(vi), fra-(of) 'river' or 'stream'; PUL output 'Current'; WOL yaute'current'; PCK *yellow, yellow; PON aad' MOK aad; Mrs. Hayey, Hayet; KIR (not) - air; KSR y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'bubble'; PEO*qaRu[cs] (Geraghty 1990); UAN *qaRus.

PMC *-ca '1. pl. incl. passing by. prn., of us, ours': CHK-ch; MRT-sch; PUL-R; Spelllist -sh; CRN-R; STW'-R; (suff bis n.)WORLD -Oil; PUA-sa; PCK*-ca; PON-t; MRs -d; KIR-ra; KSR-sr; POc *-da (TON ta; FIJ -da;SAA -ka; BUG -da; ARO -ga; LAK -ga-[tou]).

PCMc *ca- 'state': CHK che-, che-, cho-, cho-, chche-, -ch; PUL cca-n 'to be'; CRL sha-(apaapa) 'to be very shallow (as on board)'; CRN Ra-(apaap) 'to be very flat'; WOL sha-(apaape) 'become flat, be flat', chchaa-li 'exist, be available'; PCK *ca-, cca-cca[a]-ni; MRS de-(pakpak) 'broad, wide', de-([kem.sup.w][kem.sup.w]) 'loud'; KIR ra-(itiiti) 'glitter' ([te]-iti 'lightning'), ra-(baba) 'broad'. Compare PON t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-or t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-n in such honorific terms as t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nsik. Sec PCMc *cafifi 'twisted, confused', PCK *ca-riwariwa 'be shiny, shiny, light, glittering', PCK *ceeu 'continuously spread out', PCK*cappa 'to turn downward', PCK *coro[eta] o 'loud state', PCK *caapaapa 'flattened'.

PMC *blod, vær blodig': CHK chcha, chcha-;MRT shshaa (sic); PUL cca, cca-; CRL tcha, tcha-; STW chcha, chcha-; WOLchchaa; PUA ssa; SNS-Installation; PCK *ccaa; PAN oft-; MOK insa, insaa-; PNGinda; MRS saß, ddah; KIR (te)-rara; KSR srae; PEO *draRa (Geraghty 1990); POC *nraRaq (Ross 1988) (FIJ draa; PKB *dara); UAN *[dD]aRaq.

PCMc *cafifi 'twisted, confused': CHK -chef 'classifies long-counting tentacles of squid or cuttlefish'; WOLshafi; PCK *Coffee; KIR raai (sic) "twist and tangle easily". SePCMc *ca- 'condition', PCK *ffi, fiffi 'interleaved'.

PCMc *cai 'to spread': WOL shee 's. from (as news), to be announced (of lost news), to penetrate, to discover'; KIR rai-a 'two p. above (s.t.)'. Cf. KIR rakerake 'to pp. about (as smell)'.

PCMc *cakai 'stone, coral': CHK chee 'a kind of small, sharp c.'; PUA Sakai "egg"; PCK *cakai; PON takay's., rock', takay-([p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t) c.head'; MOK sakay 'p., rock, c.'; MRS dekay 's., stone, gravel'; KIR rakai 'c. School in Lagoon, Reef'. The KIR also reflects PMC *sakau 'fox', the two reflexes appearing to have become homonyms with similar meanings, as noted by Marck (1994:317), constructing this as PMC *t'akau.

PMC *calo, calocalo 'mørk, sort': CHK chon, chochchon(<*conocon) 'd., b.', chono-(kkich), chonu-(kkich),chone-(kkich) 'meget d., jet b.'; MRT shol 'b.'; PUL Rool,Rulu-(n)sod, s. af', Rolo-(kiiR) 'være b.'; CRL shol 'bed., geb. über det hele', shotchol 'b.'; CRN Rol'be d., f. allover', punctum 'b.'; STW'Roll; WOL soolo, chchochchoolo'be b.'; PUA saano, sano- 'kul', sano 'mærke onit, skriv på det'; PCk calo, (<calocalo); PON t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'kul', t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l(<t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l,<*t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l,<*t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l SYMBOL ]l EVNESYMBOL ]l) 'b.'; Mok sol 'b.'; MRS dawal 'farve'; KSR srdl 'maling', sr[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]lsr[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l 'b.'.

PMc [cam.sup.w]a 'forehead, brow': CHK [channm.sup.w],[cham.sup.w],a-(n) 'f., brow, his f.'. -[cham.sup.w] 'countingclassfier for stir, forehead': visors, etc.', (ewu)-[cham.sup.w]'crossbar of the house'; MRT [sham.sup.w]e-(n) 'his f.'; PUL [Raam.sup.w] 'f.', (yee)-[Ram.sup.w], (yeeyi)-[Ram .sup.w]'transom of the house'; CRN [Raam.sup.w], [Ram.sup.w]a-(n) 'f., his f., gable'; WoL (geu)-[sham.sup.w]e 'connecting beam of the house'; PUA (kau)-samu (sic) 'the ends of the house'; PCk*[cam.sup.w]a; PON [taam.sup.w], t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'f., his f'.; MoK[som.sup.w], [some.sup.w]e, [som.sup.w]o-(n) 'f., his f., f. of'.[sam.sup.w. ] 'pediment'; MRS [dam.sup.w], [dem.sup.w]a-'f., forehead, pediment; KIR(te)-[ram.sup.w]a 'f., gable'; KSR (moton)sro-(n) 'f. from'; PEO *[dam.sup.w]a (FIJ daga 'throw the head back well as when shaving or dripping in the eyes'; LAK gama 'head'). See SAA dara 'f.'; LAU dara 'f'.; AROdara 'f',; KWA dala 'f'.: and c. Poc *[dram.sup.w]a'f.' (Ross 1988). See also PCK *kau-[cam.sup.w]a 'tiebeam'.

PMc *[cam.sup.w][ai], [cam.sup.w][ai]-ti 'to lick': PON[tam.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]] 'to 1. (s.t.) '; MOK [sam.sup.w]'zu 1.', [sam.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'zu 1.(s.t.)'; PNG [sam.sup.w]e 'bis 1. (s.t.)'; MRS [dam.sup.w][dem.sup.w] 'bis 1.', [dam.sup.w]i-j 'l. (s.t.)'. Jf. FIJdrami, drami-ca 'bei skøde, l.'.

PMc canoe-, canoe, canoe 'Süßwasser': CHK chaan,chenu- 'f. w., flüssig', chchen (<chechen) 'nass', chechen (<*chenchen) 'nass'; MRT-Shaan; PUL Ran, rani-; CRLshaal, shalu- 'w., clear fluidity'; CRN Ran 'w., clear fluidity'; STW Ran, Ral, Ranu-; WoL shaalu, shalu- 'flowing, f.w.', (le)-chchalu 'in w.', chechchalu 'filled with w.'; PUA gold, gold-; PCK *can, can, can; MRS dan, dandan'w., Fluidity, Juice'; KIR (Tee) Rennen 'f. w., Juice', raran 'coastal', ranran 'juicy, full of Juice'; KSR Strono-; POc*nranum (PPN *lanu; FIJ dranu; SAA sanu 'see w.', danu-'I am with w cleared'; PKB *naLu); UAN * [dD]num. Vgl. KWA talu-Seealso Marck (1994:309) PMc *t'anu 'fw, nonsaline liquid liquids in general'.

PCMc *cana 'move quickly': CHK chan 'fly, fly (like a bird)'; PON tan 'run, flee, swim (like a fish)', tene 'run to (s.t.)'; KIR ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-ti 'move quickly', ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-la 'hurry up (see above), make (see above) go quickly'. Cf. SAA ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'rising (of the moon)'.

PCMc *cani 'to be loved, darling': CHK chen 'to be loved', (e)-cheni 'him-they love', (a)-chengicheng (loan word from another dialect) 'love, favor of love, be dear '; PUL(a)-Ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'love him/her'; WOLsha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'be l.', (ge)-sha[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]jishe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to love'; PCK*ca[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; KIR (ka)-ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'flatter, be flattered'.

PCMc *cao 'group, group member': CHK choo, choo-'group, member (of the group)' choocho 'to be heavily populated'; PUL Roo-(n) Person of'; CRL shoo away "clan, staff, team, member of a group"; CRN Roo clan, staff, team, member of a group'; STW Roo- 'group, person of'; Wol shoo, shoo-'person, crew'; PUA saao, sao- "people"; PCK *cao; PONtoo-(n) 'member of'; MOK soo-(n); MRS dewe-(n) 'follower of'; KIR rao-(na) 'his companion, friend'. See YAP choo(n) 'member of'. See also PEO *joRa 'mate, partner' (Geraghty1983) (PPN *soa 'friend'; AO hoa 'friend').

PWMc *capa, cacapa 'adhere': see PWMc *paca, papaca.

PWMc *capi 'beginning, origin, bse': CHK chaap.chepi-(n) 'genitals, be g., (nee)-chepi-(n) '(at) b. of that'; PUL Rapi-(n) 'his lower trunk (of a tree)', Rapi-(nppalu) 'an initiated navigator'; CRL shaap, shepi-l 'base, stem, source, core, b. from'; CRN Raapn Repi-n 'base, stem, source, core, b. from'; STW Rapi-(n)'b. from'; WoL shaapi, shapi-'b., origin, ancestor, base, ground, foundation', shapi 'begin, begin', shapi-I-(ye) 'begin it'; PUA saapi, sapi-"tribe"; PCK *capi; PON tapi 'be b., base (of a tree)',t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p 'start, start'; MoK sap, sapi-(n) 'small from the back'; MRS dapi-'base, foundation, base, trunk, trunk'. See KSR sropo-9n) 'stem of'.

PMc *cau 'leaf': CHK chee, chee-; PUL Ree; your CRL; CRNRee; STW Ree; WoL they, they-; PUA sau, sau-; SNS saw; PCk*cau; PONt[UNKEYBOARDABLE ICON]; Mok then; PNG s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; KIR (te)-rai "flat board"; Ms KSR; PEO *nrau,lue (PPN *lue; FIJ lukewarm; SAA used as food packaging'; ARO lukewarm; PKB *luke); Poc *ranu and PAN *daSun (Ross 1988), but PMP *dahun (Dyen 1953). Cf. PMc *cau-, cau-lapa 'broad, broad'.

PMc cau-, cau-lapa 'wide, width': CHK chee- 'width (of flat objects)', chee-kis 'narrow', chee-nap 'w.,brad', chee-(peep), chee- ( peeh), chee-(cheep) 'borad'; PULReeRee-(lo) 'widespread (like news, people)', Ree-(paap)(<*Ree-apaap) 'to be shallow (like a fish)'; Wol shee-giti "be narrow", shee-lape "be w., broad, spacious"; PCK*cau-, cau-kiTi, cau-lapa; PON t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(tic)'narrow', t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-lap 'w.'; KSRsra-(laep) 'broad'. Cf. MRS de-(pakpak) 'w., broad'; PKB*lau 'father'; PMP *Za[h[theta]]uq (Dyen 1953). See PMC *cau'leaf'.

PMC *cawa 'slowly, send': CHK chchaw; PUL Rå, cracks; PUAwife; PCK *coffee, horse; KIR rawa 'beim Negieren'; KSR's 'linger'.

PMC *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu 'heavy, heaviness': CHKchchow, chchowu- 'h., heaviness, angry', chowuchow 'oppressive, depressed'; MRI Shshaw; PUL ccowo, ccowu- (sic); CRL Tchow; STWchchow; WOL chchau PUA ssau; SNS ssawu; PCK *ccau; PON draws 'h.', taw-r 'to complain'; So MOK; MRS ddew; KIR rarau'swoon', rarau-(aki) 'be content, have enough to eat'. Also note KIR rarai 'sulky'.

PMC *cece, cecece 'shake, tremble': CHK chcheech,chechche-(n) 'tremble, tremble, q. from 'shake, shake, tremble'; MRTshesh; PUL ceec, cece-(n); CRL plate; fetch CRN (sic); STW cec, ceccec; WOLchchechche; PCK *cec, cecce; KIR rere 'shoot quickly'; POC *dede(SAM tete). See also PPC *cee, ceecee 'move quickly', PMC 'tremble', PMC *rere 'tremble (with fear)', PCK *caka-i-, ccaka-i- 'chase, pursue'.

PMC *ceni, ceceni 'beach tree': CHK chchen; PUL ccen'a t. (Messerschmidia argenta)”; CRL value; CRN-Tchen; STW Chchen, WOL Chchen; ULI chel; PCK *cceni; PON titin; MOC sitting; MRS (ki) child; KIR(te)-ren 'a tree'; KSR sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'some kind of tree'. Note that the vowel e is unexpected in the CHK form (we expect i). YAP cheen 'a beach heliotrope' seems to be borrowed from a Chuuk source. Cf. FIJ almost 'a bush (Nothopanaxfruiticoston)'.

PMC *cepa, cecepa 'Carangid fish': CHK chchep 'kindof pompano f.'; PUL ccip (sic) 'stage in growth of skipjackf.'; CRL tchep 'smallest of five growth stages of bonito'; WOL chchepe 'a kind of f.'; PCK *ccep[ae]; PONt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p 'a skipjack (caranx)'; MRS ddep 'from.'; KIR(te)-rereba 'a young lad (caranx)'; KSR snap 'Skipjack'.

PMC *cia 'vote': CHK chi 'g. v., to pronounce', chiye-(ta) 'to begin (as vocalization)'; WOL shii-(take) 'begin, begin (as prayer)'; PCK *ci[ai]; PON tia-k 'begin song'; KIR(te)-ria 'a lip'; KSR sriasra 'lead or begin a song'.

PMC *cici 'to tremble': MRS (wi)-diddid 't., to tremble', ddi-(pikpik) 'to flutter, flutter about', ddi-(needles) 'to throb'; KIR (ma)-riri "feels cold" (but see SAM lili "chills, t." from which it might be a borrowing); POC *didi (LAK [ma]-gigi[<PNK *(ma)didi] 'trembling as in epilepsy'). See SAA ari't.'; BUG ariri 'to shake'; LAU ariri "to be shaken", ARO ariri "t"; KWA alili 't.'. See also PMC *cece, cecece 'shake, tremble', PMC *cucu 'tremble, tremble', PMC *rere 'shake (with fear)'.

PMC *cicini 'to describe, to tattoo': PON nti[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to write, t.', nti[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i 'to write or t. (s.t.)'; MOK insi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'alfabetets bogstav, mark, t.', insi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(n daip)'printing', insi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'at skrive, markere, ort. (s.t.)'; PNG iisi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'skriver'; KSRsrisri[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't.', srisri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'marker (skindet) med et t.'.

PMC? *ciilee 'swelling': PON tiil[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'sty, have a sty'; KSR sr[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'lump, mass, clot'. See also PMC ?*cili 'keeps a path in mind'.

PMC *ciki 'small, small': CHK -din, -din, -if,din-; POOL Rick, (yes)-RickRick; CRL - high; WOL-shigi; PUA skis; PCK*ciki; PON ticket, MOK cycle; MRS right, (wi)-right; KIR (of)-rikismal'; KSR srik, srisrik; POC *nriki, riki (PPN *riki 'small'; LAK [gu]-liquid, [gu]-liquid 'child, children, but not one's descendants'); UAN *Diki[hq] See KIR (ua)-klein'

PMC? *cili 'to keep a path in mind': CHK hage 'h. as.', chini-(n maas)'s. of the eye'; MOK sil 's.';KSR srol 's., have an s.'. There seems to be a problem with the vocals in the KSR form. See also PMC? *ciiiee? 'Swelling'.

PMC *[cim.sup.w]e 'tilt, lift, nod, rock': CHK[chiim.sup.w], [chim.sup.w]a-n 'head, be h., [chim.sup .w ],[chim.sup.w][echim.sup.w] 'n. the head', [chim.sup.w]e-(ta)'t. head back, look into the air'; PUL [Riim.sup.w]'head', [Rim.sup.w][eRim.sup.w] 'n. repeatedly, tossing up and down (of a canoe)', [Rim.sup.w]o-(ta) 'to get up (like in the morning)'; CRL [shiim.sup.w], [shim.sup.w]a-l 'head, be h.', [shim.sup.w]e-ri 'to greet or signal (see above) by nodding or raising the head'; CRN [Rim.sup.w] 'n. or r. the head', [Rim.sup.w]e-ri 'greeting or signaling (see above) by nodding or raising the head'; WOL[shiim.sup.w]e, [shim.sup.w]e- 'head, convex shape', [shim.sup.w][eshum.sup.w]e, chchich-[chim.sup.w ]e 'to move up and down, to be balance'; PUA [siim.sup.w]a, [sim.sup.w]a- 'head', [sim.sup.w]a 'n. the head', [sim.sup.w]a-(to take) 'to get up'; PCK *[cim.sup.w]e, [cim.sup.w][e-cim.sup.w]e, [cim.sup.w]e-(dake); MRS dim-(tak) 'ryk a fishing line to hook a fish”; KSR srim 'bow', srimsrim 'n., bob'. Cf. KIR(te)-rimwa 'burr on the side of a board caused by it being of greater thickness than the adjacent board', [rim.sup.w]a 'to be thicker than the adjacent board'.

PMC *[cip.sup.w]a, 'curve, bend inwards': CHK[chip.sup.w][echip.sup.w] 'c., bow, bow', [chchip.sup.w ] 'distorted or bent by fire', [chiip.sup.w] 'divination by bending (breaking) the midrib of a coconut leaf back and forth across the palm', [chip.sup.w]e-yi 'divine to it' ,[ chip.sup.w]a-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'be tired, tired (from work)'; WOL shiihe, shibe- 'bay, inward curve, mode of divination', shibe be 'to be embedded, c. inward', shiba-a 'divine to it'; PCK*[chipw]a; PON [ntip.sup.w] 'break (by some long object)', [tip.sup.w]a-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'break (a long object)', [cip.sup.w]e - [ UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e-(n pee) 'arm bolt'; MOK [sip.sup.w],[sip.sup.w]e-(n) 'bend (as in a road), link, j. from'; PPC*[cip.sup.w]a, [cip.sup.w]a-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PEO *[ntip.sup.w]a (AROdiwa, didiwa 'the U-shaped groove at the top of the main post in which the ridge pole rests'; KWA dikwa. [ma]-dikwa 'broken, to break'). See also PMC *[cipw][a2] 'tweezers'. Cf. PMC *[kup.sup.w]e,[kup.sup.w]e-li 'to be bent, to bend (s.t.)'.

PMC *[cip.sup.w][a.sub.2] 'tongs': CRL [tchib.sup.w] 't., poker, animal product, stick for frying breadfruit',[tchib.sup .w ] e-e-y 'to poke, poke or poke (s.t.)'; WOL shibeshibe 'to pick up with a fork', shibe-i-(e) 'to pick up with a fork', shibe-t-(agi) 'to be lifted up'; PUA [sip.sup.w]a 'eat with chopsticks or forks, [sip.sup.w][asip.sup.w]a 'chopsticks'; PCK *[cip.sup.w]a, [cip.sup.w][acip.sup.w]a 'to raise sticks'; PON [tiip.sup.w] 'a pair of used sticks fills hot stones from an earth furnace'; KSR sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f'tong, tongs, t.', sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ft 'hold or pick up with tongs, pincers, t.'. The clue may originally have referred to a green staff that was bent (broken) to make pincers. See also PMC*[cipw][a1] 'curve, bend inwards'.

PMC *ciwa 'belonging to the ear': see PMC *cua, cuacua.

PCMC? *co[w[theta]]a-. 'en fisk': se PCMC *tawu.

PMC *cowu, cowu-ki 'hand-net': CHK cheew, chuu-,#cheewi- 'hand-net, the constellation Corona borealis, name of the month', chuu-ni 'catch (fish) with a net'; PUL Roow, 'hand net, star and month name'; CRL sheew, show 'dive net', show 'star and month name', shoo-ghi 'dip up (small fish) with anet'; CRN Reew 'dive net', Reu-ni 'dip up (small fish) with net'; WOL shoou, shou- 'shovel net, corona borealis', shoushou 'to catch, scoop', shou-gi-(i) 'to catch it, scoop it', shou-gegi 'to be caught, to be scooped'; PUA soou, sou-'net'; PCK *ceewu (?), cowu-, cowu-ki-; PON tow "Scoopout"; MOK sooso 'to scoop with a net', soo-k 'to scoop with a net (s.t.)'; PNG so 'catch with a net'; MRS suitable for washing arrowroot and soaking breadfruit. See BUG jau'fishnet; ARO is 'small hand network'.

PMC *cua, cuacua, or *ciwa 'concerning the ear': PULRuwa- 'classification of having earrings', RuwaRu 'wearing as earrings', Ruwa-ni(y) 'having as earrings'; WOL shuwa-'possible. Kl. for earrings', shuweshuwe 'to wear in the ears', shuwe-li-(i) 'to have as earrings'; PUA suue, sue earrings', suue 'to wear earrings'; PCK *cuwa-,cuwacuwa, cuwa-ni; PON tia-ti 'to wear earrings', ti[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'classification of earrings'; MOK si, sio, they(n) 'ear, his e., e. from', siasi 'classifier for things carried in the ear'; MRS diyedey 'to wear earrings', diye- 'possessing classifier for things worn on the ears' that-k 'wear (earrings)'; KSRsrw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]- 'ear, possibly class for ear jewellery',srw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sra 'put flowers behind the ears', srwe 'wear behind the ear'.

PMC *cucu 'tremble, shake': CHK chchu-ni 'possess him/her (of a spirit)', chchu-no 'shadow, shadow (represents a person's bad soul)'; PON ti 'possessing or inhabiting a human body (of a spirit)'; KIR ruru, rurururu 'dead.', ru-a 'change, change, take the place of (s.a.)'; KSR(ku)-srusr 't., to tremble, to vibrate'. Cf. MRS tiwey 'be possessed (by an evil spirit), possess'; KSR sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] sruo-k'hold, catch'. Cf. also PMC *cece, cecece 'to shake, to tremble', PMC *cici 'to tremble', PMC *rere 'to tremble (from fear)'.

PWMc *cuu, cuu-ni 'meet, come together': CHK chu 'meet, come together', chuu-ri 'meet, encounter or join him/her'; MRT shuu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PUL Ru, Ruu-ri; CRL shuu'meeting', shuu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to meet (see above)'; CRN Ruu, Ruu-[UNKEYABLE ICON]i; STW Ruu,Ruu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, Ruu-Ru 'Meet with (see above)'; WOL shuu,shuu-ni-(i); PCK *cuu, cuu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PON do; MOK su 'meets, reaches', su-o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'meets (see above)'; PNGsu -o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRS diw 'gather to dance'. KSR su- 'to meet (see above), to arrive at (a place)' is probably a loan.

PMC *cuyi- "bone", CHK chuu chuu- "bone", chuuchu "bony, lean"; PUL-cuu; CRL shoes; STW Rue; WOL shuu, shu-; PUA is not "bone, thorn"; SNS emerged, PCK *cuyi; PON te 'Hisbein'; MOK you, you-; MRS DIY, DIY; KIR (te)-rii, rii-; KSR Sri; PEO*duRi (Geraghty 1990). See PEO zuRi (Geraghty 1983) and *cuRi (Geraghty 1990) (Fu sui; SAA still; BUG huli; KWA still-[not]); POC*suRi (Ross 1988). See UAN*[dD]uRi. See also PCK *cuyicuyi 'yard, outrigger (of the canoe)'. Note that this example together with PMC* [m.sup.w]otu, [m.sup.w]otu-Si 'cut,severe,break off' shows that pre-POC*ns with pre-POC* merged nd and*nt as POc*d, in contrast to current reconstructions for POC (Grace 1969, Ross1988). For further discussion and examples see Goodenough (1992, note 6, 1997).

PMC *e- 'he, she, it (subj. marking)': CHK e-, i-(before the high vowel); MRI e-; PUL-Jer-; CRL e-; STW e-; WOL her-; FLOWER e-; PCK*e.; PON [SYMBOL THAT IS UKEYBOARDS]; WOMAN you-; KIR e-; VOICE *e (SAA e-; BUG e-; LAU e-). Cf. KSR or "he, she".

PMC *ecieci 'deceitful, evil': se PMC *[f[theta]]eci[f[theta]]eci.

PMC *ee 'here, this narrow speaker': MRT ye 'n.s.'; STW ye 'this n.s.'; WOL yee 'this n. me'; PUAye 'this of s.'; PCK * yes; PON -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'thisby me'; MOK -e, -i 'this'; MRS yes 'it'; KIR (nakomai) ee'(come here) from me'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'thisn. s.', (in)-e 'this, here, now'. See LAK-e 'here'.

PMC *ena 'this, that': CHK een 't. (near personal address and speaker or next)'; PUL yen; CRL yeel't. near the speaker', (i)-yeel 't. a (emphatically)'; CRN (i)-yes not. a (emphatically)'; WOL yeele't. here near me'; PUAyena (sic) 't. Here'; PCK*yeena; PON -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n'th, by you'; MRS yen 'that'; KSR (i[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n 'it, they'.

PCMC *epaepa 'protective platform of sailing canoe, platform on opposite side of outrigger float': CHK epeep, epeepe-(n) 'l. p., l.p. from'; PUL yepeep, epee-(n); CRL epeep, epiyep; WOL yepeepe,epeepa-(li); PCK * epeepa; KIR(te)-ebaeba 'a raft or float'. Cf. TON 'epa 'mats given to a bride'; SAA epa-si 'to spread (s.t.); ARO eba 'spread (as news)', eba-si 'extend, spread (s.t.)'; KWA eba 'sleeping mat', eba-en 'sprinkled taro batter for pudding'; PEO*qeba 'sleeping mat' (Geraghty 1983).

PMc *etieti 'to pick with the teeth': MOK ejjej'to p. with t.', iji-r 'to peel (a coconut) with thet'; PNG esies 'to s. or remember with t.', esi-r; MRS yejyej 'use your mouth to peel, strip or remove coconuts one layer at a time';KSR esyes 's. with t.', esyesi's. (s.t.) with thet.'. See also PCK *[k[theta]]aTe-i-, [k[theta]]aTTe-i- "to tear or peel with one's teeth".

PMC *fa- 'reciprocal': CHK fe-, ffe- 'm.',ffe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]een, ffe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]en,fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]enni- 'against each other, together' , fe -set, fe-senni- "distant from each other"; MRT fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]en; PUL fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ann, fe-ha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL];CRL fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]all, fe-sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; CRNfe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ann; STW fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]an; WOL fe-,fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]anni, fe-ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PCK * fe,fe-nganni, fe-ta[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]]i; PONp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'away from each other', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'toward each other'; PPC * fe-, fe-ta[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]]i; KIR a-(ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a) 'Mutual Friendship'; POC *pa (PKB *va 'do m.'). Note CRL sefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],sefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and CRN hefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] are metatic forms of fe-sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and * fe-hang, respectively. Cf. LAU fai 'join in, help'; BUG fai- ' preferred. of reciprocity”; ARO hai-, hei-, hi- "mutual action"; KWA fa-(na)'for; with, to him', fa-(i) 'for'. See also PEO * faRi 'reciprocal action' (Geraghty 1990).

PMC * -faa 'where?': CHK i-fa i-faa-; MRT -fa'what (located where)?'; PUL i-fa; blacklist i-fa; STW i-fa; WOL i-faa;PUA i-daa 'which one?; PCK*i-faa; MOC? i-paa 'near him, with him, in his possession'; KIR i-aa; KSR o-y[KEYBOARD ENABLED ICON],y[NOKEYBOARD ENABLED ICON]. Cf. PPN *fea 'where?'. Cf. Fu e-vei; SAAI-hei; BUG i-vei; LAU i-fai; ARO i-hey; KWA I-fai; LAK - woe. See also PCMC *iaa 'from where?', PCMC *maia 'from where?'.

PMC *faa- 'underside, under': CHK faa-(n), faa-(n) 'his & or under him, & of, under'; MRT faa-(n) 'underit'; PUL pair(n), pair(n); CRL pair-(1); STW pair-(1); WOL faa-(le),faa-(li); PUA da-(ni) (sic); PCK * pair-; PON a, a-n; MOK on, pee(n);MRS ? Greed-([m.sup.w]i-), Yew-([m.sup.w]i-); KIR (i)-aa-(na), (i)-aa-(n); KSR(y)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l), (y)-e-(n). Cf. PEO *fafa 'u., under' (SAA haha​​'lower side', [i]-haha 'under, lower side'; KWA[olo]-fa-[na] 'under, under' ); PAN babaq'u.'. See also POC *paqal 'thigh, leg, shank' (Ross 1988) (PPN *paqa 'thigh'; FIJ yava-[na] 'foot, leg'; LAK vaha 'leg, foot'); UAN *paqa 'leg, trunk'; and cf. LAU(i)-fara- "underneath". Cf. also PMc *faa, faa-[sS]i 'to use the sole of the foot', PCK *fa[ae]fa[ae] 'footrest in the form of a stationary block of wood under the warp beam of a loom', PCK *faa-raki 'his use foot'.

PMC *fa-, fa- 'four' (with prefix for classification): CHKfa-, fe-, fo-, f-; MRT tariffs, fees; PUL fa-, fa-, fe-, fo-, f-; CRL fac-; STWfaa-; WOL for-; PUA constant, PCK * through-, through-; PON a-; MOK pa-PNG pa-; MRSya-; KIR a-; KSR ae yo-; PEG * Tiredness, tiredness (cf. Geraghty 1983); POC * pat, pat (Ross 1988) (PPN * father; Fu came; SAA did, BUG did; LAU did; ARO did; KWA did; PKB * came); UAN *epat, equal. See also PMC * funny 'the numberfour' (in consecutive counting).

PMC * phase, phase 'string, be string': CHK ffat 'bes. (of fish)', -fish lines' (count classification), count(s), count(s) 's. of', destiny-is 'to s. it on aline'; MRI cool. for hanging fish'; PUL faate-ni-(y) 'to pierce it, to pierce it, it (like a fish)'; CRL ffat, bold, ffati-(l) 'fish stringer, pages of. self'; WOL for 's.,cord', -for 'numerical classifier for strained objects,,for-li-(i)'s. The'; PUA data (sic) 's., to pierce as.', -data (sic) 'Counting classifier for strings from s.t.';PCK *far, far, far-med; KSR ae 's., fishing line, rope, twine', aet 'dangling, hanging', aetaet 'dangling, hanging'. Also note: WOL means "special food (including fish) reserved for a chief"; PUA Data (sic) 'Special Food, The Chef's Food'. Cf. PMC *where 'fishing line'.

PMC *faa, faa[sS]i 'use sole of foot': CHKfaa- 'referring to s. of f.', ffa, ffu 'kick with it. from f.', faa-ti 'kick it'; CRLffa 'to kick, faa-ti 'kick (see above)'; WOL faafaa 'kick,, faa-ti-(i) 'kickit'; PCK *faa, faa-ti; PON paa-d 'to kick with the foot'; MOK paa-d to kick', paa-dek 'to kick (st.)'; PPC *faa, faa-di; PEO *[pvlaRa-z 'ascend, ascend' (Geraghty 1990:66) (FIJ vaa, vaa-ca 'ascend'). Cf. Km wae "foot, leg, gait". Cf. also PMC *faa- 'underside, below', PCK *fa/ae/fa/ac/ 'footrest in the form of a stationary block of wood under the warp beam of a loom', PCK 'to use one's foot'.

PCMC *faa-i-lani, faa-ni-lani 'lower part of the sky': CHKfaa-n naan, faa-yi-nen 'lower sky'; WOL faa-i-leni 'earth, globe, world'; PCK *father-in-law; KIR aa-n-nan 'the atmosphere just below the clouds'. See PMC *faa- 'under, below' and PMc *lani 'cloud, sky, storm'.

PMC * faca 'pandanus': CHK faach, fache-(n) 'p., p.of'; MRT-Fasch; PUL faaR, faRa-(n); CRL faash, fasha-(l), #faasha-(l);CRN faaR, fara-(n); STW faaR; WOL faash, fesha-(li); PUA daasa, dasa-; PCK*faca; MRS yed-(wahan) 'wild p.'; KIR ara- 'p.' (invarietets navne); PEO *fanra (PPN *fara; FIJ vadra); PAN *panDan, paneDan (Blust 1984-85).

PCMC *faco 'constant': CHK -ffoch 'c., all the time, always'; PUL foRofoRo-(lo) 'do c., do steadily'; CRL ffosh 'all the way to a destination'; WOL ffasho 'go to the end, be complete, come to an end'; PCK *facofaco, ffaco;PON potopot 'eternal, constant, permanent'; Km(te)-aro 'way, way, custom'.

PMC *fafiya 'gut': WOL fafiye 'f.,, fafiya-(a)'incompetent'; KIR (te)-aia; PEC *fafi[ae] (PPN *fafie'f.'). See also PUA Dadia and SNS Fafia 'Uncultivated Land'

PMC *fai, fai-a 'stray stingray': CHK ffey, ffeyi(n)'s s.'; MRT file; PUL file; CRL feyi,feey,ffey,file 'r.,skate'; STW file; WOL faiye 'r.', faiye-(getafe) 'species of r. faiye(li-shee-li-gilife) 'species ofr.'; PUA daily; PCK *fai-a; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(porok) 'wide r.', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]we)'from ray'; MOC po; MRS yayi-([b.sup.w][ik.sup.w]iy) 'art of sacrifice'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] a species of fish'; PEO*faRi (Geraghty 1990); POC *paRi[q[theta]0] (Ross 1988) (PPN *fai; Pu vai; SAAHali; ARO had; KWA fali; LAK pai-[le-kava] 'backbone [of p.]'); PAN * PARIS (Blust 1984-85). Note that the l in the PUA form is unexpected. KSR(sii)-f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'devilfish, stingray' is apparently. See also CHK farm “Manta Ray”, PUL farm, WOLfair, PUA daila.

PWMC *fai-To[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'kiss by rubbinggnoses': CRL fai-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and CRN fei-ho[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'k., r. n'; STW fai-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'k., r.n.'; WOL fai-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'k. by rubbing n 'together', fai-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-o-(vi) 'k. Him'; ULIfa-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (sic); PCK *fai-To[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o; MRsya-[te[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] 'smell (s.t.)'. Note PEO*faRi- "reciprocal, plural action" (Geraghty 1990). Cf. PPN*so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'touch noses, smell'. Cf. PMc *fa- 'mutual'. MRS t is unexplained.

PMC *faifine 'Father': CHK feefin; WOL-Datei; PUAddin; social Networks; PCK *fafin; PON peyn 'Lady', peyna-([Cap.w]) ([Cap.w] 'new') 'jungle w.'; MOKPayment, payment([cap.sup.w]); PNG (Haupt-)Stift 'the lock'; PPON *comb; KIR(s)-Alanine; KSR Eins; UAN *seven und *four. Vgl. PPN *fafin; POC*paper (Ross 1988).

PMc? *faiSa 'do something, what?': CHK feet 'do something'; PUL feet; CRL ([b.sup.w]e)feita 'why? (disagreed) what happened?; WOL feitaa (sic) 'what happened?; PUA deita 'how is it? What's up?'; PCK *Faida; PON paid "who else?"; MRS do what?'; KIR aera 'what... to do?'; KSR ehvad?', note KIR e instead of expected i. See PMC *-Saa, mee-Saa 'interrogative suffix'. Also note PPC *fec 'to engage in intercourse, to perform an act'. Cf. FIJ cava 'what?'; BUGHava what?'; LAK rova ​​​​​​​​'what?'. See also PMC *-Saa, mee-Saa 'interrogative suffix'.

PMc *face and 'evening': CHK etc., for- 'e.',(nee)-for 'time for e. Have a good meal'; MRI (accommodation) -for; PUL faf, fafi- (sic)'e. meal', (lee)-faf (sic) 'time to eat'; CRL etc. etc.; WOL is far away; PUA you are; SNS forgiveness; PCK * face and; KSRek[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] See PEO * Rafi 'e. (Geraghty 1990); POC*Rapi (Ross 1988) (SAA /sau/-lehi; PKa *Lavi); BREAD *Rabi 'e. meal” (Blust 1989: 160). See also Marek (1994:312) PMC *shape-and.

PMc *fale 'meeting house': CHK faan, fani-(n), 'meeting house, m.h. from'; PUL error; CRL fala- 'on behalf of meeting houses'; WOL faale, fale-(li); PUA. Dane-; SNS flag; PCK*false; PEO *fale (PPN *fale; FIJ vale; SAA tail 'shed'; BUG vathe; ARO hare); pre-POC *pale (Ross 1988); UAN *balay. Note: MRS pal'house' and KIR bare-(alias) 'boat house' are evidently borrowed, in the case of KIR clearly from a Polynesian source.

PMc *fali 'taboo, holy': CHK fen 't., limited, attend services, faan 'church service'; MRT fel 'be t. to worship traditional gods'; PUL error 's.'. faal 'service'; STW fal 'worship traditional gods'; WOL can be restricted, t.'; PCK *fali; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]I'm in a relationship'; KSR ol-(kin) 'place (s.t) subt.'; UAN *pali.

PWMc *fa-liku, fa-liku-ri- 'turn away, ignore the presence of others': WOL fa-lugu 'be isolated, face averted from society, t. a. of people'; MRS ya-[lk.sup.w]i-r 't. it is again on (see above)', #yal[k.sup.w][irk.sup.w]ir 'two o'clock it is again on wed.o.'. See also KIR (tina)-niku-a 'sit or stand in front (s.a.), ignore (someone who was once a friend)'. See PMC *liku 'outside' and UAN *likud.

PMc *falu 'bruised': CHK fen, feffen 'b., bleed', (e)-fen 'box, hit', (e)-fenu 'hit him with the fist'; PUL error; CRL faal 'grazes', fall 'be b., wounded', falla-(lo), fal(lo) be very swollen, badly infected'; WOL falu 'to be scratched, to blow, (ge)-falu-(u) 'to hit him, to scratch him'; PCK *falu, fallu; UAN *palu 'strike'. Compare PWMC *[falu2] 'point, pointed object'.

PWMc *falu 'point, pointed object': CHK fen, fenufen 'any instrument used to strike and pierce a spike or sharp object, ffen, ffenu-(n) 'thorn, t. of' , fenu-u -(w) 'dot, tattoo'; MRI falufal 'tattoo'; PUL faal, falu-, falufal 'spur (on a rooster), ridge, thorn, spine of a fish'; STW falu-(f)'pierce (st.), tattoo (see above)'; WOL #faale #fela- (sic) 'spur (on a rooster)', (ge)-falu 'thing with spikes, blades, thorns', falu-u-(vi) 'pierce, tattoo him'; PUA danu (sic) "to tattoo, to write", danudanu "to tattoo, to write"; PCK*falu, falufalu, falu-u-; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lip[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l 'to tattoo, to tattoo', pali-i 'to tattoo'; MRSyiliy 'pierce' (such a vowel rise in the first syllable occurs sporadically). Cf. MRS called "cult who tattooed and practiced magic" (with inexplicably heavy l), PMC *[falu.sub.1] "bruised", PCK *cuyi-falu "nail (in carpentry)".

PCMc *also 'a kind of needlefish': CHK too, ens-(n)'et small n.f., self'; also PUL 'a lagoon f., probably an.f.'; CRL 'half beak' only; CRN also 'half beak'; WOLfelaa 'a kind n. to.'; PCK *Face; KIR or 'a f.'.

PMc *fanau 'advice, instruction': CHK #ffen, #ffena-(n)'a., correction, scolding, en. to him', fene-e-(w) 'advise, scold properly', ffene-(neni) 'direct, correct, admonish (see above)', (a)-fanafan 'formal speech, lecture, sermon, speech' ( a)-fanafana 'deliver or give (a speech, etc.)'; MRT ffan 'advise, instruct', fane 'advise him'; PUL #fene-(y) 'my punishment (that I have suffered)', fene-(w) (sic) 'discipline, punish, advise, (so.)', fenu-vi-(er) (sic) ' punishment given by them”; CRL #ffel 'to give or instruct, recite or preach',fele-e-(w) 'advise, instruct, advise (see above)'; CRN #ffen 'givea, etc.', fene-e-(y) 'rat, etc, (see above)'; WOL felaus sermon, discipline,, felau-(vi), foloo-(vi) 'advise or preach to him,, fala-(aute) 'talk, discipline, tradition', fala-(auta-a) 'talk about it'; PUA danau and SNS fanau 'lesson, regulation, command'; PCK *fana, fanau; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]w 'to advise, panawi-i 'to advise him'; MOK p""w 'advised', ""'advised (see above)'; MRS yenaw, yenaw 'scold, punish, spank', yen-ak 'suspect ect'. There may be two different roots, or the eastern Chuuk languages ​​developed *fana- and *ffena- as analogous derivations. Cf. FIJ vunau 'admonish, speak, speak, preach'; TON fono 'to give strict or solemn instruction, to command, to command, to lead, to command'; PPN *fono 'consultative assembly'; LAK vulo 'customs'.

PMc *[f[theta]]and[f[theta]and 'to bail': MRs already; KIR fourth (sic) or (Bender et al. 1984) fourth; KSR is not.

PMc *fanua 'inhabited land': CHK fenu, fenuwa-; MRTfaneu, fanuwa-PUL fanu, fanuwa-; wrong CRL; CRN animals; STW falu, faluwa-; WOLFaluwe; guinea pig; PCK *Country; MRS yaney, yeney; KIR anna (<*ania)'dry l.'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n; POc *panua (PPN *land; FIJvanua; SAA hanue; LAK eighta 'men'); UAN *banua Cf. PMC *anusa 'small island'. See also Marck (1994:307) PMC *fanua 'land, island'.

PMc *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'hand over, give': CHKfa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to be handed over', fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(na-) 'handed over thing, gift', fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a- (no ) 'to give or give away', (ni)-ffa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'gift', (ni):ffa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(ni) 'make a gift'; MRT fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(la) 'give away'; PULfa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to give', (li)-ffa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'gift'; CRL fan 'give, send',(li)-ffa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'gift, present'; STWfa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(lo) 'give away'; WOL fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e 'give, allow'; PUA da[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'gift, give'; PCK *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PON pa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(la) 'betray, give away'; KIR a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(ni) 'give two'. See BUG va[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'to eat, plant food'; ARO ha[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a,ha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ni 'to feed'; KWAfa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'eat, sustenance', fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-li-(a) 'to feed'. KSR (li)-pe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] "Give to cuny favor" is probably a Chuuk language borrowing.

PCMc *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to preserve by smoking': PUL fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'to smoke (as fish or copra)'; WOL fani 'to be smoked (cinderfish)', fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i-(ye) 'smoke it'; PUAda[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ida[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to smoke fish'; PCK *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; KIR a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(bow) 'warm', aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'to warm (s.t.)'.

PMc *fani 'the number four' (in consecutive counting): CHKfaan; MRI face; PUL fan; Blacklist failed; CRN fan; STW fan; WOL fani (sic); PCK*fani; PON ([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n; MOK([KEYBOARD ICON])-p[UNKEYBOARD ICON]n; MRS -ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'four (suf. for pronouns); KIR a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'eight (counts to two); KSR ae[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. See also PMC *faa-, fa'four' (with classification prefix).

PCMc? *f[ao][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][ou]-si 'puste (sich die Nase)': CHK fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-ti 'b. (en'sn.)', fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-([p.sup.w]eet) 'b. ens n.'; MRT fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-ti, fo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-([p.sup.w]oot); PUL (yo)-fo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]efo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]; CRL (o)-fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ofo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] ''s n.', fu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-ri 'to b. (nachstehend.)'; PCK *fo[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o, fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-di-;PON pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-d 'to b. (ens n.)',p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nid-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'zu b.o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e's n.'; KIR o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-ra'to b. (nachträglich.)'. Jf. PPN *f[ae][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'b.through one's n.'. Jf. KSR paenosr 'sygdom hos n., taler gennem ens n.'. Problem sie. Jf. også PCMC *wo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][iu]-si 'vride ud', PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uTu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uTu-, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uTu-ri- 'at pruste, puste ens næse'.

PWMc *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'loved, well liked':CHK fe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(n) 'love for/to him or her'; PULfa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]g 'to be loved', fangu-n 'love for/to him or her'; CRL fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be very popular with the opposite sex, be a Don Juan, be sexually promiscuous (of a woman)';CRN fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'decent, well-behaved, be popular (with people)'; WOL fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-e-(vi) 'to love him or here'; PCK *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; WOMAN? [vi[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w] 'missing home'. Note that we expect WOL*fangu-u-(vi).


PMc *fara 'core (of breadfruit, coconut, pandanus)': CHKfaar, fara-(n) 'c. from a breadfruit, its c.' Fare-(seyin)'mushroom c. of ripe coconut'; MRI Gets 'Copra Mushroom'; PULfaar, fera-(n)'c. breadfruit, coconut mushroom, approx. from'; CRLfaar, fara(l) 'c., heart, core of a fruit, c. from'; wol-sheep, fera-(li)' c. of a breadfruit, ca. of', (shoo)-far 'sprouted brown coconut'; PUA daala, dala- 'copra mushroom'; PCK *fara;PON pair 'spongy center of sprouting coconuts', par 'sprout (of coconuts)', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ri-(n maay) 'sprout breadfruit tree'; MOK par 'sprout coconut'; MRS yar'pandanus c.'; KIR (te)-aa 'you, bottom of the pandanus cluster'; PEO*fara (Fu vara). MRS per “small sprouted coconut” is probably a loan from PON or MOK. Cf. PMC *far[ae] 'lung'.

PMc? *[f]what? 'hoarse': PON from 'abnormal sound (as from the voice or an instrument)'; PEO *faRa 'h.' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *fa); PAN paraRak (Blust 1970:135). Cf. PCMc *cough or*cough 'cough, cough'

PMc *far[ae] 'lung': CHK far-wa; PUL start; CRL Far-of, Far-of, Far-of-(l); WOL fare-waa 'native mushroom', fari-yawe; PUA dale-wa; PCK *Dangerous matter; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r; MRSyar; PEO*faRa (Geraghty 1990). Cf. YAP War Room, War Room Mushroom, I. Cf. also PMC *fara 'kernel (of breadfruit, coconut, pandanus)'.

PWM? *farafa 'windward platform on outrigger next to hull of sailing canoe': CHK faraf, farafe-(n) 'w. p., w.p.of'; PUL faraf, farafe-(n); CRL Perof; WOL initial; PCK *[fp]arafa; PONparap; Mrs. Yerey.

PCMc *fari- 'less than...': WOL fari- 'pref. this changes the meaning in the opposite direction or makes it less than it would otherwise be” (e.g. [fari-m.sup.w][odhom.sup.w] osho “to get great long”, lit. “different as or away from short' '); KIR ai-'prefix for relatives expressing ascending and descending relationships to indicate non-linear connections' (e.g. tina-u 'my mother, my female relative, a generation older' and ai-tina-u 'my mother's sister or mine father's'). See PCK *[fari.sub.1] 'already now'.

PCMc *faro, faro-ki, faro-ka 'to hold fast': CHKforo-(pach), fara-(pach) 'to embrace', foru-si 'to embrace him, strangle him, hang him by the neck'; CRN fore-y 'to hang oneself'; WOL ffaro 'to be firm', (ge)-faro-(o) 'to make it firm'; faro-gi-(i) 'tie it up, tie it up, embrace it'; PCK*faro, faro-ki-; PON paro-k 'um s.t. animate, arrest'; MRShare-k 'greedy, covetous, greedy, stingy'; KIR ao-ka 'todeny or refuse (a request)'. KSR faerfaer "to hold, embrace" and faeros "to embrace or embrace him or her" seem to be borrowings from CHK. MRS should have rounded the r.

PMc *fa[sS]ua 'child of a sibling of the opposite sex': STWfatuw; WOL-Fatuwe; PCK *fadua; PEO *vasu + a (FIJ *vasu 'child of a man's sister'; TON fahu 'child of a man's sister'). Cf. LAU fasusu 'sucks in'; and cf. KWA fasu 'to segment, sprout, shoot down'.

PMc *faSale 'to go, to move': CHK fatan, fatanatan 'to go, movement, course, progress, w., to proceed, to proceed and to proceed (averbal suffix)'; MRI fetus 'w. around'; PUL fetus "here and there, everywhere"; CRL fetal 'around, somewhere, by accident, (fara)-fetal 'by taking a w.'; CRN fatal 'to w., travel, take a w.'; STW feta, fetan 'w.'; Promote WOL 'move, walk, round and round (as a verbal suffix) under one's own power'; pull PUA data. around'; PCK *fadale; MRS Yetal 'w'. KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] l 'march, parade'.

PMc *faso, faso, faso-ki, faso-ka 'planted, plants, planted thing': CHK foto- 'plant', flow its s.', foto-ki'p. es', fota-a-'tree s. (from s.a.)'; MRI ffot, photo key; PUL fot, photo key (y); CRL ffot, photo-ghi, foot; CRN fato-gi; STW ffot, photo-ki, foot; WOL fato, ffato, fato-gi (i), fato-go; PUA Data, Mine Data, Mine Data; PCK *fade, fade, fade-ki, fade-to; PON-pod, pod-k; MOK podo-k;MRS hathat 'p., vines'; KIR aro-the 'cultivated plant'; KSRyok 'to p.', iqui, yuki 'to p. (s.t.)' Cf. Poc *passage'p., tube' (Ross 1988). See also KSR o-ki, o-ki 'to set up, ercct'; PMP *pacek 'to drive in (as mail)' (Blust 1986:66).

PMc *faSu 'øjenbryn': CHK faat, Pflege-; MRT fatu-; PULfaat, fatu-; CRL Fett, Fett, Fett; STW faat, fatu-; WOL fatu, fatu-; PUAdaati, Daten; PCK *fadu; PON padi-; MOK padi-; Frau Yat; KIR (te)-ari; KSR(inn)-y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; POC *pazu (Fu vacu, PKB *vazu'pande'); PMP * pasu 'kindben' (Blust 1983-84:93).

PMc *fata 'platform nest': CHK phase, phase-(n) 'n.,its n.'; PUL faah 'n.'; CRL (a) phases "n."; CRN(a)-fahafah 'n.'; STW phase phase 'n.'; WOL ffate'n.'; PUA data 'n. data, data 'shelf'; PCK*fat, fat-; PON paas, pese 'n., be n., throw or stand for carrying large yams', pasapas 'p., shelf'; MOK page, page(s), page(s)'n., of'; PPC *bold; PEO *fata (PPN *fata 'shelf', FIJvata 'shelf'; SAA ha 's. for storing yams'; BUGfata 'animal'; ARO ha. 's.'; KWA faa-[lani] 'raised floorboard. ' '). Cf. PMC *fata, fata-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'trunk'.

PMc *fata, fata-na 'træstamme': CHK(nee)-fasa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'torso, trunk'; PUA-Daten, Daten-; PCK *fata, fata-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; POC *pata[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].

PCMc *fato, fato-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'to summon': CHK fowu-(no), lessu-(no) 'to be much talked about, famous', littleu-(n) 'said, known for', littleu-ni' to c.or speak n'et. of (see above), to speak positively of (see above)'; PUL(yite)-faye-(lo) be famous', fayi-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(y), fayi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(a) 'to c., s., invite( see above) '; CRL ffay 'to c., wink', fai-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i 'to c, or wink to (see above)'; STW fay 'to c.';WOL ffaso (sic) 'to c.', phase-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-u 'toc. (So.)'; ULI fesa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'c. (So.)'; PUAdadadada 'two c.', dada-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'two c.(see above)'; SNS fada-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] u 'c. (So.); PCK*ffat[eo], fat[eo]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][iu]-; KIR ato-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'pronounce, say (s.t.)'. Cf. PON pasap[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n 'to answer, answer'.

PMc *fatu 'stone': CHK-far, get-, -get, -fey 's.,rock, coral, spherical object (as classification)'; get high'; MAR father 'Stein, Fels'; PUL fawu (sic) 's., coral, rock', fawu-(ma) 'dead coral'; CRL destiny, destiny, fate-(l)'s., stone, seed, testis, S. self'; STW for 's.,rock'; WOL fau, fau-, faucet, case- 'p., cliff'; PUA daadu,dadu- 's., coral stone',-dau 'round object (in counting)';PCK *fatu, -fau; PON paay 'coral', peey 'big seed (as in Amango)', pey-(t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l) 'big flat pound', pay 'the stone used in an earth oven'; MRS hajji-(kad) "repeatedly throwing stones"; KIR (te)-du 'seed, s. heated brew', (te)-tree-(i[b.sup.w]u) 's., coral stone', tree-tree 'full of seed'; KSR Yot; POC patu (PPN *fatu; FIJ vote; SAA hau; LAU fou; ARO hau; KWA for PKB *water); UAN *people. KSR paet'cornestone' is to be understood as a loan. Cf. MOK du bist 'Pandanus Cud' See also Marck (1994:315) PMC *fatu 'rock, stone'.

PMc *fatu, lessufew 'weave, plait': CHKwenigufew 'plait, plait, be plaited', littleu-wa-(n) 'thing plaited by her', (a)-ffew 'to unite or join two things thus to make one ( but not groups of people), splice ropes, translate, interpret', (a)-ffewu 'join, connect, splice (s.t.)'; MRTfaWufaW 'to weave or make braids', faWe 'to w. (s.t.)'; PUL fayi fayifayi (sic) 'two p.', (ya)-ffewu (sic) 'interpret, translate, splice (as a rope)'; CRL fayfay 'w., doweaving', fayu, fau, fayi 'to w, or s. (s.t.)'; STW fayfay'to w.', fayu 'w. The'; WOL faufu 'two w.', fau-(we) 'w. The'; ULI fasfas, phase phase 'two w.', fasu-(y)'w. The'; PUA dadudadu 'two w.'; SNS fadufedu 'to drag.'; PCK *fatu saktu; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'to w.', pa 'to w. (s.t.); MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]yp[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]y 'to weave', pa 'weave(s.t.)'; MRS yaj 'w., darn, knit'; KIR ati 'w.', ata 'to w., braid (s.t)'; KSR otwe 'w.', otwe 'w,(s.t)'; PEO *fatu (PPN *fatu 'w., compose'; SAA ha'uha'u-si 'two p.'; ARO hau, hau-ri 'two p.'). R in PNG form per 'w.' reported by Bender et al. 1984 comes unexpectedly. Cf. BUG vao 'to p.'; LAU fao, faofao 'two w., p.'; KWA fao 'w., knit, p.'; POC *pai 'w.' (ROSS1988). See also PMC *fau, fau-Si 'to bind, bind'.

PCMc? *fatuku 'head': PUA daduku; SNS-faduku; KIR(te)-atuu. Write down the loss of k after t instead of the expected loss of t before k in the KIR form. See PEO *[b.sup.w]atu 'head' (Geraghty 1983) (SAAqa'u; BUG pau; LAU gwau, gwau ARO [b.sup.w]au; KWA gou).

PMc *-fau 'hibiscus': CHK (cinema)-fe, (cinema)-fee, 'hibiscus'; PUL (kill) fee; CRL (ghulu)-fairy, (ghili):fairy; STW(key) side; WOL (gili) fee, PUA (kini) dau; PCK *(key)-fau; KIR (te-ki)-ai-ai'a tree'; PEO *faRu (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *fau; FIJ vau; ARO haru'tree sp.'); PMP*baRu (Blust 1984-85).

PMc *fau, fau-Si 'to bind, bind': CHK feefe, fee-ti; PULfeefe, fee-ti-(y) CRL fee-tagh and CRN fee-tag 'set anchor, moor on board'; WOL-fee, fee-it(i)-; PUA daudau 'to weave'; SNSfafou 'to weave; PCK *faufu, fau-di-; PON pei 'to be bound (by boat)'; MRS yawyew 'to bind, whip', yawi-t 'to bind or whip (s.t.)'; KIR(te)-aiai 'ribs of a ship's hull'; KSRay"" 'to bind, to bind', awi 'to bind'; PEO *faqu-z'tie, tie' (Geraghty 1983) (PPN *faqu; FIJ vau, vau-ca). Although it might appear that MRS pawpew 'bind, tic', pawi-t 'bind.t.' and KSR pip 'bind', [p.sup.w]i 'bind (s.t.) could be borrowings from a PN source, such as SAM fafau 'bind', MRS pairsyawyew/pawpew and their transitives yawi-t/pawpew have the markings of old duplicates where the reduplicated pair has an ale change, something not found in PN but expected in MRS *CaCu or *CaCi reduction and also found in KSR (Bender 1973). Other y/p doublets in MRS are yewyew "to stroke, caress", pewpew "to sweep, brush" and yir "to deviate", pir "to slide down". These duplicates indicate an origin as oral/nasal alternans (*p/mp) in POC. KSR ay"" /pipand awi/[p.sup.w]i could have the same origin (Bender 1973:463). Cf. PNK*avu, avu-a 'wrap, connect, treat'; UAN *Rapus. See also PMC*fatu, fatuwa "to weave, braid".

PMc *fauru 'to do, to make': CHK feeri 'to make, to make', feer, feera-(n) act, action, to be d.', ffeer, ffeeru-(n) 'to make, to produce, m. of (a place)'; MRTfeeR[epsilon], PUL fairies, feeri-(y); CRL ffeer 'to do, m.', ffeeru 'to do or m. (s.t.)'; STW fairy; WOL forori-(I) am. it, make it, build it'; PUA daulu 'behave, act, behave, do, m.', daulu-(aki) 'make'; PCK *fauru; KSR or[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'do, m., perform'. See also PCK *fauru-anutu 'to recite aspell'.

PMc *fawo 'surface, on': CHK foo-(sun) 'region somewhat higher, fairly level ground behind shore', foo-(nu-pi) 'Pohnpei Island'; PON poo-(n) 'on', powe 'on top of', poo-(n pey) 'island of Pohnpei'; MRS(yi)-yewe-, yewe-'on, on, above, s., over'; KIR (i)-ao-(na) 'beyond, onit'; POC *papo(PPN *fafo 'outside, outside'; SAA hahao 'over, above'; ARO hahao- 'over, on, over'; KWA fafo- 'on, on top'; PNK *vovo 'skin the whole body '); UANbabaw. See BUG popo top, top'. See also PCK *wawo- 'face, surface, above, on'.

PMc *faxo 'to punting, punting pole': CRL foo 'pole for pushing boats and canoes'; PUA daao dao- 'rod', dao 'to rod a canoe', dao-(data) 'a raft'; PCK *fao; PON-por 'the counting classifier for long thin pieces or strips of s.t.'; KIR (te)-ao 'pointer', aoao 'to engage in propelling an acano with a pole', aoao-a 'to propel (a canoe) with a pole'; KSR aek 'rod, stick', aeki 'to the pole (a canoe)'; POC*pago (PKB *vago 'to stick a canoe', v-(il)-ago 'barge pole').

PMc *[f[theta]]eci[f[theta]]eci 'stab, bite':MRS yidyid 's. to stab pp.'; KIR(ta)-erieri be biting, stinging” (ta- “by itself”); KSR errisr 'burning or s.s. burning, stabbing, stabbing'.

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PMc *feraki, feraki-ni- 'spread out': CRL feragh 's. make of (of mats and cloth)', fferagh 's. make of flat things', feragha-li's. it out'; WOL feragi's., fold', feragi-li-(i)'s. it, unfold it', fferagi 'ess., unfolded'; PUA dalaki-ni and SNS falaki-ni 'to be scattered, sp., to spread or s. (s.t.)'; PCK *f\ae\raki, f\ac\raki-[ln]i-; PONp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'roll up (as amat)', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki 'roll up (s.t.)';

MRS yerek, yerak 'to s.mats'; KSR elak 'p.', laki-n 'to p., roll out (s.t.)' Cf. PON par 'to be fertile,, to sprout (of coconuts)'; MOK par-(pijon)'s. be around'.

PMc *fi- 'mutual': CHK fi- 'm. do', fi-(ti) 'go with or accompany (see above)', fi-(yuuw) 'fight'; PUL fii-(yoow) (sic) 'to fight'; CRL fi-(ti) 'to go with or accompany (see above)', fi-(yoow) 'see above fight'; WOL fi-(tii) 'go along, accompany'; PCK *fi-; PON pi-(siken) 'to push each other'; KIR i-(tau) 'boxing, fighting with fists'; POC*pi- (LAK vi-[lapu] 'taking hostages from each other as part of a peace settlement'). See PMC *fiSi 'to accompany', PCK *fi-di- 'to wind, to mix', PWMC *fini-[sS]i 'to twist, to twirl'.

PMc *fia[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'story, tell a story':PUL fiyo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], fryo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-(n) 't. somā, a sā, sā from'; STW fiyo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's.' WOLfiya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 's., legend'; PUA dia[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o 'p., t. som.'; PCK *fia[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o; KIR(te)-iano 'consideration, consideration', iano 'consider, contemplate, meditate', iano-a 'consider, contemplate, meditate on (s.t.)' KSR a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]we ' say, say '. Cf. MRS yine[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]", yine[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]" 'legend, folklore s.'.

PCMc *fica 'a strip of fiber for braiding': CHKfiche-(n) 's. of (pandanus, coconut, or other palm leaves prepared for plaiting mats', -fich 'counts for such strips'; MRTfisha-(n)'s. or leaves used in weaving'; PUL f-R ' Counter-front sheets'; PCK *fica -; PON pit, pit[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'Classification of strips and threads'; MRS yid 'threads for weaving garlands or threading flowers'; KIR (te) -ira 'a pandanus leaf for braiding, a hair'.

PM *fici, fici-ki 'snip, cut, snap, snip': CHKfichi-i-(y) 'snip, c. it (with scissors), snatch (from a photograph)', fichi-(paat) 'constantly cut', ffich's scissors, camera shutter, c., cut or snatch (from a picture)'; PUL fiRifiR 'to c. (as hair), knock, knock, snap', fiRi-i(y) 'to c. it, tap it, tap it, snatch it'; CRL fish scissors, to get a sudden sharp pain, to stand up suddenly without warning, "fishi 't" c. (s.t.) to play or strum a (stringed instrument), to strike (a candle), to shoot (weapon)'; 'CRN ffiR 's'issors', 'fiRi't' play or strum (a stringed instrument), strike (a light), shoot (a weapon)'; WOL fishi-i-(ye) 'pierce or launch it (from boiling), hit it, snatch it', ffishi 'be loose, tear off what it was tied to (like a rope), be struck', (lligaa)-fishi-i-(ye) 'spear it, lance (a boil)'; PUA disi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]I break it in two; PCK *fici; MRS yidi-k 'to shake (ahand)'; PEO *fidi-k (PPN *fiti 'jump up'; FIJ vidi, vidi-ka 'jump, leap, fly up'; KWA fidi [obs.] 'hit, clap'). There seem to be two ringing PMC roots here carrying a relation, ie associations like in English between snip (with scissors or a knife) and snap (a picture or one's own fingers). Cf. PMP *bitik 'jerk, jump up suddenly' (Blust 1980: 55). See also PMC *pici, pici-ki'snap, vibrate'.

PMc *fili, säkein 'choose': CHK(ni)-finifin 'selected question, a choosy person', fini 'c. es, choose it', ffin 'to be chosen'; MRI branch 'c. him', file[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'c. (s.t.)', ffil 'to make a choice'; PUL(li)-filifil 'case, be fastidious, fastidious', fili-(i-y) ''; CRL ffil 'to c., choose', fili 'c. it', (li)-filifil 'be selective', (seli)-filifil 'do nothing' ('no matter of choice'); STW fil 'c.',(li)-filifil 'selective', fili-(y) 'c. Him'; WOL fili-(i)'c. it', ffili 'c., determine'; PCK *fini, fini; PONpilipil 'c., choose', arrow 'c. (s.t.)'; MOK pilpil'c.', pil'c. (s.t.)'; MRS (kka)-yalyel 'c.'; PEO *fili (PPN *fili 'choose, c.'; RED hili, hil-hili 'choose, choose, choose'; SAA hili, hili-si and ULA ili-si 'c.'; BUG vili 'c.' ); habit * piliq. KSR fil-(wel) 'guess, guess, random choice' is loan or unrelated.

PWMc *fini-[sS]i 'twist, twirl': PUAdi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-ti 'twist, wring, push (s.t.)';SNS fi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-ti 'twist, wring, push(s.t. )'; FRU yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'spin, turn around and round, wind, be kinky (of hair)',yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-tek 'be twisted, wind up',yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] - tek 'to wobble, to wriggle'. See PMC *fi- 'mutual'.

PMc *fira, fira-[kx]i 'to twist': CHK fire-s, fure-s'a braid, braid', fire-si-(ni) 'braid it', ffire-s'a braid, braided be', ffire-si 'to braid'; PUL fira-k 'strong rope (as used for binding)', fira-ki-(lo) 'spread out (as a mat) to braid a rope'; WOL fire-gi 'string, thin rope used to join or fasten the sides of a canoe', fire-gi-(i) 'to weave it (as a lei)', ffire 'to weave ( a lei or strap)' ; PUAdila 'braid'; PCK *fira, fira-ki; PON pir 'twist, twist, twist', pir[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-r 'twist, twist, twist(s.t.)', pirapir 'tie, wear a belt, a belt'; KSR wor'to turn, wriggle' worwor 'wiggle', uro-k 'to turn, twist (s.t.)', wirwiro-k 'to keep turning (s.t.)'. Also note MRS pirekrek, 'to braid (of hair or the handle of a basket), braid, pirekøgle 'plait (s.t.)'; KIR bira 'to braid (something like hair or ropes)'; KSR pirak 'to braid', piraki 'to braid (s.t.)', from this the form KIR is calculated as a borrowing from SAM *fili (PPN*firi) 'to braid, braid', and the forms MRS and KSR as borrowings from the associated KIR- Forms *biri, biraki. The other MC forms can be assigned to foras formed from the passive and transitive (object expressed) forms of aPEO *fri; POc *piri 'twist' (Ross 1988) (PPN *fri; SAA hiri 'to lap with a string, to bind'; BUG fri 'lap with string, bind', fifri 'to twine', vin 'twisted, confused' ; KWAfli-si-[a] 'twist together'; PKB *vi[rz]i 'twist, wind up'). YAP freg, frgiy 'braid' borrows from a Chuuk source as it is CHM Flak 'braid, plait, weave'. Cf. UAN *bilin 'twirl, turn' and PAN *pi[dDr]i[Ct] 'twist, braid' (Blust 1970:135).

PMc *f[sS]a- 'how many': CHK fte-; MRI fte-; PUL fte-; CRL fta-, fte-fti-; STW fta-; WOL fta-; ULI finish; PUA dite-; PCK *fda-; KIRira-; PEO* visa (Geraghty 1983); POC *pija (Blust 1978:108) (PPN *fha; FIJvica; PKB *visa, come); BREAD * Dove (Blust 1978:96). See POC *cucumber (Ross1988).

PMc *fiSi 'accompany': CHK fti 'go with him/her, join him/her', fti-(pach) stay together all the time'; PUL fti-(y); CRL chips; WOL fli-(i); PCK *fdi; PON pid 'to worry (s.t.)'; KIR i 'go into company', ira 'to a., go with (see above)'; KSR wi 'a., travelby'. Cf. MRS yijyij 'intercourse', yijiy 'to have intercourse with (see above)'. See PMc *f- 'mutual'.

PMc *fiSiko 'flesh': CHK futuke, futuke-n, futukotuk 'flesh, f. of, to be fleshy'; Future MRT (final or unvoiced); PULflik, phtico-; CRL ftug, ftugh; CRN the future; STW ftuk; WOL figo; PUA countries, PCK *Fland; PON snow; MOK uduk, uduko-; MRS [yitek.sup.w] 'whale meat'; KIR (not) containing; KSR as[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'fleshof' (shows metathesis); PEO *fziko; POC *physical (Ross 1988) (FIJvicico). Cf. SAA is not 'body f.'; ARO is not; KWAfasi'o-(with).

PCMc *fitaki "fight": WOL ftegi "war, fight", (ga)-ftegitegi "compete"; PUA diteki and SNSfteki "to work"; PCK *f[dt]eki; PON pidek 'to walk around', pideki-i 'to walk around (s.t.)'; MOK pid[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'move around, Surround', pid[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki Surround(s.t.)'; KIR iakiaki 'struggling (as a child), great activity at work, struggling to get free, being in convulsions, repeatedly hitting a shoal, tapping' (showing loss of *t before *k) .

PMc *fiti 'flash (of light)': CHK f 'f., throw a spark (of lightning, electricity)', fif 'flash, sparkle, twinkle, radiate, flash (like a light or flash)',( z )-fifi) 'to shock a person with taboo language', fi-si 'to transmit fire to (s.t.), (s.t.) to set fire', (ine)-f'lyn'; CRL fif 'to roar', fi-ghi 'to burn (s.t.) to set on fire'; CRN fi-gi 'burn or kindle (s.t.)'; WOL-ffusu 'spark, flash (like light), pause briefly (like falling rain), be kindled', (ga)-fusu-(u) 'kindle, f make.'; PUA didi 'blink'; PCK *fti, fiti-ki-; PONipup 'Lightning without thunder (metathesis?)'; KIR (te)-iti'lyn'; PEO *viti (BUG viti-li 'to flash through'). Cf. PON pir 'after f.'; MRS yit 'light a match'. Note that KSR saerom 'light, electricity, lightning' and MOK jorom 'lightning' are borrowed from MRS [jar.sup.w] en 'electricity, lightning, electric shock, blow, blow'. See also PCK *fti, fti-ki 'to apply fire'.

PMc *fit[ou]u 'star': CHK all, all-(n), all-(n)'star, pp. self'; All MRIs; all PUL, all CRL, all-(J); STW all, all-(n); WOL fuse, fuse (left); PUA long; SNS fdi; PCK? *Future; PON usage; MOKuju, ujuu-(n) MRS water; KIR(te)itoi; KSR on; POC *pituqun (Ross 1988) See Marck (1994:307) PMC *ftuu. See PPN *fetuqu; UAN *bit. See also SAAhe'u; ARO hi'u KWA cry

PMc *fitu, ftu-ua 'seven': CHK fuus, fuu-, fusu-uw, fsu-uw 'seven' and fi-k 'seventy'; MRI backup, backup, backup uw; PUL fuus, fu-, fehu-uw and fi-k; CRL fis, fsu-, fsu-, fsi-, flsa-, flsu-uw and fsi-igh; STW merger, fsu-uw; WOL physical, fsi-, fsu-(uwe) and fsi-ige; PUA to-, to-(ow) and to-iki; SNS fdu-; PCK *ftu, ftu-uwa and *fti-like; PON (e)-er, isi-, he-u MOK iji-, iju-w; KIR two-, two-ua, two-ua, KSR it; POC *pitu (Ross 1988) (PPN *ftu; ROT hifu; FIJ vitu; SAA hiu; BUGvitu; KWA fu; PKB *vitu) Note that e instead of u in PUL fehu(uw) is unexpected.

PMc *fou 'feels cold': CHK ffeew 'c., c. to be', feffeew 'to shiver', (a)-ffeew 'c. be touchable', (a)-ffeewu 'c. make, get cold'; MRI pair 'c.'; CRL ffooy,ffeey 'f. c'; STW feey 'c.'; WOL feeu 'be c., cool, shudder', (gari)-ffeeu 'be c., cool'; PUA ddeeu 'to bec. (whole body)', (kali)-ddeeu 'c. (of things)'; SNS ffeeu'c'.; PCK *Fee; PON pow 'feeling c., chilly, chill',(ko)-pow 'c., chilly, chilly'; MOK pow 'feel c.', (ko)-pow 'feel c. (of people)'; MRS (pi)-yaw, (pi)-yaw 'cold, cool'; KSR o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'c., chilly'.

PMc * foot 'tree (Barringtonia asiatica)'; PON said; MOKwi; POC *rump. See PMC? *[t]upa 'fish poison', *PMc *upa'derris vine', PMC ? *iwu 'tree (Barringtonia asiatica)'

PMC *i- 'to (localize)': CHK i-(no longer productive, used with demonstrative pronouns); MRI a-;

PUL-yi-; CRL i-; STW-yi-; WOL i-; PUA i-; PCK*i-; PON i- 'mit demonstrativen Hinweisen'; FRAU yiy, yi-: KIR i-; KSR i-; PEO *i (SAA i-;BUG i-).

PMc *-i- 'of': CHK -yi-; PUL-yi-; WOL -i-; PUA-i-; PCK*-i-; MRS (waytiwe)-y "land of"; PEO*i (FIJ i). Possible duplicate of PMc 'of, concerning': generic elements in MRS place names show alternation: [bek.sup.w] e-n, [bek.sup.w] e-y 'sandspitof', wede-n, wede-y 'coral head from 'etc.

PCMc *i 'I(1st sg. subj. marker)': CHK wu-; MRI a-; PULwu-, yi-, CRLi-; STW i-; WOL-In; PUA in-; PCK*j; PON on; WOMAN yi-; KIR i-,n-(na). Now a prefix; former citizen.

PMc *ia 'is, they, it (independent Pronoun)': CHK iiy; MRT yiiiy; PUL yiiiy; Sperrlist ii; STw believe; WOL iiye; Is he said; PCk * is; PON ii; König; MRS yes; KIR ([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a)-ia; POc *ia (Ross 1988) (PPN *ia, BUG iia 'seed', in-[and] 'dies'; PKa *ia); UAN *iya Vgl. KSR el.

PCMc *iaa 'hvor?': CHK iya, iyaa-(n) 'w., itswhereabouts'; PUL yiya; CRL iya, WOL (i)-iyaa; PuA (i)-iyaa; PCK *yaa; PON yya; MoK yya; FRU yi'yah; KIR hvid. Se PMc *-faa 'hvor?', PCMc *maia 'hvorfra?'.

PCMc *iTo 'one swims on a net, light wood': CRt. uus, usa-'f. on a net'; STW wuus, wuso-(l), wusu-(l) 'a f., any kind of wood that flows well, 'its f., f. of'; PCK *wuTo; PON uus ' for a fishing net'; MOK uj-(pey) 'f. for a net'; MRS wej,wij 'balsa driftwood, cork'; Km(te)-ito 'very light driftwood'.

PWMc *ii- 'keep on': CHK ii- 'lead, tend, have a course (like the wind or a boat)' (used with dir. suf., ii-[no] 'head or tend away', ii- [ ta] 'head or face up or east', ii-[tiw] 'head or face down or west', ii-[til] 'head or lean toward'); PON ii- 'coming or going straight', ii-(la) 'going straight away', ii-(do) 'coming straight here'; MRSyi-(lakw) 'go away (from people)', yi-(tak-[lak.sup.w]),yi-(tah[lak.sup.w]) 'go east', yi-(tew ) 'to the west', yi-(tew)-yi-(tak) 'to travel, go back and forth'; yi-tekw 'come here (from people)'.

PMc *ika, ika-na- 'Fisch': CHK iik, ike-(n), ike-ne-(n)'f., f. af'; MRT iik, Second-(n); PUL iik, Fisch-(n); CRL øvh; CRN iig;STw iik; WOL-Woche, iga-(li), iga-le, ige-la-(li); PUA iika, one (von); PCK*you, you yourself; PON ik- (only in cpd.s.); MOK ike-, ico- (i cpds. oaly); PNGik- (only in cpds.); MRS yek, yike-(n); KIR you, (not)-you, you (your-); KsR ik,ike-(n); POc *ikan, ikan-a (Ross 1988) (PPN *ika; FIJ ika; SAA i'e; ULAi'a; BUG iga; LAU in, KWA i'n, PKB *iqa); PAN*Fisch (Ross 1988).

PCMc *ika-ni-[p.sup.w]oni 'any fish that can be caught at night': CHK ike-n i-[p.wup.w]in; WOL ige-li bonuses; PCK*second[pw]oni; KIR ika-ni-[b.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'akind off.'. See PMc *ika, ika-na- 'fish', PMc*[p.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'nat'.

PCMc *i-ka- 'on the spot' (as indicated): CHK i-ka-, i-ke- 'at p.', i-ka 'here (by me)', i-ke-ey, i -ke-y 'here (with me)', i-ka-na, i-ke-na 'there (with you)', i-ka-an'here (with us)', i-ka-naan, i -ke-naan 'there who died', i-ke-[m.sup.w]uun 'there (not far from us)', i-ke-we 'there (out of sight, in the past) '; PUL yi-ka, yi-ke-ey, yi-ke-na, yi-ke-nn, yi-ka-nnan, yi-ke-naan, yi-ko-[m.sup.w]uun; CRL i-gha i-ghe-ey, i-ghi-la, i-gha-al, i-ghi-laal, i-ghi-[m.sup.w]uul, i-ghi-we; WOL i-ga-a, i-ge-iye, i-ga-ale, i-ge-laale, i-ge-[m.sup.w]uu, i-ge-[m.sup.w]uule , -i-ga-wee; PUAI-son, I-mother; PCK muun[ae], i-ka-wee; KIR i-ka-i 'here', i-ka-nne 'there (not far)', i-ke-kei 'there'.

PMc *iku 'tail': CHK-hale, hale-(n) 't., itst.'; MRI inside-(n); PUL wuuk, wuku-; STW yoke (l); WOL smell, smell-; PCKs; PON iki 'his t., as'; MOKik; iki-(n); PNG ik; KSR ikwik 'rudder, tiller, helm'; PEO *hisR (Ross 1988) (PPN *his; BUG iuigu; PKB *his); PAN*ikUR (Ross 1988). See POC *Tag (Blust 1993:286). Cf. SAA'u'u'i, KWA 'i'i, who. See also PPC *uku'end', PCK *ukuuku, uku-fi 'to cut off'.

PWMc *ila 'to come ashore': CHK in, ine-(no) 'added, brought ashore'; PUL yil, ile-(lo); WOL file; PCK*ila; PONila-(pas) 'build a nest'; MOK ilail 'to build a nest'; PNGilail 'nest of pigs'; MRS called "Nest". See UAN*qila[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'disappear, disappear'.

PMc *ili 'sprout, sprout (of plants)': CHK ini-, -i 'young sprout (count classifier)', iniin 'offspring, sprout'; CRL ilil (? *ili-(l)) 'young taro sprouts', ili-(ns) 'hair of the head' (respect usage, lit. 'tall scion'); WOLiili, iii- 'young shoots around an old plant'; PUA inni 'banana sprouts'; PCK*ili; PON iii 'his sucker (of banana, breadfruit, tarn)'; MRS yil, yili- "taro sprout"; POC *qili(LAK hili 'get sprouts to plant'). Cf. PMc *[tT]ulu- 'young scion, scion'.

PMc *[im.sup.w]a 'hus': Se PMc *[im.sup.w]a,[im.sup.w]a.

PMc? *inu or *uni 'coco stuff': PUL wuni-(i-nu); WOLuulu, ulu- "coconut colander, coconut husk, leaf of a tree"; ULI ul;PUA uunu 'c. c. leaf of a tree'; PCK *unu; PON-ini-(pal); mokim-(mate); MRs yin-(pel); KSR in-(pal) (on loan from MRS?); PEO *Runuk (Geraghty1990). Cf. KIR(te)-i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'fibrous, porous sheath covering the base of the coir leaf or leaves'. See also FIJ vulo 'cc'.

PMv *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma 'to drink': CHK wun 'to drink, smoke', wunu-mi 'd. die,', wunu-ma-(n) 'histhing to d. or S.'; PUL you, you-I-(y), you-ma-(n); CRL ul,ulu-in-ulu-ma-; CRN un, in the water; WOL grow, grow-me-(in), grow-me-(le); PUA water and mi; PCK *water, water-mi, una-ma; PON are you, am I; MOK ni-m 'death.', ni-m 'd. (s.t.)'; MRS ni-me-, li-me- '(ens) thing to d.'; KIR ni-ma, was-ma 'to d. (s.t.)', (not)-was-ma'a d.'; KSR nimnim 'to d.', ni-rn 'd. (s.t.)',ni-m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l) 'his d.'; PEO *inum (PPN *[iu]nu; SAA inu, inuinu; LAK liu erroneously mapping Geraghty [1990] to PEO*[q[theta]iRu-f 'sip, sup'; PKB *inu); UAN and PMP *inum. See FIJgunu. See also PMC *nima 'drinking substance: possessive classifier'.

PMc *ini 'dorsal fin': CHK ini-(n) 'to be f. (of fish)', ini-([m.sup.w]aan) 'd. F' iniin 'ridge, edge', (pere)-yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iin 'to be square or rectangular', (pere)-yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iin "be on one side, lean, or tilt sideways"; MRT yii [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; PULyii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'd. f.', yi[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'side (as of a person)'; CRLii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], i[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i.(l-SYMBOL) , i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'top of a ravine, precipice, sharp drop, ridge, rafter supporting the ridge of a house'; CRN (pare) -i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL ]' a ravine , precipice, sharp drop, rafter supporting the back post of a house'; WOL ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-'f. of a fish', i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE]' SYMBOL be sharp (of edges), have many corners'; PuA ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; SNS yii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PCK*i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i;; PON i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] i; ]i 'his pectoralf.'; MOK i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'dorsalor anal f.'; MRS ye[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], ye[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n) 'f., d. f.', yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'spikes on a fish'; KIR (te)-i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(eta) 'd. F'; KSR? [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'f. from'. Cf. LAK iri-(le-kova) 'spine of the stingray'.


PMc *ira 'that (independent pronouns), they (suf. obj. prn.),your (suf. poss. prn.)': CH K iir, -:r, MRT iir; sat. yir; CRL iir;STW yur; WOL iire, -:re; PuA iila; PCK*ira; PON iir; MOK iir; FRU yer; Km([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a)-iia, -ia; PEO *ira (FU ira, ra; SAA [ik]-ire; ULA[ik] -ira; Buo iira 'of', ira-(who) 'disse'; ARO ira).UAN *siDa

PMc *iraira 'part, portion': PUL ireer, ireera-(n) 'parts (as bodies), goods, articles'; WOL ireire 'body parts'; PCK*iraira; PON irayr 'part, event, object'; MOK irayr 'limited, bounded, divided, partitioned';KSR il[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'to separate, to separate',il[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'part (the hair), separate (things), distribute ( things ) ) out, change (things) around'.

PMc *iri, iriiri 'to rub, to scrub': WOL iriiri 'r., s., blob'; PCK*iri, iriiri; PON iriir-(la) 'to be erased', iri-s'r., to erase (s.t.)', iri-sek 'r., to erase'; MOK iri-j'r., to erase (s.t.)', iri-jek 'r., to erase'; MRS yiryir'r., friction, scratching', yiriy 'r. The'; KIR ii-a 'to rust, to grind'; KSR il, ilil 'grind, grate, cut, r.', ii'r., quench, dry (s.t.)'. Cf. UAN *qiriR 'touch, move, fan'; LAK is 'grated coconut, smooth'. Geraghty's (1990) equation of KIR ii-a (his ia) with PEO *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]kuRu is not supported, but sec PCK? *fa-ia 'file, point, sharpen'. See also PCK? *faira 'tear'.

PMc *iri, iri-pi- 'to fan out': MRT Tag-(in); STw day-(to);ULI father-(to); PUA head-(pau); PCK *uni-(pau) PON irur 'to f.', iri-p 'to f. (s.t.)'; MOK iri-p 'to f.'; PPC *is, is-pi-; PEO *irip (FU is, is-va 'to f.'). Note that KIR iri-bi 'tofan', iri-ba 'to fan (s.t.)' is an apparent borrowing from a PN source, e.g. SAM ili 'fan'. YAP ripoy 'to fan' is probably on loan from ULI. Cf. SAA tere-hi 'to f.'; BUG veiveri'to f.'; LAU tere-fi 'to move like f., after f.'; ARO tere, tere-lu 'a f. to f.'; KwA telu-fi(a) 'to blow (a flame)', cf. PMC *pahu, L: CHK bis-No.

PMc *isa, isa-ni- 'to press down': CHK iteyit 's., to weigh down', ite-ni 'to press or to weigh down (s.t.)', it[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(tiw) 'two s.d. '; MRT ite-(tew) 'p.d.', ita-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's. on it', it[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-a-(tew)'s. i.e. on it'; PUL yite-(tiw) 'to apply pressure with the hands' yite-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 's. i.e. light on (s.t.)'; STw ite-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 's. i.e. on the ',ite-e-(y)'s. on it'; PCK *ida-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON idayd 'to be pressed, to be crushed', ida-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to press, to crush (s.t.)'; MOK and PNG idad 'top.', ida-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'top. (s.t.)'; KSRel[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]t 'to p., smear', it[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to p. on, over, over, over(s.t.)'. Geraghtys (1990) derives this from his PEG *Ra/es/i is doubtful. See also PCMc? *iso 'making fire with the fire plow method'.

PCMc? *isi-ft, esi-fi 'immerse, immerse, scoop': CHK etu-fi, atu-fi, iti-fi, eti-fi; PUL. yati-fl-(y); CRL iti-fi 'to get it (from water)'; WOL ititii 'Löffel, Scooper, at s.,d., draw, take tip or out with a scoop', iti-fi-(i)'s. it out, d. it, draw it (water)'; PuA ititi (sic) 'spoon of fishbone or tortoise shell'; PCK? *idi, idi-fi; PON idi-p 'pull or fetch (water)'; MoK id, edded, idi-p 'draw or fetch water'; KIReri-a 'a spoon or s. to pick up s. up (s.t.), with a spoon or ladle'. Cf. CRL ifi-i-(y) and CRN ifi fi 'raise or dip (water)'; also PON iid 'to fetch or scoop (liquids)' MRS ite-k, itite-k 'to draw (water)'; KSR yAyA 'to s.', yAu-k 's.(s.t.)'; SAM asu 'to scoop, s.'; UAN *[h[theta]]ansu. Cf. alSoPAN *qidus 'trowel, trowel' (Blust 1980:78). Note that KRI iti-a([isi-a]) 'to s. up (water), to d., to scoop' is probably a loan (we don't expect it).

PCMc? *iso 'making fire by fire plow method': CHK wutuut 'f s., m. f. of f. s. method', wutu-u-(w) 'in. (from.)'; PUL. wutuut 'reams torn, an f. with an f. p.'; PCK*uduuduudu; PON id 'to m. f. by rubbing a stick in a wooden gutter', idi-n 'to m. (f.)'; PNG idi-(kal) bin. f. by rubbing sticks”; MRS yit 'light a match'; KIR iro 'toignite', ire-(ai) 'in. f. by rubbing sticks', ireire 'to rub, to wash', ire-a 'to rub, to wash (s.t.)'. See also WOL utuutu 'to be wiped out, wiped out, wiped out'. See PMc *isa, isa-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i- 'push down'.

PMc *iSa, aSa 'Name': CHK iit, nu-, ite-; MRT nu-; PULyiit, yita-, yita-; CRL iit, nu-; STW nu-; WOL iite, nu-; PuA iita, iita-;SNS iita; PCK *von; PON aad, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-; NGK [UNKEYBOARDSYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDSYMBOL]-; MOK ad,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-; PNG-Western; Mrs. Yat; KIR ara-;KSR e; PEO *[q[theta]]iza, qaza; POc *[q[theta]]ican, qacan (Ross 1988) (Fuyaca; BUG here; SAA called; KWA camp; PKB *his); UAN *[h[theta]-Arrow). Vgl. PEOaza (Geraghty 1983); PAN * Nose (Blust 1978).

PMc *ita, itaita 'put down, pile up': CHK iseyis 'put down, stored, put away', ise-ni 'd. it, save it, put it away'; MRT isena-a-(tew) 'put it down; PUL yihayih 'keep up, d.', yiha-ni-(y) 'keep up, save'; hyihel-lo 'keep, keep'; CRL is 'um s.t. for future use', isa-li(i-1o) 'put away or hide'; STW isen-(tiw) 'to lay down'; WOL iseise 'put away, keep, store', ise-ii-(i) 'put away, keep, store'; PUA ite(tio)] 'put it down'; PCK *itaita, ita-ni; PON says "to pay tribute, a service or good deed, a tribute, a gift, a reward" is "to pay (tribute), repay, or reward (a service or good deed)"; MRS yejyej 'build peak, pile up, erect, construct'; KSR etDt 'heap stones'. Cf. PCK*itano 'put down, put away'.

PCMc *-itaki 'count of ten': PON -er[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'c. for t.', (e)-er[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'ten', (rie)-isek 'twenty', (sili)-iSEk 'thirty'; MOK -ijek, (e)-ijek, (rie)-i jek, (jili)-ijek); KIR(ua)-iaki 'thieves counting fish and rolls with dried pandanus paste'. Cf. PMc *-nawulu 'unit of tens (in counting)', PPC*-ik[ae] counting of tens'.

PMc? *itau 'Callophyllum inophyllum': PON isow; MOKijew; MR-Färbung; KIR (Tea)-Itai; KSR itn. Vgl. ROT hefau 'C. Baum';FU alt, jung 'Calysaccion tinctonan tree'; PMP *bitaquR'C. Jeg. Explosion 1984-85).

PCMc? *i[t[theta]]i 'banana hand' (counting classification): CHK -i, iye-iya-(n); PUL-yii (sic); CRL isi-i-(y) and CRN eyi 'cut off or break off (fruit grows in bunches)'; WOL -isi;PCK *it[ei]; PON ii "banana hand"; KIR (te)-ii-(na) 'one (count pandanus branches)'. See MRS hajjen 'h. from b., Pandanus' keychain.

PMc? *iwu tree (Barringtonia asiatica): CHK (wuwaa-nu)-uw'B. a., the fruit of which is used as a fish poison and for cauterizing wounds'; UAN *ipuq 'wood for arrow poison'. Cf. PMc?*[tT]upa 'fish poison', *PMC *upa 'derris vine', PMC*futu 'tree (Barringtonia asiatica)'.

PWMc *yaa 'rainbow': MAP yya; PON who, who; MOKaya; MRS 'yiyah 'r.', yiyahyahey 'r. colored' See also Marck (1994:310) PWMc *iaa. See KIR wirara 'rainbow'.

PMc *die Ursache Prefix, präf. picture Schedules: CHK a-, a-, e-, e-, o-, o-, ka-, kka-, like-, a kaa-, ekke-, ekke-, akko-, okko-; PUL of-, of-, he-, it-, -in-, only-, put-, like-; CRL a-, a-, o-, as-, as-; WOL ga-, ge-, kka-, kke-, kkekka-; PUA ca-, ca-, PCK*ca-, ca-, ca-; PON do-; MOC-Eingang; MRS cann-; KIR ka-; SEED *to (Fu to-'consumed Form o. n.'). KSR aekis of course from PMc *fa-ka.

PCMc*bis, nur- 'p1. præf. for You. prns.': CHK kka-;PuL kka-; CRL kka-; That is STW; WOL kka-; GUL kka-; PuA ka-; PCK *ka, kka-; PONKA-; MRS keyin 'disse' (vgl. yin 'detect'); KIR (a)-ka(voice)'dem' (cf. a-voice 'the').

PWMc *ka[a[theta]]mami, -kamami 'vi (ekskl.)': CHKaam 'vi (ekskl.)', -keem, -kem, -keem-, -kemi- 'us(ekskl.)' ; MRT Yaamem; PUL Yaamem; CRL yaamem, -ghamem; CRN aam, -gem, STW yaamem, kaamem; WOL gaamami, -gemami; PuA kamami, -kamami; PCK*ka[a[]]mami, -kamami; MOK kam; MRS kemmem (östlicher Dialekt). Jf. FUkeimami. Jf. auch POc *kami (SAA 'ami; LAU gami; BUG gami; LAKami-[teu\). See Jackson 1986:206. Jf. PWMC *kami 'vi (eksklusiv), os'.

PMc *kaaSu, kakaaSu 'to scratch'; CHK kkeet 'itch, p. an itch', (a)-kettu, (e)-kettu's, it', (fisi)-keet,-kettu-'s. much, scratch'; PUL keet 'to scrape'; CRLkkeet, 'to be itchy, to itch'; WOL kkeetu 'to be itchy (from drying raw a kind of non-swamp taro)'; PUA kkatu (sic) "itchy, itchy feeling"; PCK *kkaadu; KIR kaari-(a)'s. it, scratch it'; KSR kakA 'to s.', kawi 'to s. (s.t.)'. Cf. PON pitikiida 'itch from s.t.'.

PMc *kacawa 'open space between': CHK achaw 'basaltic rock' (probably from littleu-n achaw 'rock of heaven'), achaw 'place in the heavenly world' (later identified with Kosrae), (sowu)-kachaw 'Lord of Achaw' (a powerful spirit and dynastic ancestor), (tona)-achaw 'Basalt Peak' (a place on Weeneth sacred to the Soukubabachaw cult); PUL-Yaraw "volcanic rock"; CRL ashaw 'hard basaltic rock, rocky crag', ashaw 'place in the heavenly world' (now identified with Kosrae); CRN araw 'hard basalt rock, rocky cliff'; WOL geshaweshawe 'big flat rock by the sea' (i.e. beach rocks); PCK *kacawa; PON kataw "mythical place now identified with Kosrae", (dau)-kataw "a sky god"; KIR karawa "heaven"; KSR kasrao "sky", (pe)kushra "horizon"; PEO (ka)-dawa (FIJ dawa-[ka] 'to extend as far as'); pre-POC *nsawan; PAN *sawan "atmosphere, distance" (Blust 1970:141).

PCMc *kacawu 'cloud, rain': CHK kuchu, kucluu-(n)'c., c. of'; woshow 'c.'; PUL woRow 'white c.';CRL undisplay 'r.'; STW woRow, oRow 'r., r. c.'; WOL goshou'r., precipitation, shower, downpour'; PUA kosour. c'; PCK*kocou; PON ketew 'r., after r.'; MOK kasow 'c.'; MRS kedaw'c., overcast'; KIR karau 'to the right', (te)-karau 'rainwater, r.'. See also Marck (1994: 344) PMC *kat'awu. There is a problem with the CHK forms.

PCMc *kace 'throw': CHK ache-e-(y) 't. it';MRI ash; PUL yaRe-(y); CRL akkesh, akkash, akkesh 'two hours', ashe-(y), ahse-e-(y) 'two hours (s.t.)'; CRN asR 'to t.', aRe-(y) 'to t. (s.t.)'; STW of Re-(i); WOL gashe-e-(he); PUAkase-di; SNS Tape-Fi (sci); PCK *cace, cace-of-; PON cat [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to stone it. Rock that'; MOK cascade 'after t.', case 't. (s.t.)'; MRS kadkad 'use a cast net', kad,kadey 't. (a net)'; KIR kare 'participate in throwing', kare-a't. (s.t.)' Cf. KSR osrwosr, osrak 't'. Cf. also PCK*kace 'to beat (in sailing)'.

PMc *kaci 'a big black ant': CHK wu-kech, wu-kechi-(n)'kind of 1.a., en. from'; PUL du-keR, du-keRe-(n); CRL wu-ghesh; CRN u-geR; WOL u-geshi; PUA u box; PCK *du-keci; PON kaat 'a.',keti-(tik) 'a small a.'; MRS kal-(lep) < *kad-(lep) 'big b.a.'; KSR kasr-(kin), kasr-(l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p) 'a kind of.'; PEO *also (FIJ also 'a large species of b.a. that stings').

PMc *kai, 'to bite': CRL ghey 'to tear off the husk of coconut or sugar cane with one's teeth', ghei-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i,ghei-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to peel (s.t.) with one's teeth' ; WOLgeigei 'to b. peel coconuts into smaller layers with teeth';PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'to b.'.it'; MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'two b.,(s.t.)'; PPK *kai; PEO *ka-i (PPn *kai 'eating, to eat'; SAA'a-[na] 'his food for eating'; BUG ga-[gna] 'his food for eating'; KWA 'a-[na] 'a piece for him'); UAN *ka. CRN ahey 'remember with the teeth (s.t.)' is an obvious borrowing from CRL. Cf. PUA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ei-di 'bite it (of flesh)'. See also PMC*kani, PMC*kana.

PMc *[kai.sub.2], 'to inform': PON kai-r'news', kai-reeki 'to inform'; PNG kai-reki-n 'notify'; MRS kahyi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, kahyi-ni 'send an order, inform', key-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'announcement'; KSR kai 'to warn, to advise, to admonish (see above)'. It is possible that some of these are loans. Cf. FIJkai-naki 'said', kay-a 'to say', i-kaikai 's.t.sit'; TON 'ai 'to tell, to inform'. Cf. PCK *kae- or *kaya- "to speak, tell", PCK *yari "a fish".

PCMc *kai-peti 'driftwood': CHK a-piipi 'driftwood, flotsam'; PUL ya-peyipeyi (sic) 'd.'; CRL a-peipey'd.' peipey 'flotsam, d.'; STW 'ya-peyipey'd.'; PUA ka-peipei 'd.'; PCK *ka-peipei; PONk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'd.'; MOKk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-peepe 'd.'; KIR(te)-kai-beti'd.'. The KIR form makes sense as kai 'wood' and beti 'drift'. The PCK form has reinterpreted the original element meaning tree as a causative prefix and shortened the vowel accordingly. See PMC*peti, pepeti, pe(t[theta])ipeti 'to flow'.

PMc kaila 'be strong: PUL kkel (sic); WOL kkaile 's.,healthy', (ge)-kkaila-(a) 'strengthen it, make it s.'; PCKkkaila; PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'strength', k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]layl (<*kailaila) 's., healthy, vigorous'; PNG keel 'strength'; KIR kaina-(matoa) 'impeccable'; PEO *kaila's., firm' (SAA 'a' aila-['a] 'firm, s.'; ARO 'a' aira-[/a]'s., firm'). Cf. BUG kakai 'affirm, firm, faithful'.

PMC? *[kaka.sub.1] 'cracked, split': CHK (sa)-kkak 'cleave, crack, break (of wood or skin)' (sa 'of oneself'); MRS kek, kek c., s., chink'; PEO *kaka (FIJ ka-ca'c., s,', kaka-ca 'c. or s. in many places'; ARO kaka'to split', kaka-si 'two s. (s.t.)'). Cf. PMc*[kaka,sub.2] 'to make an intrusive or disruptive sound'.

PMC *[kaka.sub.2] 'to make an intrusive or interrupting sound': CHK kak kkaka, kakkak 'ring (like a bell), croak (like a bird), pause (as a voice when speaking), the ringing sound '; MRT kaak 'sound of cracking'; PCK *kaka, kaka, kaka; KIR(te)-kaka 'a kind of bird'; PEO *kaka (FIJ kaka 'stutter, stammer', kakaa 'any of several species of parrot'). See PMC? *kaka, 'broken, split'.

PMC *kaka, ka-si, kaka-si 'to tie straw': CHK kket'tie t. to sparren', kketi 't. it, tic t. in addition'; PULkati-(y) 'to bind (as sennit dead.)'; CRL kkat, kket 'cords used to tie t. to fasten to a roof'; WOL kkati 'to be bound, bind, bind'; kkati-i-(ye) 'to bind, bind'; PCK*kkadi; MRS key 'sew, sew', kketahak 'attach, connect'; KIR kakari'at sew or bind on t.'; KSR kaek 'tie to the roof', kA 'tie (it)'; PEO *ka-si (FIJ kasi, kasi-na 'tie a lot of things together, tie things together'); UAN *ka(n)cin 'attached'.


PMC *kala, ma-kala 'to break, cut, scatter': CRL ma-ghal 'to pp. in different directions, scatter', ma-ghalaghal 'smash', ([b.sup.w]iti)-ghalle - (lo) 'torn, torn, crushed, torn (of meat, flesh, rotten vegetables)'; CRN ma-galagal 'be smashed; WOL me-gale 'to split, c., to divide, b., to be scattered', me-gale 's., to scatter, to be torn, to be broken into pieces'; PUA ma-kana 'to be destroyed, to be broken, to destroy, B.'; PCK *ma-kala; KIRma-kanakana 'easily broken, not solid, weak, fragile'; KSR kal, kalkAl'c., scissor, scissor, clip', calk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l'fence, separate or divide with fence'; POC *kala (SAA'ala 'b. ab, lop, bite'; LAU ala 'to bite'; ARO kara'to c.'; KWA 'ala 'to bite'; LAK kala-(hoho) 'to bite [hart.sup .1]). See also PEO *kaRa-t "bite, hold in one's teeth" (Geraghty 1990). Cf. MRS(peda)-kilkil 'crumbled, crushed, broken entrails'.

PCMC *kalo 'roll or twist fibers into ropes': CHK ona'r. or t. (fiber) in string or rope', kkon 'to be rolled to the right or onto the thigh (of fibres)', konne-e-(y) 'two r. or t. (fibers) together'; Set. yolool 'sennite rope to braid sennite', yole-e-(y) 'to braid (sennite)'; WOL galogalo 'sennitrope', galo-o 'makes it sennit'; PUA canoe 'sennitcord'; PCK *kalo, kalocalo; PON kal[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to make(sennit)'; MOX coal 'tot. Skeins of coconut fiber for making cord', kol[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'tot. (threads), r. (Cigarette)'; MRS [kw][kw]al 'coconut fiber sennite, makeennite'; KIR kanoa 'to engage in twisted threads', kanoa-a'to t. (rope threads) together'. There is a problem with the added trailing a in the KIR form. Cf. UAN *galin 'to roll, turn'. See also PWMc *kalo 'loincloth, skirt'.

PWMC *kalo 'loincloth, skirt': CHK on-([nom.sup.w]),on-([nam.sup.w]u)-(n) 'lord l. c., 1. c. of (a given type)([nom.sup.w] 'peeling of skin, bark or leaves'); PUL.wol-([low.sup.w]) '1. century of woman', wol-([lom.sup.w]o-in-y) 'to use or possess as 1st century'; PCK? *[k[theta]]alo-([lom.wup.w]O); PONk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'grass skirt worn by men',k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'to wear a grass skirt'; MOKk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'rock of leaves or grass'; MRS Cal'1. c., diaper'. Cf. YAP gaal' 'hibiscus tree, l.c. each cloth made of hibiscus bark'. Sce also PCMC *kalo 'roll or twist fibers into ropes'. The final consonant of MRS would eventually require an unreconstructed form.

PWMC *kami 'we (exclusively), us': CHK aam; CRN aam; PCK*kami; MOK germ (root for double and test rows); MRS kem (Western dialect), [kem.sup.w] (Eastern dialect). See Jackson 1986:206. Cf. PWMc*ka[a[theta]]mami 'we (exclusively), us'.

PCMC *kamii 'you (pl.)': CHK aami 'y. (pl.)"-chemical, -chemical- 'y. (pl. Object)'; MRT come, -as; PUL rief; CRLaami, -ghami; CRN come, -gemi; STW als; WOL gami, -gami; PUA came,-was; PCK *came, -was; FRU kemiy; KIR ([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-was 'and. (pl.)', -was 'and. (pl. obj.)'. Vgl. auch PMC*[kam.sup.w]u 'city (pl.)'.

PMC *[kam.sup.w]u 'two (p1.)': PON [com.sup.w].[com.sup.w]i 'y. (worthwhile)'; MRS[kw][emw]; KIR[Language.sup.w]; KSR Kim; PEO *kam[i[theta]u (Geraghty 1983) (BUG gamu'y.'). Vgl. POC *kam[i0]u (FIJ kemu-(dou), kemu-(eyes); SAA 'mu,LAU einige; BUG einige; LAK einige-(dig)). Vgl. PON [kum.sup.w]a 'y.(dual)', [kam.sup.w]a-(il) 'y. (Pl.)'; MOK kim"'a'y. (dual)', [kam.sup.w] ai 'you (pl.)'. See also PCMc*kamii 'you (pl.)'

PMC *kana 'crazy', *kani 'to eat (s.t.)': CHKana-(n) 'his cooked f. (food)'; PUL black-(n); CRL - Path - ( l ); CRMother-(n); WOL gala-, gan-(we); Its FLOWER-; PCK * be; Its PON- 'possibly. cl. for f.'; MOK this-(a), enter-(n) 'hans f., f. af'; Mr. and Mrs. (s.t.)', #with 'f.'; KIR this-(i) 'hisf.'; Stop. (s.t.)', can-a (<*kani-a) 'e. eat'; POC *not but (PPN *although 'e.'; FIJ not 'e.'; BUG gani'e.'; LAU and 'e.'; KWA 'and-[a] 'e.[s.t. ]'; PKB *qani 'e.', [il]-ali 'f.'). Cf. SAA'a-(na) 'for him at e.'; BUG ga-(gna) be f. food'; UAN*ka, to eat). Cf. PMC * sounds 'to eat (s.t.)', PMC *kai, 'to offer'.

PCMC *kana, kai 'habit, tendency': CHK kan, kayi 'be used to, be used to, be of the same bunch, happen with'; PUL kan, kay 'general, ordinary, for the time being'; CRL ghal and CRN gan normally, regularly, usually'; STW can 'usually'; WOL galega 'usually, usually, only'; PUA kae 'often, usually', kana 'just to be'; PCK *kana, Kai; MRS ken, kkeyin'used to (former habit)', kkay 'repeatedly, habitually, tend to', kkeyiniy 'frequently, keep in touch with (distributive inform)'; KIR kan 'almost, almost, soon', kan, kani 'become, wish', kai 'easily, without difficulty, soon, easily'. There are problems here.

PMC *syd 'a tree (Cordia subcordata)': CHK anaw; PULyaanaw; PCK *[k[empty set]]; ok right. sp.'; MRS kenew;KIR(te)-kanawa 'a t.'; PMP *left 'Cordia spp.' (Blust1984-85). See KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] is[epsilon] 'banyantree'. Compare L: CHK not.


PMC *kapa 'bundle of s.t.': WOL gaape, gepa-(li) 'a kind of woven cloth which has only two stripes and is not well woven'; PON kapakap 'bundle, sheaf'; k[epsilon]p[epsilon]-(n) 'b.of', k[epsilon]p[epsilon] 'carry a b.', -kap' classifier for b. or cut in count'; MRS kap 'roll or bolt of cloth'; KSR kaep 'b., sheaf, bassoon'.

PMC *Cap 'bottom, back end': CHK epi-, -cap-; MRI yes, api- 'b.'; PUL yaap, yapi-; CRL yes, api- "buttocks, hips, keel b. of a canoe”; STW yaap, yapi- 'b., buttocks'; WOL gapi,gapi- 'keel or b. (of canoe), hip (of person)'; PUA cap, cap-'end, hip, buttocks'; PCK *Coffee; PON cap; MOK cap, cap; PNGcape- 'b., end, south'; MRS cap; KIR (not) dare; KSR cap-(n)'b. from, end of' See also PCK *optional 'elbow, heel'.

PCMC *kapi-sa, kapi-si 'oil for skin or hair, ointment': CHK epi-t, epi-ta-(n) 'hair etc., his/her h. o.', epi-ti 'a.him/ them with o. or perfume', kkepi-t 'anointed, be perfumed', MRT api-te 'to oil, a.'; PUL yapi-ta- 'hair o.', yapi-ti-(y) 'a. him her'; CRL api-ti 'a. (s.o.)', kkapi-t 'to be anointed', akkapi-t 'o. to anoint the body or the hair”; WOL gapigepi 'coconut etc. for anointing', gapi-ta-(le) 'his/her anointing etc.', gapi-ti 'o. the body, a.',gapi-ti-(i) 'put lubricant on it, a. The'; PCK *kapi, kapi-da.kapi-di; PON key 'to a., apply lotion to skin', key[epsilon]'to a. (so.)'; MRS #pitpit, kkapi-t 'to rub with oil as medical treatment, massage', kapi-t 'to rub (s.o.) with o.', kapi-te- 'oil' (with suffix possession); KIR kabi-ra'anointing o. to a. (see above)', kabi-ri-a 'a. him/her'.irreg. Loss of [sS] in PON. Cf. Fu kabi, kabi-ta 'to cling to'.

PCMC *[kap.sup.w]u, [kakap.sup.w]u 'kedelig': CHK[kkop.sup.w], [kkop.sup.w]u-; PUL [kopw]; CRL [kkohw]; CRN[kkohw]; WOL kkabu? PCK*[kapw]u, [kkapw]u; MRS [kkeb.sup.w];KIR [kah.sup.w][ub.sup.w]u.

PMC *kara, kakara, 'burnt': CHK kkar 'b. be, burnt', (a)-kkar 'sun' (lit. 'scorch'), (a)kkara 'cause it to be b'; PUL kkar; blacklist kkar; WOL kkare; PUAkkala; PCK *kara; PEO *kaRa-t 'burn (s.t.)' (Geraghty 1990); UAN*ga(rR)a[UNKEYBOARD ENABLED SYMBOL].

PMC *kara, kara-si, kara-sa 'to scrape': MRS kar's.', karkar 'to cut copra meat from the shell', kera-t 'cut (it) out'; KIR kaa-ra 's., cut with drawknife, grave or groove (s.t.)', kaa-ri-(a) 's. The'; KSR ?karw[epsilon]r[epsilon] 'p., sharpen, scrape', kare-t 'p., sharpen, scrape (s.t.)'; POC *kara-si 'to peel (a sweet potato)' (Ross 1988) (SAA kara, kara-si, 'ara-si 'two p.'; KWA 'ala'ala 'rough, scratchy' 'ala-si- en 'tos., to scratch'; PKB *ka[rz]a 'sharp, penetrating'). See UAN*karkar. Cf. also PMC *rau, ka-rau, ka-rau-si 'to scrape', PMC *kari 'to scrape', PMC *karu 'to scrape, tear'.

PMC *karakara 'tern': CHK araar 'white t.'; PUL yaraar 'a king or sooty t.'; CRL araar 'small black bird'; WOL garegare 'grey-backed t.'; PCK *karakara; KIR(te)-kaakaa 'a bird'; PEO *kaRa 'parrot' (Geraghty 1990). Cf. MRS keyyar 'crested t.'; FIJ kara 'scold, cry (from a parrot), bark (from a dog)'; SAA 'a 'a 'big green parrot'.

PCMC *karani 'nahe, nah': PON k[epsilon]r[epsilon]n'n., c.', karani-i 'beg n. or c. to'; MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n; KIR other 'n., ca. to', kaani-a'to near (s.o. or s.t.)' Vgl. CHK kkan 'be n., c.'(?<*can <*eat); MRS karwahan 'be waiting, begging'; ROOT'ele, 'ele-a 'long nah, long nah bei'.

PCMC *karau 'heron': CHK ere, eree-(n) 'h., h.of'; WOL joy; PCK? *Collar; KIR (cave) food.

PMC *kari 'to scratch': CHK erikeri's. it',(fa)-ariker's. light on a person's leg (as a signal)',([p.sup.w]eyi)-ker 'grater of coconut'; MRI aiker 'scratched', aikare's. (s.t.)'; PUL yariker, keriker's.', keri-(y) 's. The'; CRL gherigher, gheregher 'tos.', gheri 's or grate (s.t.)'; STW Kerich; WOL gerigeri'sā, rub'; PUA sound; PCK*karikari; PON keri-([p.sup.w]ud)'s. (like when it itches)', kari([p.sup.w]ude) 'to scratch (anitch)'; MOK kari-([p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d) 'two s.',kari-([p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 's.(s.t.)' ; WOMAN? kar 's., to scrape' (but see PMC *kara,kara-si,kara-sa 'to scrape' and PMC *karu 'to scrape, tear'); POC *karis (Ross 1988) 's.' (FIJ kari 'to scrape, especially coconut'; BUG kari 'to scrape, of coconut; a rasp'); UAN*garis. Cf. PKB *kasi 'to scrape, scratch'; KWA coli 'toscratch'. Cf. also PMc *rau, ka-rau, ka-rau-si 'to scrape', PMC *kara, kara-si, kara-sa 'to scrape', PMC *karu 'to scrape, rub', PWMC *nani 'to, against'.

PCMC *kari 'tired, exhausted': CHK er, kker 'to be tired, s.t. to do', (kka)-ar 'race', (kka)-ari-(nwaa-fetun) 'paddle canoe race'; CRL can very t. to be, e.g. (as from carrying a heavy burden)', kkar, kker 'give up, surrender (as if tired from arguing), get tired, frustrated'; CRN gar 'be t., e.(as from carrying a heavy burden)'; WOL gari 'to be fed up'; PCK*kari; KIR kai 'to be in trouble, in trouble, to be in trouble'. Cf. KWA (kwaikwai)- 'ali-i' to race, to compete with (kwai 'one another'), 'ali-a' 'to be best in competition, to excel'.

PMC *karu 'to 'to rub': CHK (a)-aru-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i) 'to gnash one's teeth'; PUL yaru-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iy) 'to click with one's teeth', keruker 'g. or s. (coconut or breadfruit), to shave', keru-(u-w) 'g., s., to shave (s.t.)'; CRL ghurn, gheru 'scrapeto s. or g. (s.t),' ghurughur'to s. or g.'; WOL geru-(u) 'grind, shave, crush', geru-geru 'grind, grind, shave, crush'; PUA kalukalu 'coconut grater'; PCK*karu; PEO *karu (SAA karu, karukeru 'to scratch with the nails'); UAN *garus 'scratch'. Cf. KIR keru 'to make a grinding noise', (kama)-kerukeru 'to gnash one's teeth' (probably on loan from a PN source). See also CRB (aha)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uru 'to gnash one's teeth (s.t.)'. Cf. also PMc *rau,ka-rau, ka-rau-si 'to scrape', PMc *kara, kara-si, kara-sa 'to scrape', PMc *kari 'to scrape'.

PMC *karuki 'white sand crab or ghost crab': MRT(li)-kkeruk; PUL yarik, yarike-(n) 'a kind of small edible c.'; CRLeigh, large and similar to CRN; WOL garipi 'strand c. (partially reported by Bender et al. 1984); SNS is 'some kind of c.'; PCK *distance; MRS [ characters. great w ] ; KIR dry; KSR Group; PEO* at Ruiki. C. (Geraghty 1990); PAN *kaRuki (Blust 1983-84:64). Cf. CHK ni-kke 'w. S.c.'.

PMC *case 'a fish': CHK etic, etic-(n)'lethrinid f. (good to eat), f. of'; CRL atigh' sp. from edible F. found outside the reef'; PCK *[empty set; PON Cadec 'f.sp.'; MOK Kadett 'f. sp., a kind of emperor f.'; MRS catech 'Wrasse (Insidious Epibulus)'; KSR so [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] it's friendly.'. Cf. CHK versus "a fish (Epibulus initiator)".

PMC *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa 'spit, spit': CHK ottif,otiffa-(n) 'spit, spit, spit, spit, be s.' (var.:ottuf, attof, ottof), ottifa, attofa, attufa 'to spit on', ottife-(yiti), ottofe-(yiti) 'to spit on him/her'; PUL yottuf'spit, sputum', ottufe 'to spit', ottufe-(yiti-y) 'to spit on'; CRL ottuf 'spit, spit'; PCK*Caddy; PON candip 'to spit'; MOK andip 'to spit'; PPC* candidate; POc *kasip + a (FIJ kasivi 'to spit', kasivi-ta 'spit on or on'; KWA 'asi 'to spit on, squirt'). Cf. ULA asihe 'to sneeze'; ARO 'sneeze'.

PMC *ka[sS]o 'rafter': Mar oot 'post or beam used to build a house'; Set your "vertical house rafters"; STWyoot 'Sloping Rafter'; WOL-port, port- 'a thatched roof of a house'; PCK *Gift; MOK kad-(dal) 'rafters' (borrowed from MRS?); MRS kat-(number) 'horizontal rafter'; POc * case (Ross 1988) (PPN * case; FIJ[i]-case 'outrigger boom'; SAA 'ato; BUG gaho; KWA'ato; LAK aro); UAN *language

PMC *cut 'talk loud': CHK cascades 't.loud'; MRI speaks "loud talk"; CRL kkas kkasa-(l) 'language, language, his language'; WOL kkase 'foreign language, to speak a foreign language'; PCK *Cover; PON ost (sic) 'to speak angrily, boast'; MRS kaj, kkajkaj 'idiom, language, motto, pun, proverb, slang'; KIR kaka-(rabakau) 'to conspire, plan insurrection' (shows *t to k after *k); KSR kaes 'word, speech, speech, chirp, chirp', kaeskaes 'to talk, chirp repeatedly; PEO*kata (PPN *kata 'to laugh'). Cf. PUA kada-(mmani) 'be funny, entertaining' (mmani 'to laugh'); MOK kojoi 'a story'; FIJkara 'scolds, blames, rebukes'; LAK (vi)-kara 'to speak, language'; PAN *kaRi "speech, language" and PAN *keraq "monkey chatter" (Blust 1970:129). See also BUG Home'to Prague'. YAP gas "speaks a foreign language" appears to be a borrowing from a Chuukie source.

PWMC *katama 'Türöffnung, Eingang, Tor': CHK sour; MRTasam; PUL Yaham; sour CRL, ahamic CRN; sour STW; PUA kadama getame wool; PCK*katama; FRU is cruel.

PMC *katea 'lee side of a sailing canoe': CHK asa; Pulyaha 'I.s. of a s.c.', yaha, direct yakkaha before he wins'; STW akkasa 'canoe rudder, oar'; WOL getaa; PCK *katea or *katae; PON kasaa 'his side (of the canoe) opposite the outrigger'; MRSKejah, kejaha-(n); KIR (tea)-katea; PEO *katea (PPN *katea). See CRL. asa'a travel by canoe, sail a canoe or travel by canoe' (interpreted as causative constructed fixed saying). Note that the KIR form can be borrowed from a PN source as well as inherited directly from PMC. KSR(fa)-kata "to turn a ship into port" is an obvious borrowing.

PMC *kautuu 'mast (of a canoe)': see PMC *kautuu

PWMC *katuu, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri 'to call, to call':CHK kke kkee-(wu), kekke 'c., cry, scream', kkee-ri 'c. calling out'; PUL kekke 'two c., crow'; CRL. ghekke kkekke and CRNgekke 'to crow (of the rooster)'; WOL kkee, kkekkee 'crow (like a rooster)'; PUA kkaa 'greet, greet'; PCK*kkau; PONk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-r 'two C. (as in so. give a bad name), tobadmouth'; MOK kee-re 'to bow, greet (see above)', kee-reek 'to bow, greet'; FRU kki-r 'c., crow, invitation, summons'. Compare PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r'to c. to summon. See also BUG kuakuala 'to cry out, c.'. There are problems with the MRS vocals.

PMC *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta 'fish hook, catch with hook': CHK ee. ee- 'f.', ee-yi 'to hook'; PUL kee yee'f.' yee-yd-(d-tiw) 'hook it down (when picking breadfruit)'; CRL Ghee; CRN returns; STW-kee; WOL gee, gee- 'f.', gee-si-(i) 'to hook on', gee-tagi 'to be hooked'; PUA kaad,kau-; SNS chewing; PCK *kau, kau-kau-ti; PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s,k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'f., hook it';MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s; MRS kaya-j, kay-ji-'f'., kaw-jek 'caught on a hook'; KIR(ua)-kai 'two t'; KSR ka'f.', ka-i 'catch with a hook'; PEO *kawi~t (BUG kau'be caught, hung, tangled'; ARO 'awi 'a hook'); UAN *kawit. See PAN *kawiN or *kawil (Wolff 1993). See also PCK? *kauta's same-sex brother-in-law, last relative'.

PCMC *ka-uae 'whistle': See PCMC *uae ka-uae 'whistle (of people)'.

PCMC *ka-uae 'a pelagic fish': CHK from 'sp. oftuna (skipjack)'; CRL from 'sp. of edible f. found outside the reef'; PCK*[k[theta] powder; KIR (te)-kairaa 'a f.

PMC k[ao]ut[ae] 'cover, covering': CHK kuus,kuusa-(n)'c. or covering of woven material, sheet, b., fro c.'; PULwoowuh.woowuha-(n) (sic) (?*wowuh) 'b., leaf, woven cloth used as a covering'; CRL ous 'cover, b.', ouse-(y) 'to cover(s.o.)'; crn ouh 'cover, b.'; WOL gose 'lava lava covering a dead person covers'; PCK *kout[ae]; MRS kawaj, kawje-'b., f. of (possibly classified)', kawajwej 'use a b.'; KSRkaeot 'c., b., leaf'. Note that KIR(te)-kaui 'little matworm over the shoulders' seems to be borrowed from English fur.

PMC? *cause 'øst': CHK eetiw 'e.', eetiw(afen) 'northøst'; PUL yeast, yeast-(mouth); WOL one, one-(afa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i), PUA hard (sic); PCK ?*ca[u[the]d[ed]; MRS kawtew 'north east pass'; KSRk[KEYBOARD SYMBOL]t[UNKEYTAKE SYMBOL](l[UNKEYSTATE SYMBOL]s).

PMC *kautu or *katuu 'mast (of a canoe)': CHK ewu,ewuu-; MRI aWu; PUL yaawu (sic), yaayuw (sic); blacklist ayu; STW yau'; WOLgausu; PUA cauda; PCK *kautu; PON Keew; MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w, MRSkaiv. Kiiv; KIR kautu 'upper part of a tree, a chief of high rank'; KSR [k.sup.w] esu. MRS and KSR reflect the second reconstruction; Note that the KSR program may be a loan as the KSR lacked a local sailing tradition.

PMC *kawa-, kawakawa 'in fish': MRT awaaw 'a reef.'; WOL gawegawe 'a fish (Chlorurus pulchellus)'; PCK*coffee; PON Crocodile 'Delphin' f. (Coryphoena hippurus)” (on loan from MRS?); MOK crocodile 'delfin f.' (on loan from MRS?); MRS kewkew'dolphin f. (Coryphoena hippurus)”; KIR (te)-kawa-(riki) 'af.'; KSR kw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]we-(n lot) 'dolphin';PEO*kawakawa(PPN *kawakawa 'a sp. of f.'). See PUL be 'snapperf. See also PMP *see? 'Milkfish' (bloom 1984-85).

PCMC *ka[w[theta]o 'newborn, infant': CHK (ni)-kko 'little girl', (wu,kko 'little boy', koko 'baby (up to three months)'; PUL (li )- hane, (wu)-rooster; CRL ghoogho; CRN googo; WOL(li)-rooster, rooster; PCK *-rooster, rooster; MRS kaw 'foetus, embryo, stillborn baby'; KIR (te)-kao 'umbilical cord '

PWMC? *kaye 'hurry up, move fast': CHK kkay, kakkay 'be quick, be quick, h.', kkaye-(no), kkdyi-(no) 'h.away', kkaye-(to), kkayi - (to) h. in addition'; PUL kkay 'to fasten', kkayi-(at) 'come q.'; CRL kkay and CRN kkay 'quick, quick, quick, quick'; WOL kkeye 'travel far, fly (by the power of an agent)'; PCK *kkaye; PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y-(do) 'move towards speaker', kay-(do) 'move (s.t.) against speaker'; MRS kay 'turn, shift, change (like wind)'. Possible problems here.

PMC *kayi 'we (excl.,subj.marker)': CHK ayi-; PUL yes? CRL yes? STW yes? WOL gay? PUA kai? PCK *kayi? PEO *kai (FIJ kai- 'we[excl.] [Geraghty 1983]. See PCK *kawu 'you (pl., subj. marker)').

PMC *this 'clan, people, tribe, tribe': CHK this,this-(n) 'matrilineal C. or siblings, C. of'; MRI surrogate(s); PULYayinan; CRL Island; CRN ainane; STW space (n); WOL gailane 'clan, tribe, tribal division'; PUA means "Family, Country, House, Village, Estate"; PCK *mother; PEO *mother (HAW 'mother; TIK mother).Cf. PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yn[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'kinship, extended family, clan'. Note that KIR means "ancestral residence" and is a loan from SAM, just as KIR means "resident, inhabitant, citizen".

PMC *kayu 'wood, stake': CHK eyi-(ni-wow) 'pile bearing', ewu-([cham.sup.w]) 'crossbeam of a house'; PULyee-([Ram.sup.w]), yee-yi-[Ram.sup.w] 'house beam'; CRL ghayi-, ghaya- 'penis' (male language); WOL gaai, gai- 'penis', geu-([sham.sup.w]) 'connecting beam of a house'; PUA kaai, kai-'penis'; PCK *kai, kayu-; MRS kaya-n, keyi-n 'tree, trunk, torso'; KIR (te)-kai-(ni-) (in cps.) 'staff for','(te)-kai-(na) 'pandanus tree' (the historically important food tree); PEO kayu 'wood' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ kacu'wood' [Geraghty 1983]; SAA 'ai 'a tree'; BUG gai 'wood, spear shaft'; ARO 'ai 'wood'; KWA 'ai 'wood', branch, stick'; PKB *qai 'tree'); UAN *kahiw(Dyen), *kayu (Dempwolff). Cf. YAP gaak'iy 'wood, tree, shrub, plant'.

PMC *keli, keli-ni- 'dig': CHK ssin 'dig up root vegetables', sin-ni, sini-ni 'dig up it (of root vegetables)'; PUL goat, goat-of-(y); CRL kkel to dig a hole with a digging tool', kkel-ni 'dig (a hole) with a tool', gheli-ni 'to dig up (s.t.)'; STW kkel 'dig'; WOL do, do-with-(i); PUA two-two,PCK *two, two-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; KIR keniken 'you','KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'dig, turnup', kil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'you(s.t.)'; POC *dig (PPN *dig, FIJ dig, dig-a, dig-ca; SAA 'dig', 'dig'; PWM *dig). Cf. LAK-oil, oil-a 'dig with the shovel'.

PMC *ki, kiki 'to move, to be moved': CHK ki, kii- 'lifted, moved', kkik 'm., change place'; PUL kiki-(tiw)(sic), "slip and fall"; WOL kki 'to happen, to occur, to appear, to come', kki-(togo) 'to come (to speak)'; PCK *kki, kikki; KIR ki(sic) 'go', ki-(wati) 'stand away, give in', ki-(mai) 'come here'; KSR ki'm.'.

PCMC *kiakia 'white or fairy tern': CHK esiyes, ekiyek (shows metathesis); PUL-kiyekiy; CRL written; CRN-giyegi; WOL giyegiye;PUA kiekie 'butterfly'; PCK *kiakia; Kir kia 'a bird'.

PMC *kiaZo 'Auslegerausleger': CHK kiyo, kiyoo-; MRT siye;PUL kiyo; CRL ghiyo, ghityo, kkiyo; STW Kiyo; Wol giyoo; PUA Kiao; PCK *kiao;PON kiay 'stiverstøttende støtteben'; MOK kia 'stivere på stødteben'; pno kia; FRAU kiyey; KIR(te)-kiaro; KSR ki[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]es; POC *kiajo, kiado (Ross 1988) (PPN *kiato). Jf. UAN *katiR. Zur Diskussion von POC *j (der *z) siehe Goodenough (1992, Fn. 8). See also Ross (1988: 79, 344).

PMC *kica 'we (including), us': CHK kiich, -kich; MRTkish, -kish; PULkiiR, -kiR; CRL creepy; CRN-giiR; STW kiR, -kiR; WOLgiishe, -gishe; PUA case; PCK *kica; PON kit, kit; MOC case; PNG box, KIR(na)-ira; PEO *kida (PPN *kida; FIJ keda). Note that MRS-bur and KSRk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t, kite-(l) specify a PMC duplicate type *; PEO *parent (Geraghty 1983) (SAA type; ULA type; BUG type); POC*type (Ross 1988); UAN *you. Pohnpeische reflexes stand for "we (exclusive)"

PMC *kie, kiekie 'fletmatte': CHK kiyeki, kiye-, kiya- 'flettet pandanusmätte, m. af'; mrt kiyeke (sic); PUL kiyeki, kiye-; CRL ghiye-; CRN Giya-; STW kiyeki; wol-giyegiye; PUA kiia, kia-; PCK*kiye; PON ki [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] - 'ting at sove på'; MOK kio, kie-(n) 'hans m., m. af'; FR? kiyi- 'Side of et hus, wall'; KIR(te)-kie; KSR ki[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-, kia-ka; PEG *kiRe (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *kiekie 'pandanus'; SAA ile 'Pandanusodoratissimus'; ARO kire 'pandanus'; KWA 'ile'pandanus sort'). Jf. SAA 'i'e-li 'topplait'.

PMC *[kiep.sup.w]u 'spider lily': CHK [siip.sup.w],[#sip.sup.w][p.sup.w]e-(n), [kiyop.sup. w], [kiyop.sup.w]u-(n) 'variety of s.l., s.l. from'; MRI [kiyopw]; PUL [kiyop.sup.w], [kiyop.sup.w]u-(n) 'a broad-leaved s.l.'; CRL [ghiyobw]; CRN[giyobw]; STW [kiyop.sup.w]u; WOL giyedu 'a land plant (Crinum sp.)', giyobu 'broad-leaved s.l., white 1.'; PUA[kiyop.sup.w]us. l'; PCK *[kiepw]u; PON ki[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][p.sup.w] 'l.sp.'; MRS [kiyeb.sup.w] 'a plant (Crinumasiaticum)'; KIR (te)-[kidb.sup.w] 'a l.'; KSRkiy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f's. l' Note that CHK [kiyop.sup.w] is an apparent borrowing from MRT or PUL.

PMC? *kiiV,kiV- 'hazel': PON kii 'shell & from the carapace of the giant clam'; PEO *kiRa (Geraghty 1990) (SAA'ile 'stone axe'; BUG kiekile 'tomahawk mounted on a long handle for battle, axe, a.'; LAU kila 'stone axe'; ARO'ira 'stone ax or a' ; KWA 'ila 'flint, flint tool'; PKB *qila 'a.'). Cf. CHK kii- 'pertaining to shellfish or other marine life'.

PMC *kila, kila-a, kila-I 'know': CHK sinus ' (to do s.t.), be knowledgeable', sinus-e-(fichi-i-y)'k. itwelle', sine-e-(y)'k. he/she/it (a person, idea, intention)', sine-e-(ya-n) 'his knowledge (based on verbal explanation)'; MRTkule-e-(y) 'k. Him'; PUL kule-e-(y) 'find it, k. it, understand it'; CRL ghule 'to k., learn', glue-e-(y) 'tok. (s.o. or s.t.), be familiar with (s.o.), (a)-ghule-e-(y) 'taught (s.o.) k. s.t.', (yake)-kkule-e-(y) 'teach (see above)' ; CRNgule 'to k., learn', gule-e-(y) 'to k. (see above or s.t.), knowledge of (see above)'; STW kule-e-(y) 'k. Him'; WOL gile 'to be clear, clearly seen, recognized'; PCK *kila, kila-i; kula, kula-a, kula-i; PON kila-(n) 'to see, distinguish, contemplate, observe, examine'; MRS kiley "recognize, discern, distinguish, be familiar with, identify, notice, perceive"; KIR kina-a 'know, k.', kina-i-(a)'r. Him'; KSR (a)-kile.(n) 'remark' (tr.),(se-a)-kile-(n) 'unable to recognize'; PEO *kila (FU kila, kila-a 'know, understand'); PAN *kilat, kulat "open your eyes wide" (Blust 1989:145). See PAN *keNa "recognize at a glance, understand" (Wolff 1993). See also PMC *kilala 'sign, symbol'.

PMC *kilala 'sign, symbol': CHK sol, sissun 'known as fact', (e)-sissin, (e)-sissinna-(n) 'S., symbol, S. of it',(e)-sinna , (e)-sissinna 'means it, symbolizes it, guesses it (from Ariddle)', PUL kikkill 'to mark with a taboo'; WOL ginne'mark, visible symbol', (ga)-ginne 'omen'; PCK *killa;PON kil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l's., mark, picture',kil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to photograph';MOK kilel 'picture, photograph', kilele 'to take a picture of', kilele - e-(di) "signs of mutual abuse"; MSR(ka)-kelley 'p., symbol'; POC *kilala (SAA ilala 'to take anaugury'; LAU inala 'distinguish by casting loose'; BUG githatha 'to know, to be aware'; ARO 'irara 'to know, understand, perceive, divination'; LAK ilila 'time or date of a event"). Cf. also CRL gligighil and CRN giligil "are marked for later use or recognition". Cf. also PMC *kila, kila-a, kila-i 'to know'.

PMC *kima 'Tridachna shell': CHK siim #siime(n),#simme-(n) 'medium-sized t. shell, t. peel off'; PUL hiim,hima-(n); CRL siim (allegedly on loan from CHK); WOL. suume, suma-(li); MOK kim'c. sp.'; KIR-kiima, (te)-kima; PEO *kima (SAA 'ima'bear paw c.'); UAN *kima. It seems that the CHK, MOK and KIR forms are inherited reflexes from UAN, while the PUL, CRL and WOL forms are loans from CHK. Cf. YAP' kiim 'giant c.'; PAL kim 'Kind of the big c.'. Cf. also MRS kkim 'close tightly (like ac.)', kimi-j 'close tightly'.

PMC *kina, kina-ta 'cut, wound, wound, scar': CHK kinas'a c., ca. w., sei c. or wounded', (e)-kinasa 'c. or w.him'; PUL kinah 'open wound, w., scar, ca. or wounded'; CRLghilas 'aw., c.'; CRN ginah 'aw., c.'; WOL look 'hurt, be hurt'; PCK*kilata; MRS kine-j 'w., scar', kinej-nej 'to be injured, disfigured'; KIR kina 'chopped, damaged, disfigured', kinaka 'disease of the skin, be affected by this disease' (*t > k after k); KSR type 'w., c., ar'.

PWMC *kinia 'coarse mat': CHK sini, kini (only in cps.) 'made of coconut leaf mats', kini, kiniye-(n), #kinii-(n) 'type m. (made of coconut leaves with middle edges bottom center of them., m. of, must consist of such a mat'; PUL kinjy, kiniya-(n) 'coarse mat of coconut leaves, i. of'; CRL ghili and CRN gini 'of the type woven coconut leaf m.'; WOL giliye 'outdoors m., coconut leaves used as outdoors m.'; PUA kinie- 'possible classification for mats'; PCK *kinia; MRS kiniye- 'possible classification formats'.

PMC *China. kini-ti, kini-ta 'pick, pinch off': CHK kin 'cut off, separated, segmented, picked (of fruit)', kinikin 'division, division, section', kini-i-(y) 'cut it off, share it,'; PUL kinikin 'part, section, division', kini-(y) 'divide it, cut it, break it into pieces, break it off'; CRL ghill'to pp. fruit from a tree', ghili 'to harvest or pluck (fruit or leaves from a tree)'; CRN Gin 'to p.fruit from a tree'; WOLgili 'to p., pluck with hands' giligili 'cut into small pieces, cut, distribute, woman cutter for banana fibers', gili-i-(ye) 'cut, cut, distribute'; PUA kini 'to p.up (fruit)', kini-(e) 'occasion-marked portion of a house', kini-di 's. it on'; PCK *kini, kini-ti; PONkinikin 'to pinch' kini-(i) 'to pinch (s.t.)'; MOK kin,kinkin 'to pinch with one's nails, cut grass, pluck feathers, pick flowers', kini 'to pinch' etc. (s.t.)'; MRS kin-ji-(y) 'pinch with fingernails'; KIR kini-ka, kinikini-ka 'to sip(s.t.)' (*t > k to k); KSR kin 'p., to pinch', kini-s'p. or press (s.t.)'; POC *kinit (FIJ kini, kini-ta 'pinch with the nails'; SAM 'ini 'pinch, squeeze'; SAA 'ini 'pinch, pluck'; LAU ini 'pinch'; KWA 'ini 'pinch, squeeze' ; PKB *qini 'to s. leaves, weed'); PAN*kinite (Blust 1986:51). See POc *kinit 'pinch' (Blust 1978:59).

PCMC? *kio, kio-ri 'to burn': CHK ku 'to catch fire, belit (of a fire), glow (of a coal)', kuu-ri 'to burn, scorch', (e)-kuu-w) ' kindle it ( a fire), make it glow'; MRT(a)-ku 'kindle fire'; PUL ku "burn but not flame", CRL ghu and CRN gu "kindle, smolder, burn"; WOL guu'burn, glow', (ga)-guu-(vi) 'to set on fire';ULI ? gus 'burn' (Bender et al. 1984); PUA kuu 'burn';PCK ? *ku[t[theta]]u, ku[t[theta]]u-ri; KIR kio-i 'burn furiously with leaping flames'. The s of the ULI form is unexpected.

PMC *kiss 'small, small': PuL little; CRL ghit, ghikkit, ghitighit; CRN fool, fool; WOL sight, sight, sight's.,I.', - sight's. piece (count classifier)'; PCK *child; PONkisi- 'little piece, fragment'; MOK kij ​​​​​​​​'bit, piece'; KIRkirikiri 'fine gravel'; KSR kiti-(n) 'a little, a few, some'; PEO *kihi (TON kihi 'crippled, midget'). See also PPC*-key[st][ai] 'little bit'

PMc *kiSa 'strong': CHK kit, kitekit 's., firm, steady', (e)-kita 'strive for (s.t)', (e)-kitekit 'persevere, be eager'; MRI Kitakit; PCK *Kida, Kidakida; MRS kket's 'large capacity'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's., healthy, good, strength, vigorous'. Cf. SAA 'it' to fault, to reject.

PMC *kita 'we (including), us': Sec PMC *kica 'we (including), us'.

PMc *ko-, koe 'you (sg. subj. mark)': CHK ke-, ke-, ko-, ka-, ka- ko- and ko, wo (honorary vocative); MRI o-; PUL. wo- and ko,wo (voc. hon.); CRL gho- (archaic), u-; WOL go- and go (phrase); PUAko and cow(s) (polite); PCK ko-, cow; PON K[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and koo,kow[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (independent Prn.); MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (independent prn.); MRS[k.sup.w]e- and [k.sup.w]ey (independent Prn.); KIR ko' and [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-koe (voc. and independent prn.); PEO *cow, cow (PPN*cow; BUG -go 'thee'; PWM *cow), UAN *kaw.

PCMC *koca 'coconut fiber': CHK kochokoch 'short hair on the forehead (especially on women)', (more-ni)-koch 'thread of any kind used on a loom'; PUL wooR, kooR, koRo-(y)'c. f. prepared for abseiling, cf. f. from'; CRL giwosh 'f. from ca. shells used to make rope', ghoshusch 'tough pulp developing in old yams and sweet potatoes'; CRN ooR, gooR 'f. from shells used to make rope'; WOL goosho, gosho- "used dry etc. for making rope"; PCK *Coconut; PON koot 'hibiscus f.'; MOKk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s, k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]si-(n) 'a weaving, f.'; MRS[kw]ed 'coconut shell, fiber'; KIR (te)-kora'c. f. rope', kora-n 'thread or f. a c. Shell'. Cf. PMc*koco 'to cut', PMc *kota 'to cut, to break', PMC? *koo,koo-na 'tentacle, hair or fiber'.

PMc *koca, oca 'eat raw food': CHK wochooch,woche-e-(y), wocha-a-(n)) 'eat (of fish, meat or raw food), eat it, his food'; MRI woshe-e-(y), wosha-a-(n); PUL woRaaR, woRe-e-(y), woRa-a-(n); CRL ushoosh, ushe-e-(y); CRN uRooR, ure-e-(y); STW oRa-(n) (sic); WOL goshwshe (< *goshaosha), gosha-(a-le); PUA kosa-; PCK *koca MOKwasaus, w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; KIR oraora,ora-(ia); KSR osraesr, osre; PEO *koda, qoda (FIJ-koda, PPN *qota); HAN*qo(n)ta. Cf. SAA oko 'eat raw food'. Obviously we have duplicates in both PMc and PEO reflecting both PEO beginning *k and beginning *q. See discussion by Geraghty (1983:161).

PMC *[koco.sub.r] 'to cut': CHK week-e-(y) 'c. cut off (the tied coconut spade in making toddy', week-(ni) 'noteh it, c. nothes in it'; PUL woRo-(n), woRe-(e-y) 'sliceoff (the end of a coconut spade) two C .Toddy)'; CRL ghosh 'to c. Coconut spathe in making toddy', ghoshe-e-(y) 'to c. (asparthe)'; CRN or 'to c, a coconut spathe in toddy'; WOLgoshe 'to c. a toddy tap', goshe-(e-ye) 'c. it (when cutting toddy)'; PUA koso 'to cut thin', koso-di 'to cut thin'; SNS koso-fi "cut it thin"; PCK *Coconut; PON kotokot'(honorable) get a haircut, a haircut', kote 'c. a girl's hair just above the bottom, down to c.down',kot[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(k[ UKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p) 'first feast of the yam season'; MoK kokos' c. in st.', koso 'c. into'; Km korokoro 'to cut', kore-a '', koro- (atuu) 'to cut hair' (atuu 'head'); KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'sharp-edged, sharp', k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sri 'tocircumcize (see above); POC *konso, koso (FIJ koso, koso-va 'two c. with bivalve shell'; LAK korokoro, koro-a 'two c.'). Compare PEO *koti(PPN *koti, kokoti 'c., cut'; ARO 'oi 'c. off tops oftaro for planting'). See also PCMC *koea 'coconut fiber', PMc*kota 'cut, break'.

PMc *[koco.sub.2] 'slow growing, long lasting': CHK woch 'well preserved, long lasting, long lasting', week-(n) 'shelf life of'; WOL gosho "endure, be resilient, last a long time"; PCK*coconut; PON kot 'in good condition, young appearance, slow maturation, stuck'; KIR koro-(ubu) 'immature'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]srk[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]sr 'prevent, block, block, hinder', k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]sre 'prevent, block, hinder, block (s.t.)'.

PCMc *kona 'arrive, might': CRL ghola, ghula 'reach, reach and touch (s.t.), arrive (at a place)'; WOLgola-a 'arrive, reach, land, arrive at (the coast)'; PCK*co[ln]a; PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] to catch up (see above), be on time for (an event)'; KIR kona 'can, can', kona-(a) 'can'. See also PMC *kona 'acatch (as a fish), to catch'.

PMC *kona 'a catch (as a fish), catch': PUL kon'to c. fish', kono-(n) 'a c. from'; CRL ghola ghula '(for a disease) take (a person)'; STW kona 'two c.(s.t.)'; WOL gola-(a)'c. The. seize it, catch it, seize it', gola-a-ya- 'thing caught by (p.a.)'; ULI gola-(a) 'to c.(s.t.)'; PUA koza' to c. and (s.t.) have in his possession'; PCK *wife; MOK kono-(o) 'to be c.', kono-(n)'c. from'; MRS [k.sup.w] ena- "(possibly classifies) a c. (of fish, crab or bird)”; KIR(te)-kona 'a c.' (Bender et al. 1984), KSR kono.(n) 'c. from'; PEO *kona (KWA 'ona' to own, to own title). See also PCMc *kona 'to arrive, to be able'.

PMC? koo, koo-na 'tentacle, hair, or fiber':CHK oo 'tentacle of octopus or squid'; -ye 'thread, hair (count)', ee-n, ee-ne-(n) 'fiber thread in weaving, s. from h., f.t. of', (ni)-keeke' 'person who cannot be separated from the company of his or her spouse' (lit. 'attached'); PULyoon 'tentacle'; CRL. ghoo-(l) 'his tentacle'; WOL geegee 'fasten with straps'; PUA keekee 'association'; PCK *kee,keekee; MRS kew 'tentacle, pp. of rope or thread'; KIR koo 'quickly tied', (ka)-koo-(a) 'to fasten', (te)-ko-na (sic) 'string or twine of coir'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'stripe, line, fiber, string figure. Cf. FIJ koa 'hair on buttocks'. See PCMc *coca coir fiber'.

PCMc *kopekope 'Host und Host': se PCMc *pekopeco.

PMC *koro 'pubic hair': CHK kkor, kkora-(n) 'forearm h., his u.h.'; PUL choir (sic) 's. or forearm.'; CRL Ghure. h.', kkor 'to be particularly hairy in thep. Area'; CRN good; WOL. gooro, goro-; PUA colo; PCK *choir; PEO*coRo (Geraghty 1990). Cf. PCMc *koca 'coconut fiber'.

PMC *koso, koso-mi 'to shuck coconuts': CHK woot,wote-(n) 'coconut husk, digging stick for incultivation', wotoot 'shells, removes vegetation, weeds, gardens', wote-( e-y ) 'h . it, clear it of vegetation'; MRI wotoot, wote-e-(y) 'peel, h. it'; PULwote-(y) 'to shell (a coconut)'; CRL ghoot 'coconut husk stick', ghote-e-(y) 'two h. (one coconut)', ghotoot 'shell'; CRN oto-(maR) 'coconut shells', ote-(y) 'bis h. (a coconut)', otoot 'shell'; STW kotoot,kote-(y) 'peel, h. it'; WOL. goto-([eta]i=i) 'h. it, shine it'; PUA kotokoto 'coconut shells, for H. with a peeling stick'; PCK *kodo, kodokodo; PON kodokod 'to h. with a stick', kodo-(m) 'to h. (of a coconut)'; MOK kod, kokkod, kodo-(m)' peeling stick, h. with peeler, h. it'; KIR(te)-koro 'stick for peeling coconuts'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]tk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t 'to scrub, rub, rub', kote 'to scrub, rub, or (s.t.) rub'; POC kojo-mi 'to h.,pierce' (Ross 1988).

PCMc *koso 'to run aground, to run onto a reef': CHK wot; CRL.ghot, Ghost-(will); got CRN; PCK *Code; Same KIR 'stranded, stranded'. Cf. FIJ speaks of "going to the bottom".

PMC *kota 'cut break': CHK wos, wosoos 'c. to be inhaled', wose-e-(y) 'c. the half'; PUL wohe-e-(y) 'two halved shelled coconuts, wohoh (sic) (?wohooh) 'b. coconut shells in two'; CRL should c. and gather firewood to break a coconut shell in half', wose-e-(y) 'c. and gather (burn), break (a coconut shell) in half'; CRN oh-(y)'c. and gather (burned), break (a coconut shell) in two'; WOL gota-(a) 'break, knock, split', goto-ote 'break, knock, split'; PUA kodokodo 'tob., snap (branches)', kodo-di 'b. or snap (s.t.)'; PCK *kota, kotakota, kota-ti; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]tk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t'two h. apart', kote 'two h. (s.t.)'; POC *kotas UANge[n[theta]]tas. Cf. PMC *koco, "to cut".

PMC *koyi 'clam shell, clam knife or grater': CHKkii-'er.' (on behalf of shellfish); PON koykoy 'to be shaved (of the head), to be scraped on a grater (of coconut)', koo-k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to rub on a grater (s.t.)'; MOK (m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])koykoy 'to have a shaved head', ko 'to grind (like coconuts), to shave', koo-ko 'to grind (coconuts)'; MRS (raan)key'rate coconuts, grater; gear, gear, ratchet"; KIR(te)-koikoi 'two shells used for scraping food', koa 'to scrape (a coconut) with a shell'; KSR koe, koekoe 'scratch, tear, smooth, smooth'; PEO *koRi 'grate' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *koi'sharp'). MRS rounded [kw] expected. Cf. FIJ kai 'shells.'; Saa ole 'scratch with an s, get the skin affyams'. See also POC *kori 'scrape' (Ross 1988:461).

PMC *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti 'bite': CHK kkuk kukkuk 'b., to be used to b.', kku-u-(w) 'b. it', ssis, sissi-'b. s.t. out or in two', ssi-i-(y) 'b. that from'; MRI kuuku'b.', ku-u-(w)'b. The'; PUL kku-u 'to b.'kku-u-wa-(n) 'that b. suffered from', (ya)-kuuku 'cause tob.'; CRL ghu to feed together on the water surface (of fish), eat together of the same dish (op people)', ghu-u-(w) 'to b.(s.t. or s.o.)', kkuughu 'to be in the habit of biting ', ghuughu'b. keep biting'; CRN kku 'two b. (s.t. ors.o.) 'gukku has a habit of biting'; STW kuuku 'tob.', ku-u-(W) 'b. (s.t.)'; WOL kukku 'two b., prick (Asmosquitoes)', guuguu 'b., chew, hold, press', gu-u-(w)'b. or chess it'; PUA kuku, #kutukutu 'two b., stick', ku-du 'b. The'; PCK *kku, kukku, ku-tu, kukku; MRS kik'b'., kki-j 'b.', ki-jiy 'b. (s.t.)'; UAN*gugut 'to nibble'. Cf. FIJ kuu, kuu-ta 'two b.'.

PCMC *hul 'guinea pig': CHK hul, porpoise, #hul-(n)'s., s.'); MRI collection; PUL mountains, cluster (n)'pā, sā of, a constellation'; create CRL; complete the CRN; STW group "S., constellation (Cassiopeia)"; WOL-Sword, Sword-'s., Astar'; PUA cow (right); PCK *good; PON (laid) - 'the guinea pig' (laid 'fish of'); MRS key; KIR (te)-kua 'a whale', (te-[b.sup.w]-uki-ni)-kua 'a constellation' (Bender et al. 1984). Cf. TON ko 'fish species'

PMC *kuku 'fingernegl tånegl, klo': CHK #kku, #wuuk,kku-(n), #wukku-(n) 'f., t., c., his f.'; MRT kkuk, kku-(n); PUL#kkuu, kku-(n); CRL #kku, kku-(l), #ukk, #ukku-(l); STW #kku; WOL #kku,kku-(le); PUA #kku; PCk *#kku, kku-; PON kiik, kiki-(n p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]); MOK kiki-(n); MRS hakkiy, hakkiyi-(n betale); KIR uuki, uki-(na); KSR(t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-ku-(n paeo) 'fingernegl'; POC *kuku'klo, guugugu- 'fingernegl, tånegl'; PKB *kuku'finger'); PAN *kutkut 'finger' (Ross 1988). MRS afrundet[k.w]s erwartet.

PMC *kuli 'skin, bark': CHK siin, siin-; MRI kiil, kiil-; PUL Kiel, Kiel; CRL ghiil, ghili-; CRN gill, gill; STW key; WOLgiili, gili-; PUA kiini, kini-; PCK *Key; PON kill, kill-; kill MOK, kill-; kill MRS; KIR (not) - because, now -; KSR group-(k), bone-(l) 'my skin, his/her.'; POC *kill (Ross 1988) (PPN *kill; FIJ chill; BUG guiguli; PKB*bill); UAN *skin. See also PCK *[m.sup.w]a-click 'Tickling or pleasurable sensation'.

PMC *kulu 'bird strike': PON kulu 'golden plover'; MOK kuul' b. sp.'; MRS [k.sup.w]el 'Dustlin', [k.sup.w]el-(yej) 'golden plover'; KIR (te)-kun'a b.', kunikun 'very of such birds'; KSR kulul'art of b., sandpiper'. Note that the PON form has an unexpected expression for the last vowel. See PPK? *koyikoyi 'whistle or whistle sound, whistling bird', PCK *kyl[iu]na 'plover'.

PWMC *kulu 'to grab': PUL kuul 'to take freely (as leftovers)'; CRL ghul and CRN gul 'desperately trying to get as much as possible'; WOL gulu 'to take time off'; PCK *kulu; PONkul 'take hold of', kuli-i 'take hold of (s.t.)'; MRS[k.sup.w][k.sup.w]iwil 'grab, squeeze, smother, embrace'.

PMC *[kum.sup.w]u 'to have liquid in the mouth': CHK -kum 'to swallow a bite or liquid (count classifier)', kumu-u-(w) 'hold or wave it in m. (of liquid)' , kumukum 'hold or lower a liquid in in. m.', -[kkum.sup.w] 'portion of pre-chewed food (count classification)'; MRI [kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w]'rinse w.'; CRL [ghom.sup.w]u-u-(w), [ghum.sup.w]u-u-(w) 'to swirl (water) in m. to rinse it'; STW[kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w] 'sigh'; WOL -[gum.sup.w]u 'muck full of liquid (counting classification)', [gum.sup.w]u-u-(vi) 'suck up, draw up (of liquid)', [gum.sup. w] [ugum.sup.w]u 'put liquid in mouth, suck, slurp', [kkum.sup.w] 'bite'; PCK*[kum.sup.w]u, [kkum.sup.w]u, [kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w]u; UAN *kumuR. We can't consider them with CHK instead of the expected [m.sup.w].

PMC *[kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w]u 'a throbbing noise': PON[kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w]; MRS [kkim.sup.w][kim.sup.w] 'rapid heartbeat'; KSR kimkim "has a pounding sound"; POC *kumu (LAK umu 'shake, shake'). Cf. KIR [b.sup.w]uki 'toresound', [b.sup.w][ukib.sup.w]uki 'to beat or pound (like the heart)'.

PMC *kunu 'extinguished': CHK kun, kunu-(no) 'bi., go out (of fire, hearth, lamp)', kunukun 'extinguish', kunu-(u-w) 'turn off'; PUL kun, kunu-(lo) 'burn out, extinguish (like fire or electricity)'; CRL ghul 'go out, be e.', ghulughul 's.t. that puts out a fire', ghulu-u-(w) 'put out, put out (a fire)'; CRN Pistol, Gugungun, Gunu; WOL gulu 'become e., wiped out, destroyed', gulu-gulu 'destroy, wipe out', gulu-(u-vi) 'wipe out, destroy'; PUA kunu'z. B. to be wiped out, to be destroyed', kunkunu 'to destroy, to wipe out'; PCK*kunu, kunukunu; PON just 'to be, e.g. B. to put out (of lights and engines)'; MRS [k.sup.w][k.sup.w]i 'to put out, to go out (from a fire), to put out a fire, clear air'; KSR just 'e., blind, dead (like fire)', kuni 'to extinguish (s.t.), to extinguish, to extinguish, to blind'. Cf. KWA 'unu 'spoiled (of food)'.

PMC *[kup.sup.w]e, [kup.sup.w]e-li 'to be bent, to bend(s.t.)'; PON [kup.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'be b. (of s.t. rigid)', [kup.sup.w]e-l 'two b.(s.t.)'; MOK [kip.sup.w] e-lek 'be b., twist, break with Asnap', [kip.sup.w] e-l 'two b., twist (s.t.)'; MRS [k.sup.w][eb.sup.w] 'b., curved, tense, bent', [k.sup.w] [k.sup.w]ibe-l 'two b. (s.t.) '; KSR kuf 'a curve, b.',k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f 'to curve', kif[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s'to curve, b., turn (s.t)'. Compare PMC *[cpw]a, 'curve, curved'.

PWMC *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta 'retracted, retracted (foreskin or eyelid)': CHK kkur 'be p. b. (of foreskin)', kure-e-(y) 'pull the b. (of foreskin) ) 'to crop'; PULcure-e-(y); CRI kkur, kkuni-(16) 'be p. b. (of the foreskin), circumcised'; 'WOL kkure, gure-e-(ye); PUA kkula 'penis'; PCK *kkura, kura-[10]i-(a); PON kire-e-(di) 'peel off, pull down eyelid, lip or foreskin', kir[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-s-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k)) 'penis (slang)'; MRS [k.sup.w] ira-j 'pull b. the foreskin. See MRS pulled on the foreskin.

PMC? *kurakura 'to tickle': MRS kirkir 'dead.', kirkirey 't. (So.)'; KSR (wa) cork. See CHK[msup.w]e-kinikin 'tickle'; Fu da, da-can't. under the armpits".

PMC *kurer[ae] 'to belch up': PUL kure, kurere-(y) 'from., to b., b. from'; WOL gurere 'burp, b.'; PCK *kurer[ae];PON kir[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r 'burp, b.'; KSR sings 'tob.'.

PMC *cut 'lice': CHK loppe, loppe-(n), #loppe-(n) 'l.or flea, l.self'; MRI collection; PUL group, #give-(n); close CRL, fill CRN; STW groups; WOL-worm, worm- 'l., vermin'; ULI gus (sic) (Bender et al. 1984); PUA especially, very-; PCK *even; MRS kij 'l., bacteria, beetle, flea'; KIr(te)-out; KSR failed; POC*cut (PPN*cut; FIJ cut; BUG cut; PKB*cut); PAN *kuCu [Ross 1988]).

PCMC *kuu 'one of several species of fish': CHKkuu-(nu-few) 'sp. of small bass f.'; CRN gu-(nu-fey) 'sp. ofgrouper'; PCK *cup; KIR (te)-ko, (te)-ko-(beibeti) 'one of several species of squirrel f. (Holocentrus)'.

PMC *call 'octopus': CHK kuus, kuusa-; PUL collection; CRL house; full CRN; STW Cube; WOL filled, filled-; PUA sword; SNS kills; PCK*call; PON case; MOK kiij; PNG cos; MRS [kw] eyes; KIR (not) kick; The KSR Cow; PEO *kuRita (Geraghty 1990) (FIJ kuita); PMP *kuRita (Blust 1984-85) Note PMC *t > KIR k {kV(V)_}. Note MRS t for expected j.

PWMC *mod 'star(s) in Pegasus': CHK naa 'a s. inP., a sidereal month'; The PUL(sic)s. in P. a sidereal month'; STW laa, naa; WOL layer; PUA box 'a sidereal month compared to July'; PCK *Promise; MRS lak 'a constellation composed of Beta, Mu and Lambda P.' Cf. KIR nakara 'the star Regulus' (Bender et al. 1984). See also PCK *sø 'bracelet'.

PMc* lakalaka 'appearance': CHK na[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-, naka-, na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ana[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'a., shape', nana-(ttam), naka-(ttam) 'length, height 'long, high'; PUL la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-ta 'to stand, rise, higher, ascend (of the plane)'; WOL nnage 'to turn out, to appear, to come to see'; PCK *la[k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])la; MRS laklak 'showing off, strut'; PEO *laka 'step' (Geraghty 1983) (TON lalaka 'go, go along', laka-si 'pass, pass', lakalaka 'go fast, hurry'; SAM la'a 'go, march', la'asi -a 'climb over, go out'; SAA la'a'up'; KWA la'a 'go up, climb'). Cf. PMC *lako, laa'go, further, (as direction) away', PCK *nna 'to appear'.

PMC *lako, laa 'to go, proceed, (as a direction) away': CHKno, -noo, -na-, naa -naa-, -naa- 'to go, to go away from the reference point', (a)-naa- (no [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'javelin stick' (lit. 'because go in'), (che)-naa-(n) 'his companion, comrade', (ke)-naa mey 'you come from what?' ; MRI la'go'; PUL laughed, laughed; WOL lago, -lago, la (sic); PUA nako-nako, na(sic); PCK *lako, *laa; PON -la 'away from me and you'; MOK inla 'go away', -la 'away from you and me'; MRS [lak.sup.w]'directive posting to a third party, neither speaking nor hearing; (pey)-[lak.sup.w] 'to drift away'; KIR Nako; KSRl[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'onward', lae 'away from aplace'; PEO *lako (FIJ lako,. SAA la'o 'to approach, direct or approach'; LAU lalado 'to run'; PWM *laxo 'to walk'). See UAN *laku.

PMc *lalo, 'deep': CHK (i)-not 'under water', noon, (o)-not, (o)-, noon 'bed. (under water), far below',(o)-nona,(o)-nonnoona 'deep it'; MRT(i)-lol 'underwater'; PUL lellol 'be d. (like the sea), a d. Location'; CRL lolloll 'his d., very d.'; STW (i)-lol 'under the water'; WOL lalo 'd.', (i)-labo 'sea floor, under water'; PCK *lalo; PON l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l; MOK lol; MRS lal'below, below; down, down', ([[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w]i])lal 'down, down'; KIR-nano; KSR lol. I expected MRSinitial. Cf. UAN *Dalem 'depth, within'. See also PMC*[lalo.sub.2] 'inside'.

PMC *lalo. 'inside': CHK nno-(n), #noo-(n) 'on. of'; MRI llo-(n); PUL ;llo-(n); 'I. of'; CRL llo-(l)'i, thereof'; CRN nno-(n) 'i. of'; STW nno-(n); WOLLalo; PUA nano- "in, in."; PCK *lalo; PON lol[epsilon] 'i. from him/her/it'; KIR (i)-nano-(na) 'therin, i.e. des; PEO *lalo (SAA[I]-lalo 'i.'). See PAN*lem (Blust 1970:132). Also note MRS(i)-lew (i)-lewah 'in, i.'; KSR lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'i.', lu-(n) 'i. from'; LAU lao 'in'; LAK ilo'i., inside, underside'. See also PMC *[lalo.sub.1]'deep'.

PMc *laloua 'to be disgusted': CHK nnoow 'd. or be repelled by', nnoowe-esi-ni, nnoowa-asi-ni 'd. or be repelled by(s.t.)', (o)-nnoow 'to be disgusting, repulsive, repulsive, disgusting things', nnowu-([p.sup.w][p.sup.w]un) 'athlete's foot'; PUL Ilow (sic) 'to be upset, disgusted', (yo)-llow'stool (polite), to defecate'; CRL Iloow 'to get upset, d.', (a)-Iloow 'faeces, excrement, stool'; WOL nnou (sic) "Want to vomit"; PCK *Iloow[ao]; PON l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]loo 'heart trouble (of a man who has lost his wife)'; KIR nanoua "home"; KSR lalo 'depressed, down, gloomy', lalo-i 'don't like the thought, shudder at the thought (s.t.)'. Cf. FRU Ilahwew 'to be seasick, d.'; MOKloleid 'being lonely, homesick'.

PMc *lama, 'thought, be in mind': CHK nam, nem 'leg m., be on his m.', name-ni 'think of (s.t.), have (s.t.) on his m,', neme- (feefin) 'women wear', neme-(seni) 'to be forgotten', namanam 'religion, doctrine, philosophy, ideology'; PUL lamalam 'religion, t.'; CRL lamakun 'belief, morality, ethics, religion'; PCK *Iama,lamalama; PON lamalam 't., idea, opinion, common sense, religious belief'; MOK lamlarn. lemlem 't., to think', leme 'to think (s.t.)', lemee-(da) 'to remember (s.t.); KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ma 'think it, image (s.t.) in ens in.'. See YALearn 't., feel'. Cf. also PCK *nama 'in control, responsible', PMc *lama 'form, appearance'.

PMc *[lama2] 'lagoon, lake': MOK ham 'lagoon'; MRS km 'Bay'; KIR(te)-nama 'lagoon, lake'; PEO *lama (SAA lama "lake"; ARO rama "water between reef and shore"). Cf. PuA nama-nama 'hole, cave'. See also PMc *[nam.sup.w]o 'lagoon, harbour'.

PMc *lama 'form, appearance': CHK namanam 'character, quality, morality, behavior, behavior'; PUL lamalam 'character, condition'; CRL lamalam 'good deeds'; PuAnama-(takunu) 'to be round' (literally 'ovoid'), nama-takunni) 'circle'; PCK *lama-; MRS lam, lemma 'form'; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]na-(n) 'shape of',l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]mae-(l) 'its appearance, behavior'. Cf. PCK*nama 'under control, responsible', PMc *[lama.sub.i], 'think, think'.

PMC *lani 'heaven, sky, storm': CHK naan, neni- 'place of the mind, h. or sky (under construction)' naa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], ne[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'h., sky' (borrowed from other dialect )'; MRT laa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n) 'sky, h.'; PUL laa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'sky, rain'; CRL laa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'h.'; CRN laa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'h., have bad weather'; CRL la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ila[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] andCRN le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ile[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'Bad weather'; STW laa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'sky, h.'; WOLlaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'sky, typhoon, rainstorm, wind'; PuA naa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'sky, h.'; PCK *la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PONlaa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'heaven, h.', la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n) 'bad weather'; MOK l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'heaven', la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(n) 'warning of sudden downpour, taken as foreshadowing'; PNG l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'Heaven, h.'; MRS la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] sky, weather, h.,#la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'storm, typhoon', ##la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n), bane-(n) yirewej 'Rainstorm marked by arrival of a chief (archaic)'; KIR (te)-na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'cloud',na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ina[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be cloudy';KSR la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'cloud, h.'; POC *lanit (PPN*la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; FIJ lagi; SAA la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'raised up', (i)-la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'sky., h.';LAU la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i;KWA la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'high, large, up';PNK *la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i); UAN *la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]it. See also Marck (1994:308) PMc *la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i. In some Igs. (e.g. CRL, PON and MRS), "bad weather" meanings are mainly found in derived form s. Note that MRS la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n) has a contrasting heavy I where light I is expected would, with ii in the next syllable, while a heavy I is expected in la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e-(n) of a popular proverb. Why the second vowel is lowered in this latter form is not understood, but it does provide an explanation for the strong fly in MRS "bad weather" forms.


PMc *la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][o.sub.2] 'prop': CHKno[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-no[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to be propped up', no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-ni s . itup'; MRT loo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'canoe reel'; PULLoo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-(n) 'p., p.of' lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(e-y) 'elevate it, p. it up';CRL loo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] , lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-(l) 's.,brace, support, platform'; WOL laa [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] o, harpe 'canoe-reel, fulcrum', harpe 'raised with props, berolles'; PUA naa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o, na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o- 'Crossbar tinder floor of the house'; PCK *la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o; PON lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to be placed over another thing', lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'place (s.t.) over another thing'; MoK la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'support beam runs parallel to the ground, support', la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'lift with p', 'lift with p(s.t.)', (eng) - la [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] ' canoe rolls'; PNG (dau)-la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'canoe wheels'; MRS [la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w], [l.sup.w] [un.sup.w] 'Roll to launch a canoe'; KIR (te)-na[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-(a) 's.t.tinder as shelter or rest, lay base', na[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-(a) 'lay a rest or shelter under (s.t.)' ; PEO*la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o (Fu hago, lago-na 'place scrolls under Acanoe'; TON la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'p. up or support at places.t. below').

PMc *lanua 'Skipjack, Carangid Fish': PULla[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'some kind of off. (maybe a Crevally) caught trolling'; CRL la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'third of five growth stages of skipjack tuna'; WOL la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uwe 'a kindof f.'; ULI la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uy 'art of f.'; SNSra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uya 'some kind of f.'; PCK *la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ua; MRS la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ey 'Skipjack (C. Lessonu)';KSR lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'art of f.'. The loss of the second vowel in PUL and KSR forms is a problem. MRS rounded [[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w]expected.

PMC *lapa 'big, main': CHK nap, nnap, napanap 'b., big, big, principal, m.', napa-(n) 'his elder brother, heraldic sister'; MRI scan; PUL round; CRL and CRN patch; Reverse; STW round; WOLlape, nnap, fire; PUA cards; PCK *lapa, lapalapa, lapalapa; PON round, round, MOK round; MRS shot, rag, shot 'b., large, large, plentiful', (and)-shot 'head of family, maternal uncle, old man'; KIR naba 'also in addition', (ni)-naba 'spine, spine' (lit. 'm.bone'); KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]laep 'b., big, enormous', laep 'elder brother or sister, flood'; PEO *laba, country (SAA'b.'[a]-laha 'a chief'; BUG-mountain); UAN *see. See also PCK *luku-lapa "sea side (of an island or reef)" (literally "big out there").

PMC? *lape 'red clay': PUL lap, lapi-(n) (sic) 'red dye from earth (used for canoes), r. i.e. of'; STW laap,lape-(l), lape-(y) 'red clay (used for grouting), r.c. from, apply'; WOL laape, lepa-(li) 'red clay (used as pigment), r.c.of' (allegedly on loan from ULI); PCK *lape, lape-yi; KSR lap 'a kind of clay', lapi 'to paint (s.t.) with r.c.'. See also Marck (1994:316) PMC *lape.

PCMC *[lap.sup.w][ou]sah 'moray eel': CHK [nop.sup.w]ut, [nnop.sup.w]ut, [nop.sup.w]ute-(n) 'eel , e.g. from'; MRT [lop.sup.w]ot'moray'; WOL labuto 'eel, snake, worm'; PUA[nap.sup.w]uto 'moray eel, sea snake'; SNS [rab.sup.w]uto'moray'; PCK *[lap.sup.w]udo; PON la[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]d, [lap.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'saltwater eel'; MOK[lap.w]ed 'type of eel'; KIR(te)-[rab.sup.w]ono (with metathesis of r and n) 'eel'. Cf. FIJlabo, (vaka)-labo-ca 'jump out and suddenly attack'.

PMC? *laSa 'coconut shell, skull': PON daal 'coconut telescope, shell, plate'; MOK Valley 'c. S' (metathesis Pohnpeic); MRS lat 'skull, c.s.'; KSR (ae)-l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'bowl, skull, shells, conch'. Cf. YAP leq 'c.s., cup', loq 'skull, coconut shell'.

PMC *lau 'pool, to have liquid': CHK ne 'to be liquid, to be melted', nee 'p., pond, flooded place', neene 'l. content, have I. content, to be flooded': MRT leele 'flooded area' 'to be flooded'; PUL leele 'to be full of l.'; CRL leele 'puddle, lake, pond'; STW Lee 'p., dam'; WOL lee 'recessed fountain on the sea of ​​an island (used for bathing)', leelee 'to fill with water or l.'; PCK *lee or lukewarm; PON Lee 'p., lake'; MOK le 'swamp, little piece of taro'; MRS [l.sup.w]ey 'small p. on the reef at low tide or in the interior of the island'; KIR(te)-nei, (te)-nei 'a freshwater p. or pond', noei 'bel., liquid'; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'pond, shallow lagoon, with little water'; POC *laur'sea' (Ross 1988) (FIJ lau 'waterhole in a reef'; BUG lau'beach, scashore, towards the sea, south'; PNK *-lau 'seaward'); UAN *laud 'open sea'. See also PMC *tokolau 'northern, from the north'. See Marck (1994:313) PMC*lau.

PMC *l[au]tuu 'tomorrow': CHK newu; PUL lay; CRL laayu,laaay; WOL sheets; PCK *sheet; MRS (yi)-ljiw; KSR lutu. See PMC *looked at 'yesterday'. See also Marck (1994:312) PMC *l[au]tua.

PMC? *l[ao]u 'cool': PON low 'c., cooled down'; Mok ([m.sup.w]o)-low "coldness (of things)"; MRS([mw]e)-lew; PEO *lau (KWA lau-fi-lal 'to make or [s.t.] keep cool'). Cf. BUG ma-thaho 'to feel cold'. The MOK form could be a loan from MRS.

PMC *lawa 'hibiscus': PON (k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])-l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]w, ko-low 'H. tiliaceus'(k[KEYBOARD ICON])-l[UNKEYBOARD ICON]w-(n and) 'H. sp.(Kleinhovia hospita)' (lit. 'h. from Ant[an atoll]'); MOK(ke)-lew 'sea h.'; PNG (ka) law 'sea h.'; MRS lov'H. Tiliaceus'; KSR lo 'young H. tiliaceus'; PEO *lawa(FIJ lawa 'fishnet of H. fibers'; SAA lawa 'spider web'; ARO rawa 'a small web, cobweb, spider'; KWAlakwalakwa 'spider web, string of two or three lengths of shell money', [le'enial ] 'to spread [a net] into the sun'); UAN *lawa 'spider web'. Cf. KIR(te)-karai 'thread'.

PCMC *laxa 'coral species': PON raar 'fingerc.' (with assimilation of the initial *l to the following r); MOK lar 'branching c.'; MRS laid 'gravel', la-(jjidik) 'ac.(brown or white, several branches, smooth)'; KIR(te)-naa 'loose rocks or stones on a plain'. Cf. FIJ laqere 'gravel under the surface of the earth'.

PMC? *laya 'a sail': see PMC *lea.

PMC? *laZe 'cinder coral': KSR laes 'a k. ofc.', laeslaes 'covered with c.'; PEO *type 'c.' (Geraghty 1983) (PSS *field, ROT type, FIJ laser, PPN *laser). Cf. PCMC *ale 'art of choral', PCMC *laxa 'art of choral'. See also Marck (1994:313) PMC *lay.

PMC *le, lee 'polite address': CHK ne, nee'sir, madam'; MRS ley 'ma'am', #ley 'sir'; PEO *le, lee (FIJ le, lee 'polite term in kava ceremony').

PMC? *lea or *laya 'a sail': MRS (wej)-lay, (wij)-lay'a s.'; PEO *laya 'p.' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ loca; PPNLaa; ROT lae); UAN *layaR (YAP laay 'a sail'; CHM lay'ak, layak 'a sail'; PAL ears 'a sail'). See KSR means “asai”. Note that KIR(te)-raa 'the breadth of a food sail' is an apparent borrowing from SAM laa. See also PMC *[sS]aku-laara 'swordfish, marlin'.

PWMC? *lee-, lov- 'at, in' (with noun base): CHK ne-,nee- 'at', nee-(set) 'sea, at sea', nee-(mataw) 'on the open sea' , nee -([nom.sup.w]) 'in the lagoon', nee-([p.sup.w]in) 'at night', nee-(pheasant) 'torso', nee-(wun) 'chest ( on the body)'; PUL le-, lo- 'at', le-(het)'sea, in the sea', lee-([p.sup.2][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n)'atnight', lo-([p.sup .w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] ewe) 'last night', lee-(hapan) 'cheek'; CRL lee- 'by', lee-(set) 'by the sea or ocean', lee-([b.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]) 'nighttime', lee-([b.sup.w ] ]el ) 'taro patch'; CRN le- 'at' le-(het) 'by the sea or sea'; WOL le-(with doubling of the following consonant) 'at', le-(tteti) 'sea, in thesea'; le([nnam.sup.w]o 'in the lagoon'; PUA na-(ni) 'in,at', na-(ni [im.sup.w]a) 'at home'; PCK ? *le -, lee-; MRSlaw-, lew- 'to; prefix in place names and body parts' law-(jet) 'sea, ocean', law-(metew) 'sea, ocean'; law-(je),law -( jiye-) 'belly'. See also PMC *ni[ae] 'place'. KSRin- has much the same distribution: place names, topographical features, body parts (but also forms personal names like ni-).

PCMC *lele 'perfect': PON l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l,l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l-(tii) 's.' just right (slang)';(kas[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'precious, beautiful, s.' lived'; MOK lel 'beautiful (of people), fitting (of clothes)'; MRS (pew)-lel 'complete, satisfy, s.'; KIR nene 'fixed, immovable, fixed, stable (by the wind)'. KIR rerei 'good, excellent' is borrowed from SAM lelei 'to be good'. Cf. BUGthethe-(ngura) 'to bear in abundance'.

PWMC *leleki 'a fish': CHK nnis 'a reef fish'; PUL llek, lleki-n 'young stage of a reef fish'; CRL llegh "edible fish with poisonous spines"; WOL nnegi 'a fish'; PCK*leki; MOK lik 'fish sp., a kind of spike foot'; MRS yells "rabbit fish". Cf. KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'a fish'; PON ilek 'Fisch sp.' (on loan from MRS?); MRS [m.sup.w]a-[lek.sup.w][lek.sup.w] 'a stingray'.

PCMC *lelesa 'true, real': CHK nnet, nnete-n, nneti-n'be t., truth of', e-nnet 'be honest, truthful', a-anneta 'determine the truth of it'; PUL llet 'right, right, t,ya-lleta 'state it as t'; CRL and CRN (e)-llet 'be correct, honest'; WOL neta 'bet, sure, r.'; PCK *led[ae]; Kmnenera 'carefully asking (about s.t.), seeking (st.)'. See PCK*nne or *lle- 'look'.

PCMC *l[eo]nu 'ant': CHK nuu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'ant', nnu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'infested with ants';PUL lee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], leni-(n) 'ant, ant of' ; CRL WOLLeenu, lenu-; PCK *le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; MRS [l.sup.w][en.sup.w] 'ant'. Compare KIR kio[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'ant'. See also PEO *loRo 'ant' (Geraghty 1983, 1990) (Eu lolo 'little ant'; TON loo 'ant'; SAA lolo 'red ant'; BUG totho 'red ant'; KWA lolo 'ant'; LAK lolo 'large redant', but PKB *noLo). See PMC? *Linolino 'Cricket'.

PMC *lewe 'Zunge': CHK neuneu, neuneuwa-(n)'udtale, Akzent, hans udtale'; MRT lewa-(n) 'hist', lewalew 'Akzent'; STW life-(l) 'hans t'; WOLlife, life-([m.sup.w]u) 't, it t,', lifelife 'lick, spise', l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-gi-(i) 'lickor eat it' ; PUA-Cousins, Seiten-; PCK *Leben; PON laaw, loo 't',l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hans t.'; MOK lov,l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 't., hans t, t. aus'; MRS live, live-; KIR (te)-newe 't', newe-a 'at slikke (s.t.) med thet.'; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l)'t., hans t'. Vgl. BUG thapi 't'.

PCMC *li- 'agent prefix denoting 'one who (does, is given to do') (like English suffix -er)': CHK ni- PUL li-; WOLli-; PUA is-; PCK *li-; PON li-; MOK li-; KIR is-.

PWMC *lia- 'female person': CHK niye-, niya- (with demonstrative suffixes) 'female person, woman', niye-(ra) 'girl'; MRI liya-; Set-; For CRL-. liya-; Pack? *liya-; PONlii, li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]—"woman"; MOK li 'woman'; MRS liye- (with them. sup.) "madam, woman". Cf. KIR nei- (with dem.suf.) 'woman, female'.

PMC? *lici 'feels lost': CHK not, just 'disappointed'; PUL liiR (sic), liRi- "mourning (as for a death), regret (as for stolen objects)"; CRL lish, voluptuous 'Miss orlong for s.o. or s.t.'; WOL lishi 'miss s.o. or st. a lot'; PCK *lici;POC *lidi (PKB *lidi 'to throbbing, ache, ache').

PMC *liki, likiliki, liki-Si 'strive, aim': MOKliki-d, liki-dek 'strive (s.t)'; PNG liki-d, liki-dek 'make flour out of wheat, develop film'; MRS liklik 'sift, sift, filter, digest', liklikiy 'seven, etc. (s.t)'; KSRlilik 'seven, aim, sift, separate', likliki 'seven, etc. (s.t.)'. This could be the same stem as PMC *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si'discarded, discard'.

PMC*liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si 'discarded, rejected': CHK nik'be d., rejected, disliked', niki-t, niki-ta-(n) 'back, it is 1.', nik-iti 'leave it, throw it away'; MRTliki-t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'Leave it alone'; PUL Iiki-ti-(y) 'let it'; CRL lighi-ti and CRN lighi-ti 'to leave (s.t.) behind, to cease use (s.t.), to leave (s.t.) for other things as above'; STW liki-ti-(y) 'let it stay behind'; WOL ligiligi 'put things down, put aside, leave', ligi-ti-(i) 'let it, let it be'; PUA nikiniki 'leave, throw, save (money), withhold', niki-ti 'leave him, throw him'; PCK *liki, liki-di, liki-da; PONliki-d-(M[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]la) 'give up, forget', liki-(di) 'spit out (honorably)'; MOK lik,liki-d 'to lay eggs'; MRS lik 'to set (of chickens), egglayer', llik, liki-t 'to leave, to set, to put aside'; KIR(te)-niki-ra-(n-roro) 'unmarried woman' (literally 'remnant of the generation'), (te)-niki-ra 'food for guests' (i.e. food given away); KSR liki 'to walk, to lie down'. See also PMc *liki,likiliki, liki-si 'to buckle, to aim'.

PCMC as 'drag, drag, drag, troll': CHK nuk, nukunuk'h. on a line, tr. For small fish', nuke-yi, nuki-i-(y) 'hḗit,, t. it, bring it, take it', nuke-e-(y) 'carryit', nuko- (Mars. on a line and back at the same time', nuku-(mey) 'h. a breadfruit stalk from which it was felled , where it is processed"; PUL liik (sic), liko- 'to tr.', liko-wii-y(sic) 't. That'; CRL lugh 'two tr. for fish', lughe-e-( y), lughe-e-(y) 'to t. (s.t.)'; CRN 'to tr. forfish'; WOL lugo 'to s., drag, draw, draw, pursue', lugo-si-(i )' up, pull it'; PCK *liko, like-ti; PON luk 'to be invited, towed, to tr. for fish', close[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'to invite, to t.'; MOK luk , luke 'to invite'; KIR(te)-niko 'to draw a weapon'. Cf. MOK aikiek 'two t.', aiki 't. (s.t.)'; MRS hayik 't., to draw'; LAK luku-a 'to pull up a plant'.

PMC *liku 'outside': CHK nuku-(n) 'its outer, o., o. surface, outer edge, immediate surroundings, surface of the skin', (i)-nuk 'outer or sea side'; MRI-luku-(n); 'Island. from'; PULluku-(n) 'to be o.', lukuluku-(n) 'covering of'; CRLlughu-(l), lughu-(l) 'o. from'; CRN lug-(n) 'o. from'; STWluku-(n) 'o. The'; WOL lugu-(le) 'his o. or the back', lugulugu covers the head and body with a sheet or cloth'; PUA nuku-(na);PCK *luku-; PON liki'o. from s.t.'; MOK lik, liki-(n) 'o., o.of'; PNG(i)-lik 'coast to the open sea'; MRS lik 'behind, behind, o. the sea side of', likiy 'the sea side of'; KIR (mai)-niku "east" (i.e. sea side); KSR lik,liki-(n) 'o., near the beach, o. of'; EOC *liku (TON liku 'rocky coast, on the back of an island'); UAN *likud 'back, behind, and *li(n)kup 'surround, enclose'. See also PCMC*fa-liku, fa-liku-ri- 'turn away, ignore the presence of others', PCK *luku-lapa 'seaside (of an island or reef)' (literally 'big out').

PWMC *liku 'be ready, ready': CHK nuk 'be r.,p.', nukunuke-(ech) 'be well, p.', nukunuku-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aw) 'be ill s.'; WOI. lughlugu 'expect, anticipate, look to', lugu-u-(vi) 'expect, count on', luglugu-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] awe) 'neglect, be uncooperative'; PUA nukunuku 'take care of'; PCK *luku,lukuluku,luku-u-; MRS leke-(k) 'please p. about the task at hand', like-(k) 'readiness'. Cf. PMC *l[iu]ku 'trust, believe, be sure'.

PMC *l[iu]ku- 'a little, a little': CHK nuku- 'a little, a little', nuku-(chechchen) 'to be damp, to be damp' (lit. 'a little wet'); PUL luku-(cecaan), luku-(recaan) (sic) 'to be wet, damp, wet'; WOL lugu-'small, shallow', lugu-(ffeeu) 'be a little cool, cool'; PCK *luku-; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'almost, almost'.

PMC *l[iu]ku 'trust, believe, be sure': CHK nuuk 'believe, believe', nukunuk 'be convinced', nuku-w-(w)'b., believe in'; PUL lukuluk 'Having faith, c. be, believe, trust', luku-u-(w) 'b., have faith in': CRL lughulugh'to b., think;, lughu-u-(w) 'to b. or t. (so.)'; CRN lughlug'to b., think lugu 'two b. or t. (so.)'; STW lukuluk 'have faith', luku-u-(w) 'b. The'; WOL lugulugu 'bec., feel safe', lugu-u-(vi) 'expect, trust'; PUAnukunuku 'to be sure'; PCK *lukuluku, luku-u-(a); PON liki-lik 'trustworthy', liki-i 'two t.'; MRS llik "consider, construct"; KSR l[conjunction]k[conjunction]-(k) 'easily persuaded, credulous, credulous'. Cf. PCK *neku, nekuneku, PWMC *liku 'ready, prepared'.

PMC *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-nawulu 'five, five (general), five (animated), fifty': CHK num, nime-. nima- 'number f.', nimu-uw 'f. general', ni-men 'f.animates', nime, nime-e-'fifty'; MRI hand, chalk; PUL liim, lime-, limo-ow, lim-man, lime; CRL liim, lima-, limo-uw, lim-mal, lime-igh, CRN lum, lima-, lomo-ow, lime-ig; STW hand; WOL lume, lima-, limo-uwe, lime-iege; PUA nima-, nima-ow, nima-iki; PCK *hand, hand rain, hand bird, hand saw; PON lima-, lima-w, lime-m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n,lim[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-ysek, lime-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]owl'fifty'; MOK (a)-lim, limo-w, lime-men, lime-yjek; MRS(la)-lem, lima- 'f.', lem-newil 'fifty'; KIR nima-, nima-ua, nu-man'f.', nima-[b.sup.w]ii, nima-naun 'fifty'; KSRL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m, hour-, l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m- 'f.',l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aul 'fifty'; POC*lima (ROSS 1988) (PPN lima 'f., hand'; FIJ lima 'f.', lima-sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]avulu 'fifty'; SAA lime and ULA lima 'f.'; BUG lima 'f ., hand'; LAU lima 'f.'; KWANima 'f.' PKB *lima 'f.', savulu-lima 'fifty', [la]-lima-[gu] 'my hand'); UAN *lima 'hand'. See PMC *-ua 'general classifier in enumeration (suffix to number)'.

PMC [In]ima 'bailer': CHK num, nume-(n) 'b., b.of', num, numo-num 'to be bailed, bail', nume-e-(y) 'bailit'; mother MRI; PUL number 'b. nime-(y) 'to vouch for (acanoe)'; STW heat; ULI lum; PUA us, us-; PCK *no; PON lum'b.', lima-(k) 'to save (a canoe)', limalim 'to sail, to save'; MOK lim 'b., pledges', lime 'bail (acanoe)'; MRS limb; KIR (te-a)-nima 'b.', (a)-nima 'to save (a canoe)'; KSR (a)-nam 'b.', (i) 'dip out, scoopout, bail' (loan from KIR?); PEO *[ln]ima (FIJ nima, nima-ta 'tobail', [i]-nima 'b'); UAN *limas, YAP is 'b' is an apparent borrowing from a Chuukie source.

PMC *[lim.sup.w]u, [lum.sup.w]u 'algae, moss, seaweed, manure': CHK [nuum.sup.w], [num.sup.w]u-; MRI [ loop . whoops w ] ; PUL[Heatw], [Heatw]u-; CRL[Schleifew], [Schleifew]u-; STW [ loom . whoops w ] ; WOL [luumw]u, [luumw]u-; PUA [num.sup.w]u,[num.sup.w]u-; PCK*[HeatW]; PON [liim.sup.w]; [glue w][i-glue w]; MRS [glue w][glue w] 'm. [lim.sup.w] 'murky water; fine sand in the sea; coiled, grooved (1); KIR [niw.sup.w]-(rona) 'covered with seaweed', [nim.sup.w][nim.sup.w] 'clover'; KSR Lum 'greena'. and Lump 'Mosset'; POC *limut, immediately (PPN *lime; FIJ lumi[<*lime]; SAA immediately; LAK immediately); UAN *limit, lumut.

PMC *l[iu]nuru 'shadow': CHK nuru 'p.',nuru-(n) 'her shadow', (e)-nuru 'give p. to',([m.sup.w]e) -munnur 'disguised, in code (of the language)'; MRI only (sic)'s.'; PUL neer, newer-(n)(sic) 'shadow, s.'; CRL llur and CRN njust 'shady, shady'; WOL medicine 'sā, to be shaded', nunuru 'to become shaded', (ga)-nunuru 'hat'; PUA nubi (sic)'sā, shelter, shade', (to)-nulu 'to make as.'; PCK *drug, drug; PON rir 'difficult to locate or understand, hidden, veiled, vague', riri-i 'to hide or conceal behind (s.t.)'; MOK rir'sā, shaded', (ka)-rir 'to shade'; MRS [Iler.sup.w],(ha)[Iler.sup.w], (haye)[ler.sup.w] 's., shadow'; KIR muu 'shadowed', (te)-nuu's.', (ka)-nua (sic) 'overshadow or s.(s.t.)'; KSR lul's. 'shadow', luli 'overshadow', lullul 'shady' (1). Cf. POc *nunu (Blust 1978:6) (AT munu 'shadow, reflection, likeness, soul'; ARO nunu 'image, form, reflection'; KWA nunu-fi-[a] 'two s. [s.t.]' ; PNK *nunu'shadow, reflection'); In *ali[nn]u. See also PEO *(ma)-luR'shady' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *[ma]-lu 'two p.'). *nn in PCK, ll in MRS, l in KSR, and r in PON and MOK suggest that UAN *l, *n, and *r followed different assimilation patterns in the different Micronesian languages. See Marck (1994:325) PMC *nap.

PWMC *li-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari 'tiny louse': CHK ni-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'tiny little species on l., baby 1.' (lit. 'nibbler, constant eater'); PULli-(kuu)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]is "a small l". (lit. 'the back of the head nibble'); WOL li-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri 'Baby L. (second stage of development)'; PCK *li-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari; MRSli-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar 'rivet'. Cf. KIR [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]au 'unable to control appetite, eat without waiting for others'; KSR si-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar'little laus'. See PWMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ani to 'toward'.

PMC? *li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oli[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o'cricket': KIR (te)-ni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oni[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o 'insects there chips at night' (Bender et al. 1984); PEO*li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oli[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o (FIJ ligoligo 'night insect'; TON li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oli[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o 'cricket'). The N in the KIR form indicates that it is not from a Polynesian source. See PCMC *l[eo][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u'ant'.

PMC *[lip.sup.w]a 'ditch, hole (in the ground)'; CHK[niip.sup.w], [nip.sup.w]a-(n) 'soak pit, its s.p.', [nip.sup.w][e-nip.sup.w] 'use a s.p.' , [nip.sup.w]e-ni 'acquire it as s.p.'; MRI [liip.sup.w], [lip.sup.w] a-(n)'grave, hole, his g.', [lip.sup.w]a-(l) 'h. dug by men or animals”; STW [liip.sup.w] 'pool where coir is soaked'; WOL liibe, libe 'h., opening, hole, dig', libelibe 'bury, bury, bury; libe-li-(i) 'buried'; PUA [niip.sup.w]a, [nip.sup.sup.w]a- "grave, hole", [mip.sup.w]a "buried (see above)"; PCK*[lipw]a; PON [liip.sup.w] 'big H. in the ground'; MOK [lip.sup.w] 'h., crater, scar'; PNG [lip.sup.w] 'h.'; MRS [leb.sup.w], [lib.sup.w]i-,[lib.sup.w]e- 'grave, grave'; KIR(te)-[nib.sup.w]a 'post h., small pit or bed for crytosperm'; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f'h.' I[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]fl[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f 'have holes', I[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]fi 'make ditches'; POC *[lib.sup.w]a (SAA liwe 'cave'; ULA liwa 'cave'; LAU liqa 'cave, h.'; ARO riwa 'h. [of the rat], cave'; KWA likwa 'h. in wood'; LAK liba 'tomb'); UAN *luban 'h., pit'. See also Marck (1994:324) PMC *lip'a.

PMC *lon[ao] 'inward, inland, on land':CHK-no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'inward, southward',(too)-no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'enter'; PUL-lo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'inside' in, inland, inland'; CRL -lo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'inward, eastward, inward; STW-Io[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'inland, into'; WOL Io[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'into, into the country'; PUA-na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'in, within'; PCK *lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]go 'inward, inland, on land'; pon-lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'inward, in'; MRS(te) [l.sup.w][e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w], (te)[le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w], (je)[le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup. w ] 'go into the interior of an island; Penetration'; ROT lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'towards the interior (of an island; invade'; ROTlo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'towards the interior (of an island); FIJ(ya)lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'inside'; BUG (i)-lo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'overland' Cf. MRS [len.sup.w] 'neither high nor low, in between (archaic)'.

PMC *Ioo, Ioo-Si 'see, see': MRS llew 's.,detect, find', lew(ey) 'see s.t.'; KIR noo 'observe, witness', noo-ra 'to pp. (s.t.)', noo-ri-(a) 'pp. it';KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'mindful, attentive, vigilant',l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'listen, pay attention, take care';PEO *loo, loo-si (SAA loo-si 'to s .'; ARO roo, roo-hi 'to seek'. MRS tung I expected. Cf. FIJ ilo, ilo-va 'to behold (like mirror image)'; SAA lio 'to see, s.'; BUG lio-hi 'to look at'; LAU lio ' to see or seem, to look'; ARO rio, rio-si'se, to look at', iro, iro-hi 'to see, to look into or to look'; KWA lio lio-si -(a) to look, to look, to see, to see, to seek ', ilo 'lookat', lio-(nunu) 'a reflecting pond, mirror', LAK liho, hilo 'to s., look at'; PEO *qilo , qilo-fi, liqo, liqo-[sz]i UAN *qilaw 'reflection' See also PCk *nne-or *lle-'look'.

PMC? *loo[w[theta]]a, lo[w[theta]]a- 'sitting in a caoe':PON loo; The IOC laughed; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Cf. CHK noo-([p.sup.w]u) 'socket for the mast or yard of a sailing canoe ([p.sup.w]u 'placeone's foot' or [p.sup.w]uu 'navel' ) .

PMC *lo[sS]o- 'Masthcad': CHK toon, tone-(n) 'mast top, apex' (shows metathesis): PUL-Tool, tolo-(n) 'Top section of mast on sailing canoe' ( shows metathesis); MOK-Lot 'the top of the Canoc mast'; MRS [l.sup.w]et 'top of canoe's mast' (cf. [tel].sup.w] 'hill, mountain'); PEO *lo[sz]o (FIJ loko 'intermediate in the yard at Acanoe'). See PMC *[sS]olo 'hide'. See also Mark (1994:321) PMC *lozo.

PMC? *lowu- 'cross siblings'; KSR lou-(k), lo-(l),lou-(n) 'my sister (one speaks), his s., s. of'; POC *lopu 'cross siblings' (ROSS 1988).

PCMC *lua 'to be whole': PUL luw 'to be all, whole'; WOL nnuwe 'the whole, whole thing'; PCK *lluw[ae]; KIR nua-I'm satisfied, I've eaten.

PCMC *lukuma 'to fold, to wrap'; PON lukam 'to wrap around (s.t.)'; MOK likim 'to fold (s.t.)'; KIR nukina' to fold or wrap (s.t.); A package'. Cf. MRS limek 'package' to fold, package' (possible metathesis); lemlem 'fold, wrap, pack', lim(iy) 'fold s.t.,. Cf. also KSR nukum 'clothe, wear, wrap (s.t.)', nuknuk 'clothes, blanket', nuknuki 'cover with a cloth, measure the size of a piece of blanket'; MRS [nik.sup.w][nik.sup .w] 'Clothing, cloth; get dressed', ku-[nik.sup.w][nik.sup.w] -iy 'cothe s.o.'; SAA nuku 'crease, have waves, be shriveled or wrinkled', nuki-mi 'fold, fold (s.t.)' (these KSR and MRS forms are probably on loan, possibly with KIR). See also PMC *Lukuma 'bundle' inserted by Goodenough (1995-76) and PMC *sukusuki, suku-ma, suku-mi 'wrapped, a package, to wrap (s.t.)'.

PMC *lulu 'to be folded (of a sail), furled or unfurled'; CHK nnu-(tiw) 'to be folded, lowered (of a sail)', (e)-nmi 'fldup (of a mat or sail), lower (of a sail)', nnuun, nunnu- 'lowered, folded (by a Sail)'; WOL nnu-(tiwe) 'to lay down, lower (a sail)'nnu 'to break (like a wave), to crush, to split'; PCK *nnu or llu; PON lil 'lower sail'; KIR nn-a (<ni-a, *nni-a) 'to lower (s.t.)', nini-ra 'roll up (s.t.)'; EOC *lulu (Sa'a lulu,lulu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to fold'; KWA lulu 'stack together, collect, push together'); UAN *lulun 'roll up.' Cf. LAK lili-(a) 'roll up'; UAN *lilit 'pack up, tie up'. Cf. also PMC *lumi 'to fold', PCK *llima 'lower edge of a sail'.

PMC *lumi 'to fold': CHK nnum 'to be crumpled, folded, bent, crumpled', numi, nnuni 'to bend, f. it, to curve'; PULlumi, limi-(y) 'fold it (as a mat)'; CRL limi, limi-i-(lo) 'tofās.t., f. it on'; WOL limilimi 'f., fold, cover', limi-(I) 'f. it, cover'; PCK *lumi, lumulumi ; PON lim 'two f. (s.t.),limilim-(p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'folded', lim-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'bent, crushed, crushed, bent'; MOK lim ' two f. (s.t.)', limlim 'a f., seam, cuff, to f.'; MRS lemlem 'f., to wrap', lim-ek 'flee'; KIRnum 'to be folded (of arms or wings)' (Eastman 1948); KSR lim 'tof. (s.t.)', limlim 'two f.'; PMP *lumiq 'two f., hem' (Blust 1983-84:81). Cf. also PCMc *lukuma 'fold , Wrap';, PCK *llima 'bottom edge of a sail'.

PCMC? *[ln]usi- 'to bind, wrap'; CHK nnut 'to be bound together by twisting, tying things together by twisting', nuti 'to bind (s.t.) by twisting, the act of twisting'; KIR nira,ninira 'roll up', (te)-ninira 'a wrap, loose garment worn over the shoulders'. Cf. FIJ lusi, lusi-a 'to rub off the skin'.

PMC *luTu 'to jump': CHK nus, nnus 'j. (from one point to another), be out of his grip or hold', (o)-nusu 'remove it from one place to another, take it out of his grip', (o)-nnusu 'make it j, or jump ', nusu-([m.sup.w][m.sup.w]et)'bounce, j., hop'; PUL luh (sic) 'to j., slide (as amuscle), be loosened (as copra from its shell)', (yo)-luha-(a-ta)(sic) 'to loosen it (as copra from his shell) his shell)', (yo)-luluh (sic) 'to remove dried copra from his shell'; CRL llus, lullus and CRNlluh 'to j.'; STW nnus 'to j.'; WOL lutu, nnutu 'j., jump, jump up, start surprised', (ga)-lutu-(u), (ga)-nnutu-(u)'do it j.', lutu-(ni-i ) ) 'j or jump on it'; PUA nutu'to j., jump, jump', nutu-(ni) 'to j. or jump on it';PCK *I[uu]T[uu]; PON lus 'to j.', lusi-(da) 'to j. up, surprised', lusu-(k) 'to j. on, a journey with append'; KSR sounds 'surprised, frightened, astonished'. Cf. PAN *lecu[Ct] 'slip away, escape, (Blust 1970:131).

PCMC *luuka 'middle, middle': CHK nuuk, nuuka-(n)'cā, mā, abdomen, tummy, tummy, its cā', nuuka-(lur) 'cā, exact m.', nuuke -(ni-[p.sup.w]in) 'midnight', nuuk, nuuke-(yi-nen) 'name of a god' (lit. 'm. of heaven'); PULluuk, luuka-(n) 'c., it is c.'; CRL luugh, luugha-(l) 'c., m.,its c., luugho-(lap) 'c., m. (of an object)', luugh 'the name of the most important traditional god'; STW nuuk 'c., m.'; WOL luuge'c., middle point, to be centered', luuga-(a) 'end the middle point in measuring', lugo-(li-[b.sup.w]oni) (sic) 'midnight', luugo-( i -leni) 'name of a god'; PUA nuka(sic) 'c., m.'; PCK *luuka, luuka-(li-[pw]oni),luuka-(i-lani); PON luuk 'the name of the most important traditional god'; MRS[lik.sup.w] e- 'm. from 'waist', [like.sup.w] e-(n-bon) 'midnight'; KIR(te)-nuuka, nuuka-(na) 'm., lower waist, etc.'. The short first syllable of MRS calls for an explanation.

PMC *luuwa 'leftover, remainder': CHK nuuwe-k,nuuwe-ki-(n) 'leftover, what is left, what remains, r. from'; PONluuw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'his remains, residue'; MOK luwo "his remains"; PNG luw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'itsremains'; KSR luw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l) 'its residue, residue, surplus'. See ULI luutegu (sic) “remains” (Bender et al. 1984). See also PCK? *luTtu 'the rest stays'.

PMC *ma 'and, with': CHK me; MRI me me, PUL me me; CRLme; STW i; WOL me; PUA ma; PCK *I; MRS Yen, Yim (metathesis); KIR ma'with and others; KSR ma 'and others'; PEO *ma (BUG ma'and'; ARO ma 'and, but'; KWA ma 'and, but'). Cf. YAP ma 'so, and, but'.

PMC *ma- 'stative prefix indicating that what is described is appearance or state of being': CHK ma-, ma-, mo-, me-, mo, mo-; MRI ma-; PUL ma-, ma-, mo-, i-, i-; CRL. ma-, ma-, mo-, i-; STW i-; WOLma-, i-; FLOWER i-; PCK *ma-; PON in-, m[epsilon]-; PNG mV- (vowel varies); MRS ma-; KIR a-; KSR mV-(vowel varies); POc *ma- (PPN *ma-; FIJ-ma-; SAAma-; BUG-ma-; LAU-ma-; ARO-ma-; KWA-ma-; PKB *ma-).

PMC *maa-, maa-ki 'be ashamed of': CHK ma 'be on.',(a)-maa-(y) 'make him one.'; CRL must be 'embarrassed'; WOLmaa 'to be or to feel', (ge)-maa-(ye) 'makes him one'; PUA mma(sic) 'to be one.'; PCK *maa; PON maa-k 'reserved, holding back his feelings for fear of self-embarrassment or embarrassment of others, Deferene; MOK mee-k 'a, embarrassed, shy, coy'; KIR maamaa'a, outraged'; KSR [m.sup.w]e-ki-(n) 'a., shy, shy'; PEO *maqa (PPN *maa 'a'; FIJ maa-[duaa]; SAA masa 'shy, a'; ARO masa). See also LAK mahela 'be a.

PMC *manu 'treat, treat': CHK maan, mammaan 'bear, a., bis d.', manau-(nein) 'd. weg', (a)-maanu 'with ihm einen alcohol', (a)-mmaan 'Treibgut'; MRT maan 'fließen', maan-(to) 'f. dazu'; PUL maan 'bis d.', mane-(lo) 'd. weg'; CRL what und CRN what 'bis d.'; STWman 'd., flow', meaning-(to) 'd. dazu'; WOL may'to d., be a', (ge)-may-(u) 'let it be abdriften', (ge)-may 'case s.t. alcohol d. weg'; PUA meaning 'fließen, d.'; PCK *manu; PEO *name (PPN *name 'a., fließen'; SAAmanu 'fließen'); PAN *ma-qa(nN)u(dj) (Blust 1978:8), *qaNuj (Wolff1993).

PMC *maaru 'out of breath': PUL moor 'to be out of breath, to be out of breath; thirsty'; CRL [m.sup.w] oor 'to be out of breath, to breathe heavily'; KSR mael 'breathless, impatient, intolerant', cf. KSR mal [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'breathable; thirsty'; CHK Moor 'Cold, chest cold, has a cold, has a cough'. Cf. PMc *marewu 'thirsty'.

PCMC *[[mm.sup.w]]a-asaasa 'low sound': CHK[m.sup.w]a-ata 'rustling (of leaves), rubbing or splashing sound'; KIR marara (sic, <*ma-arara?) 'conversation with some distance'.

PMC *maaso, masoso 'to sit': CHK moot, mommoot 's.,to sit', mot-(tiw), #moot-(tiw) 's. down', (o)-moota 'place it, set it'; MRI controversial; PUL disputed 'to s.', mo-tiw(sic) 's. down'; CRL moot 'to s.', moote-(tiw),moot-(tiw) 's. down'; STW moot 's.', mooto-(tiw) 's.down'; WOL matto 's., crouch down', (ge)-matto-(o) 'put it down, put it down'; PUA mato (sic) 'two p.', mato-(na) 'buttocks'; SNS method; PCK *maado, maddo; PON [m.sup.w]od's.', [m.sup.w]oon-(di)'s. down'; MOK [m.sup.w]in-(di)'s.'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ta (in a set) 'non-native sitting position', m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ta (lip) 'a sitting position'. Cf. KIR [m.sup.w]aro (Bingham) or [m.sup.w]aroo (Eastman)'s sink, Founder, go down (as food)', [m.sup.w]aroro 'tosubside 'tosubside lull'; KSR mot 'wash with too much weight, perish'; See PCK? *[m.sup.w]aut[iu] 'to sink'. problems here.

PMC *head, head 'blank space': CRL head, head-l'fann, his f.'; STW dimension; WOL maate 'farm, garden'; PUmeans "garden, plot, taro field, property"; PCK *Encoder[dt]; PONground c. of vegetation'; MRS Mahaj 'c. s., open field', mahajahaje-(water) 'to clear (land)'; KIR maataata 'open, ca. (Eastland), spacious, clear'; KSR [m.sup.w] means spacious, roomy, roomy. Cf. PON [m.sup.w]at 'clearing, field, plantation, garden', [m.sup.w]et 'to clean an area, mow or pull grass',[m.sup.w]eti-( wel) 'to make a clearing, plantation or garden'. Cf. PCK *maada 'a garden'. See also Marck (1994:321) PMc *matter and *matter.

PMC *maaTiaTi 'treeless place': CHK maasiyes 't.p., field, open area without shade'; KSR [m.sup.w]esis a desert', (aek)-[m.sup.w]esisye 'clear, cultivate, clear (land)'.

PMC *maawa 'a fish': PON maawa 'any blue parrotfish', MRS mahwew 'parrotfish (Scarus jonesi/sordidus), wrasse (Cheilinus sp.)'; KIR (not)-mother 'a sea bass (Purupeneustrifasciatus)', (not-ika)-mother 'parrotfish (Scaruspectoralis)'; PEO *Name (FIJ en 'sp. Of f'; TONma'awa 'a kind f.'). Cf. MRS meh 'by the lips'; LAKmao 'somehow f.

PMC *bjerg 'war, fight': CHK bjerg, mountain-; PULmawon (sic); CRL mouse 'w.', #mouse 'attack (enemy)'; CRN moowun 'w.', #moowula 'to attack (enemy)'; STW the moon WOL the moon; ULI maaulu; PUA hand (sic); PCK*ko; PON will win; IOC wins; PNG wins; MRS Wins "Magic to Make Fighters Brave"; KSR [m.sup.w]eun 'war, battle'. Cf. KIR un'be angry, fight' and ka-unuun 'keep provoking anger'; POC *sleep 'strike, slay' (Ross 1988) (SAA hun 'kill or cut up an animal'; ARO hun, hun- 'i' to kill,exterpate'; KWA funu 'to fight, cut', funu-[ UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL ]a 'warfare'); UAN *Weber. See also YAP word 'w., Battle' MRS abbreviation unexplained.

PMC *maca mamaca 'very ripe, lazy': CHK mach, mmach, mammmach 'v. r., lazy, stink', mmach, mmacha-(n) 'boil on the skin, its boil', mmache-(yiti) 'get r. at (a certain time)', (a)-macha 'mature ( s.t )'; MRT mmash 'r., overripe'; PULmmaR 'very r. be', mmaR, mmeRa-(n) 'cabbage, infected wound, hisb.'; CRL mash 'stinks, smells bad', mmash 'be v. r., soft, ready to eat (of a fruit)'; CRN maR 'stink, smell bad', mmaR 'be v. right etc.'; STW mar 'lazy, v. r'; WOL mashe 'the rat, spoiled, has a bad smell, stinks', mashemashe 'becomes rotten or spoiled', mmashe 'r., fermented, soft, wet, has pus in a scratch or wound'; PUA mmasa 'to be fermented, r.'; PCK *maca, mmaca; PON mat 'r., overripe, rotten, spoiled, lapsed', maat'bums, acne'; MOK mas 'stinks, stinks badly',m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'spoiled, putrid, foul'; MRS gal 'ripe', mmed 'v, r., overripe (of breadfruit only), phlegm, catarrh, sputum', (meyi)-med 'overripe breadfruit'; KIR mara 'soft (like an animal shedding its skin), wet, moist, bare'; KSR [m.sup.w]esr 'r., soft, pimple, f skin-colored', [m.sup.w][esrm.sup.w]esr 'pimpled, scaly'; PEO *manra(PPN *mara 'fermented'; FIJ ? madra 'worn out, old [of clothes]'; BUG mada 'to be ripe [of fruit]', mada-[rua] 'overripe'; KWA mada 'r., ripe'), see also PMC *mara 'canned breadfruit'.

PMC *ma-cai "slimy": CHK me-cheyichey "be s., slimy"; CRL ma-sheishey, me-she-ishey's., slippery substances like slime'; PON m[KEYBOARD ICON]-l[KEYBOARD ICON]yt[KEYBOARD ICON]y; MRS me-dahye-(kyek) 'mucus, pus, lymph, slime of snails and fish'; KIR ma-rai "coconut in the soft state, protein, with a soft core"; KSR mi-sre,m""-sre 'slide, slip, slide', mi-sresre 's. 'smooth, smooth'; PEO *ma-daRi (BUG ma-dali 'smooth'). Cf. FIJ ma-drai 'Fijian bread buried in the ground for months'. See also PCK *ma-calu 'slimy, slippery'. See PCMC *[m.sup.w]acayaphysical deformity'.

PMC? *ma-caucau 'soft': KIR ma-raurau; PEO*[[mm.sup.w]]a-ntauntau (SAA [m.sup.w]a-dau 'be light, possible, soft, supple'). Cf. KWA ma-ga'u 'soft', wa-da'u 'light', wa-la'u 'light, soft, overripe'; and cf. BUGma-darua 'overripe'. Cf. PCK *caucau 'to massage (after a fall or bruise)'.

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PMC *maci, macici 'to be cold': MRS with 'chilled (from once hot food)'; KIR mariri 'feel c., be c.', (te)-mariri'c., cold'; KSR misrisr 'c., cool, cool, goosebumps'; POC *madidi (ROOT matiti 'be c.'). Cf. LAK maigi'be c.', magigi 'to shake (as in epilepsy)', makarigi 'c., to be c.', PKB *maqi(dg)i; PAN *ma([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])-(dD)i[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL](dD)i[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] (Blust1970:133).

PMC *[mai.sub.i] 'breadfruit': CHK maay, meyi-, -mey; PUL may; CRL can; STW can; WOL maai, mai-; PUA maai, mai-; SNS can; PCK*May; PON May; MOK m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y; PNG m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y;MRS can; KIR maai, (te)-mai; PEO *maRi (Geraghty 1990) (TON mei). Note: KSRmos does not appear to be related.

PMC *[mai.sub.] 'from': CHK me, me; PUL me me; crl me; STW me, WOL me; PUA ma PCK *me; KIR May. Cf. SAA mai 'here, from'; BUG can here; ARO mai 'here'; KWA mai'hither'; PCB *May.

PCMC *maia 'where from?': CHK (ke-naa) meey 'are you from f.w.?'; KIR (ko nako) Maia are you coming f.w.?'.

PCMC *ma[iu][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'left-handed': CHK-mee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], -mmee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'l. h., l. Page'; PUL (huyi)-meeyu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],(yii)-meeyu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be on l. s' PCK ?*mau[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]yn-(t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l) 'be l. H.'; MOKmey[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'l.'; MRS (male)-miyi[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'l. hand, left half of human body”; KIR mai[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'l. H.' See PEO *ma[iu]Ri'l. hand' (Geraghty1990) (SAA mauli, maumeuli; LAU mouli; KWA mooli 'different, in the wrong direction', [after vt.] 'l.h.'; PKB *mauLi 'l.h.').

PMC *maki 'worn with age': CHK mes 'be w. from (of household items and clothing), to be frail with age', (ine)-mes 'the name of a goddess associated with love magic' (lit 'mother carried with age'); PUL mah 'be w. aus', mahi-(n) 'w. things out'; WOL magi 'fade, grow weak', (ge)-magi-(i) 'let it lose color'; PCK *maki; PON mek 'curved'; MOK me 'tired' KSR mae 'old, w., frayed'. Note theh in PUL and [theta] in MOK and KSR, where we would expect relative PUL relief, h suggesting that the word is a borrowing from CHK, CRL ile-mas, ili-mes, li-mas and CRN ine-mes is. Love Medicine' appears to be borrowed from CHK.

PCMC *makua 'to vomit': CHK meku 'to burp'; CRL maghu and CRN magu 'to regurgitate milk after feeding (a baby)'; PUA makua 'to be nauseous'; PCK *makua; PON makiaki 'to sob'; KIR (te)-makua "a full source", makua "to be a full source". Cf. WOL mmee 'to feel sick, to vomit'.

PMC *malala 'area without vegetation': CHK Mannaan 'grassland (treeless, open)'; STW melaal 'free ground'; PON shopping center 'a natural clearing in the forest, barren area, an area with little clay'; MOK times 'barren field'; MRS me[a] 'playground of demons, not inhabitable by humans'; POC*malala (BUG mathathe "garden"; PKB malala "vegetation-free ground"). Cf. Km mane 'worn out, worn out'; KSR admonishable, empty, fruitless, sterile. See also PCK *malle, hanhan,(ka)-hanhan-(a), han-di- 'ground free of vegetation, welding field'; and cf. Marck (1994:322) PMC *mala and *malala.

PMC *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku 'forget': MRTmalluk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'f. (s.t.)'; PUL malleki-(y),malleka-(a-lo) 'to f.'; CRL malegh 'be forgetful', mallegu-(u-w) 'f. (s.t.)'; CRN malleg 'be forgetful', malegi-(i-y) 'f. (s.t.); PCK *maleku, maleku; PON manok[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-la), makane-([UKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-la)'to f, (s.t.)', manokonoko-(la) 'f., be forgetful'; MOKmolukluk 'be forgetful', molko, molk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(la)'to f. (s.t.)'; MRS me[l.sub.][ak.sup.w][l.sub,s][ak.sup.w]'to forget to be forgotten'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lki-n'to f., be forgetful, lose (s.t.)'. The reflexive n instead of l in the Pohnpchen forms is unexpected. The MRS form reflects *malakolako; The use of -lol-la directional with PUL, PON, and MOK forms suggests that this is a contamination of earlier *maleku-lako (see PMC *lako, laa 'go, proceed, [as direction] away' ). See also PCMC *maluoki, maluoka 'to forget', PMc *ma-lie 'to forget'.

PMc *[malem.sup.w]u 'to drown': PUL [molom.sup.w]; WOL[malemw]u; PCK*[malemw]u; MRS ma[l.sub.][e[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w]; KSR walom. MRS replaces the expected [[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w], possibly different from m (a [[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w]l[m.s.sub.w] change is not uncommon); tung[ls] is also unexpected.

PMC *ma-lie 'forget': PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-li[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-la) 'toforget (honorably)'; MRS mma-leyley "absent, forgetful, ignorant"; KSR m[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-lye-(la) 'forgetful, forgetful, absent'. See also PMC *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku 'to forget', PCMC *maluoki, maluoka 'to forget'.

PCMC *menuki, menuki 'common': CHK menuuki,menuuka-(a-no) 'f. that, lass is bleiben'; STW maluweki-(y) ''; WOL maluweki-(li-i) 'b. that, lass is in the meaning rutschen'; PUA manueki 'to be confused, f. vergeben'; PCK*malueki; KIR manuoka 'two f. (s.t.)' See also PMC *maleku,maleleku, malekuleku 'forget', PMc PMc *ma-lie 'forget'

PMc *mamata 'stand guard, stay awake': CHK mmas 's.w.', mmasa, mammasa 'w. above, keep it'; MRT mmas 'guardian', (a)-mmasa-(a-ta) 'wake him up'; PUL mahan (sic)'w. On top.)'; CRL mmas and CRN mmah 'to w., wait and see, be awake', maha-(a-ta), maha-(lo) 'wake up'; STW mmas'awake'; WOL mmase 'to w., look at s.t., guard, peer ats.t.', mmesa-(a) 'w. him, protect him, look at him', mmate 'open your eyes, get up, wake up'; PUA mmata 'to be awake, to get up, to open one's eyes'; PCK *mmata; MRS mmej 'to be awake, stay up'; POC *mamata (RED mahaga "to wake up from sleep"; LAK mamata "to be awake"). Cf. KWA mother 'wait'. See PMC *mata 'eye, face'.

PMC *mam[ei] 'a big fish': CHE maam 'big sp. ofwrasse f.'; PUL mam (sic) 'a kind of l. f. (perhaps awrasse)'; CRL maam' sp. of wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus)'; PCK?*mam[ei]; MRS main, (Jewish)-mam 'any l. b.'; PMP *Mamin'wrasse' (Blust 1986:63). See PMC *mami 'sweet'.

PMc *mami 'cute': MRT mem 'coconut flavor'; PUL remember, remember; CRL mother, member; STW mmm, memmmm; WOL mors.', (if)-mor-(i) 'do it s.'; PCK *mother; PON member; MRSmame-s (<*mami-ta?) 's., freshwater'; KIR(te)-mam 'fresh water'; KSR (e)-[m.sup.w]em's.', (e)-[m.sup.w]emi 'tosweet (s.t.)'; PEO mom. (Fu and TON mami 'a kind of banana';

SAA mami 'to taste'; BUG mami'; AROMami 'sweet, fresh water'; KWA mami 'normal taste, brackish water'); UAN *moms. See LAK malama's.'.

PMC *mana, manamana 'to be efficient, to have spiritual power', 'efficiency, s.p.': CHK man, manaman; MRI Manaman; PULManaman; STW Malaman, WOL. (kke)-he; PCK *mana, manaman; PON man 'effective', manaman 'magical, mystical, magical, spiritual'; MOK manman spiritually strong, able to cast spells'; MRS manman 'haunted, with supernatural s.'; KSR [m.sup.w][enm.sup.w]en 'miracle, magic', [m.sup.m][enm.sup.w]eni 'act magically'; PEO *mana (PPN *mana, Fo mana; SAA nanama 'powerful'; BUG mana 'spiritual p.'; KWA nanama 'bestows supernatural p.').

PMC *ma-[nn]awa 'Leben, lebendig': CHK ma-naw 'l., Gesundheit, long a.', (a)-ma-nawa 'gib ihm l.'; MRT ma-nawa-(n)'sein l.'; PUL ma-naw, (go)-not; CRL ma-law, (a)-law; CRNma-naw, (a)-without; STW ma-nawa-(n) 'seine L., Existent'; WOLme-lawe 'to be.'; PCK *ma-nawa; MRS throat- „Bart, Atem“, me-newnew „atmen“; KIR (te)-ma-nawa 'die Bauchhöhle'; POC *ma-nawa 'Judge' (Ross 1988) (PPN *ma-nawa'Judge'; ARo ma-nawa 'Judge'); UAN *your'soul'. Vgl. MOK moo[eta] 'atmen'; KSR mon[eta]-(l)'seine Braut, seufz'

PMC *ma-nifi, ma-nifi 'thin, weak': CRL ma-lifilif't.'; STW ma-lifilif; WOL ma-løft, ma-lifilifi 'to be, deficient'; PUA ma-nidi 'be t. (of flat objects)', ma-nidinidi 'a slice, a cut piece of cloth'; SNS card; PCK *ma-left,ma-left; PON me-vote 't. (of flat objects like paper)';MOK mi-nipinip; FRU ma-sige 't., thin'; KIR's sons-in-law; KSR(se)-mi-nini 'not t.'; PEO *ma-nipi (PPN *ma-nifi; ARO ma-nihi; KWAma-nifi 'small sea fish'); UAN * is also.

PCMC *hand 'waterproof, not leaking': CHK mon; PUL. mon;WOL-wheat; PCK *hand; KIR hand. See FU, malu.

PMC *manu 'living creature of land or air': CHK maan,menu-(n), (e)-men 'l. c., l. c., a l. c.'; MRI hand, hand(n);PUL hand, hand(n); CRL was, malu-(l) and CRN was; STW maan, manu-(n),(e) times; WOL thing, man(s); PUA manu, manu-(with), (by)-hand; PCK *manual, (non)manual; PON maan, m[epsilon]ni-(n) 'animal, insect'; MOK maan;MRS mani-(ddik) 'a small insect', man-(ni-miwij) 'white gull'; KIR (te)-man 'animal, bird', (te)-mani-(nn-ara) 'mosquito', (te)-man-(ni-kiba) 'bird'; KSR maen, meni-(n) 'animal, insect'; POC *manuk (Ross 1988) (PPN *manu 'animal, bird'; Fu manumanu 'bird'; SAA manu 'bird, insect'; BUG manu 'bird'; KWA manu 'bird'; LAU manu 'bird'; PKB *manu 'bird'); UAN *manuk "chicken, bird" Note that PUL means "chicken"; CRL malugh 'chicken'; WOL maluge 'chicken, hen' and PONmal[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'chicken' are borrowed, more from PAL Malk than from CHM Mannak.

PCMC *manu 'a bright star': CHK maan 'the s. Sirius or Procyon, name of a sidereal month'; PUL maan 'a scattered cluster of stars, Canopus, Sirius, Procyon, the name of a sidereal month'; CRL and CRN mean 'the S. Sirius, month in the celestial calendar'; STW maan'Procyon, Sirius, Canopus'; WOL maalu 'the Fr. Sirius', PUA maanu 'a sidereal month equated with September'; PCK *maanu;KIR man (sic) 'Canopus' (Bender et al. 1984). See also PMC *manu 'living creature on land or in the air'.


PMC *ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'think, think, remember': CHK ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i-(y), me[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u-u-(w) 'admire it'; MRT ma[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ima[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 't. about the'; PULma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ima[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'Thought, sat.', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(i-y) 'Remember'; CRLma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ima[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'think, think, idea', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i-(y) 'remember, remember, remember or t. about (s.t.)', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ali) 'remind (one) of (s.t.)'; STWma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'remember', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]una[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't.'; WOL ma[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ime[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to., remember, ponder, consider, expect', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i-(ye) 't. about it, expect it, remember', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(togo) 'to be reminded, to come to mind'; PUA me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 't. about it, remember', me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ime[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'to think', (ka)-me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ani) 'take care of him'; PCK *ma[KEYBOARD ICON]i,ma[UNKEYBOARD ICON]ima[UNKEYBOARD ICON]i; PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l) 'talk to oneself'; MRSma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'know better, don't learn'; KSR(aek)-m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-ye 'ignore, ignore (s.t.)'. See KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'see, think'.



PMC *ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'pandanus leaf': CHK#mee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u- 'cured p.1.', me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u soft, flexible '; PUL maa[UNKEYABLE ICON], ma[UNKEYABLE ICON]i-; WOL maa[UNKEYABLE ICON]u, ma[UNKEYABLE ICON]u-; PUAmaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u, ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u- 'dry p.1.'; PCK *ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; MRS maha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL];KIR ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u, ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'shiny and smooth (like oiled hair)'; KSRm*e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's.'. Cf. PEO*(ma)rog[ou] 'withered' (Geraghty 1990). Also note PON me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'withered, dry, dead vegetation'; MOK me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'dried up, dead (leaves), brown (from dried vegetation)' and mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE(n)]o- ' P .key, his s.k., s.k. from'. MRS length unclear.

PCMC *gives 'a fish': PON mook; Km(te) hands. Cf. LAKmao 'a f.'

PMC *mara 'preserved breadfruit': CHK maar, mare-(n)'p. b., s.b. of (a kind or place)', mara-(a-n), mara-(-n)'his s.b., s.b. from (see above)'; MRI Maar; PUL maar, mera-(n); CRLmaars. b.', mar 'to be rotten, to be moldy (of fruits and vegetables), to smell foul'; STW Maar; WOL maare, mera-(li)'s. b., s.b. from, do s.b.'; PUA maala, mala- "wrapped Pb." PCK *mara; PON Maar; IOC March; KSR mar 'core of p. b.'; POC *mara (PPN *mara 'fermented', FIJ mara 'hollow earth, like agrove', LAK [la-ulu e]-mala 'ripe breadfruit'). See also PMC*maca, mamaca 'very ripe, lazy'.

PMC *maraa 'light weight': CHK(a)-mere, -maraa-(n) 'canoe sail, s. of'; MRT(a) -mmara 'to sail'; PUL(ye)-mara 'canoe-sail'; CRL(a)-mara 'canoe sail'; STW(a)-mara 'canoe sail'; WOL mmaraa 'be quick, quick, quick', (ga)-mmeraa-li-(i) 'do it quick, hurry up'; PCK *mmaraa, maraa;PON maraara 'quick, quick (of a moving object), light (in weight)';MOK maraara 'light in weight'; MRS merah 'light in weight, mild, delicate, mild, subtle'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]laelae 'light, thin, slender'; PEO *maRaqa 'Lightweight' (Geraghty 1990). The Eastern Chuuk words for "sail" appear to be a locally innovative causal construction (cf. PCMC *yuwe "a sail").

PMC *ma-rama 'Mond': Se PMC *rama, ma-rama'hell, leuchtend'.

PMC *ma-rawa 'green, blue': MRS mahrewrew, -mahrew'g., born; KIR mawawa (probably *ma-awawa) 'g.'; PEO *ma-rawa (SAA ma-rawa 'to be blackish or purple [of nuts before ripening]'; ARO ma-rawa 'g., b.'; KWA ma-lakwa 'g., fresh, unripe'). See. . PCK? *karawa, karawawa 'blue, green', PCK *ma-arawa 'green (of fruit), immature'.

PMC "thirsty": MOK mare; MRS mare; KSRmal[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; POc *marequ (SAA marou "thirst"; AROmareu "wither"; LAK malehu "thirsty"). Cf. UAN*qa(q)us 'thirst'. See also CRL [m.sup.w] or 'to be drydup' and KIR [m.sup.w]aau 'dry', (te)-[m.sup.w]-aau 'dryness'. And cf. PCK *maaro "thirsty", PMC *maaru "out of breath".

PMC *masa, mamasa 'to be flat, to be dry': CHK mmat 'bell. t.', (a)-mmat 'soaked up (like water), a sponge', (a)-mmata 'to soak or float up'; MRI mmat; PULmmat; CRL mmat'be d., low (of water), be l. t.', (a)-mmat 'bailer', (e)-mmate 'to bail (a canoe)'; STW mmat; WOL mmate 'l. T., Tel. t. be released on bail”; PUA mmate 'l. t., bed., flat, saved';PCK *mmada; PON gal, mmad 'be d.'; MOK gal 'part of the reef exposed a l. t.', gal-(da) 'to d. above (from the reef)'; MRS mmat 'comes out of the water, comes into view after being hidden',matter 'mushroom'; KIR mara 'bald'; KSR [m.sup.w]es 'shallow place in the reef'; PEO*maza'd., l. t.' (Geraghty1983) (PPN *ma[hs]a 'd.'; FIJ maca 'empty [of liquids], d.'; LAK mamara-[ti] 'cursed, dried up [by water in the tree hollow]'); UAN *maja 'd.'; PAN *maja, mamaja (Blust1978:98). Also note MRS Mahat 'empty, no more, all gone, exhausted'. See LAK masaga 'd.'. See also Marck (1994:314) PMC*masa

PMC *masaki 'hurts, hurts': CHK metek, meteki-; pubmetak; CRL meta tag; CRN metaage; STW metaku (sic); WOL metagy; PUA watch; SNS(ka)mataki; PCK *large; PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k; MOK modoc; MRS metak; KIR large; KSR at[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k;PEO *ma-saki (PPN *masaki; SAA mata'i 'has an attack of malarial fever'; ARO mata'i 'has fever'; KWA mata'i 'fever'); UAN *pain.

PMC *masu 'satiated (with food or drink)': CHK met 'bes.', (e)-metu 'cause he s.'; MRI met; PUL mat; CRL mat,(a)-matu-(w); STW mat; WOL matu, (ge)-matu-(u); PUA matu; PCK *Food; PONm[UNKEYABLE ICON]d; MOC mod; MRS mat; KIR mari 'genuine, plentiful (as a fruit)'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t 'full, swelling, plentiful, plentiful'; PEO*mazu (Geraghty 1983); POC *mazu (FIJmacu; TON mahu 'productive [of land and soil], have plenty of food'; ARO masu 'have enough, be sated, be satiated'; BUG mahu 'full of food, be sated'; PKB *mazu ' full [only stomach]').

PMc *ma-[sS]ali 'smooth': MRT-metel; PON (ka)-madal'to s. out (s.t.)', medendel's. and flat', MOKm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l;PNG m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l; MRS metal (metaltel, distributive form) 's., slim, slick(distributive form)'s., slim, slick'; KIR maran 'straight (like the hair)'; PEO *(ma)-[sz]ali, (ma)-n[sz]ali (RED marari 'p.'; SAA madali, mamadali 'fatty, smooth'; BUG dadali 'p.', madali 'happy'; ARO madari 'wet and slippery'). Cf. ARO [m.sup.w]adiri 'smooth, smooth'. Cf. PMc *ma-[sS]aLu,ma-[sS]aLu[sS]aLu 'smooth (of the surface)' given by Goodenough (1995:77).

PMc *ma[sS]o 'arranged': CHK moot, [m.sup.w]oot'c.', [m.sup.w]oot-(kkay) 'be c. fast'; MRT[m2]oot, (yo)-oot; PUL [m.sup.w]oot 'c.', (yo)-[m.sup.w]oot, (yo)-[m.sup.w]oot 'to cook', (ya)-[m . w]ota 'cookit', (yo)-[m.sup.w]ota-(sic) 'mad c. (through så.)'; CRL[m.sup.w]oot 'be c.', (a)-[m.sup.w]oot 'to cook',(a)-[m.sup.w]oota 'to cook ( s.t. )'; STW (a)-mmoot 'to cook'; WOL mette 'c.', (ga)-met, (ga)-mett 'cook, prepare food', (ga)-meta-(a), (ga)-metta -(a) 'prepared'; ULI (ge)-mad'C.'; PUA mete, mette 'c.', (ka)-mete 'cookit'; SNS meta; PCK ? *mado, ripe; MRS mat KIR (tea)-maro-(a) 'food, refreshment'; PEO *m[ao]so (PPN *so 'c.'). Cf. KSR mol, molmol 'c., boiled' (possibly on loan from KIR). ogsåSAA wounded 'c.'; BUG source 'c.'.

PMc *ma-sawa 'deep sea, open sea': CHK ma-taw; MRTma-taw; PUL me law; CRL I-don't want to, I won't; STW fulfilled; WoL me-tawe; PUA ma-four; PCK *unpainted; PON ma-daw; MOK ma-daw; PNG m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-right; MRSme pots; KIR ma-rawa; KSR with [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and 'sea'; PEO*ma-sawa (THE ma-tawa; FOR ma-takwa). See also Marck (1994:308) PMc *mazawa Cf. PPN *was 'o. s.', *waa 'interval of space or time'; FIJ Wasa, wasawasa 'S., ocean', maa-cawa 'a space or interval'; BUG what 'd. (from s.), d. S'

PMc *maSeru 'hiccup': PUL mater; STW feeder; WoLmateru; ULI muther 'to burp'; PUA matalu; PCK *madaru; KIR motion sickness; KsRmael 'to be short of breath', mael-(fwey [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'to make out, to gulp, to gulp'. Also note PON mar[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]rand MOK malt 'h.'. See YAP Mathoer, Mathow 'h.'.

PMc *mata 'øje, Gesicht': CHK maas, masa-(n), mese-(n) 'øje, Gesicht, Hans e., e. af'; MRT maas, mesa-(n); PUL maah, meha-(n), meha-(n); CRL maas. mesa-(l); CRN maah, maha-(n); WOL maate, meta-(le),meta-(li); PUA maata, mata-; SNS-Maata; PCK *mata; PON maas, m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'ansigt, hans f.' ; MOK maj,mij"", miije-(n); FRU maj meja-; KIR maata, (te)-mata, mata-(na), mata-(ni); KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ta-; POc *mata (Ross 1988) (FIJ mata; PPN *mata; BUG mata; SAA maa; LAU maa; KWA maa; PKB *mata); UAN *mata. Se ogås PMc *mamata 'stå vagt, bliv vågen'.

PMc *mata, ara-mata 'person, people': CHK ara-mas,para-mase-(n) 's., s. of'; MRI day-month; PUL Ms-mah; CRL tag-more are-more; CRN ara-mah; mass of STW disease; buddy with WOL disease; PUA increased; MAP yarmat;PCK *ar[ac]-mata; PON ara-mas; MOK or can; Mrs. Harmej; KIR (not)-ao eyes; KSR[mw]et; PEO *mata (FIJ mata 'a company of s. after a certain profession'). KIR or unexplained.

PCMc *mata-aro 'lagoon side (of an island)': CHKmoso-or, moso-oru-(n) 'nearby, inner, or inhabited side, along, along of'; WoLmeta-aro 'the shore, beach side'; PCK *mata-aro;KIK mata-ao 'the next page'. See PMc *mata 'eye, face', PCMc *aro- 'coast, beach'.

PMc *ma-taku 'fear, fear': CHK me-sek; 'bear.', (e)-me-seku 'kill him a.', me-seki-(iti) 'f. him, horrified at him'; MRI me-Sec; PUL me-hak 'be a', me-haku-(w)'f. Him'; CRL me-sagh, ma-sagh, me-sagh and CRN me-hag, ma-hag; STWme case; WOL me-tagu-(u) 'Be afraid, be one. of'; PUAma-taku; PCK *ma-taku; PON ma-sak 'sei a. from or f. (so.)'; MoKmi-jik a. 'frightened', (ka)-mi-jiki 'to frighten (s.a.)'; MRS mi-jak'f., horror, a.'; KIR ma-aku (losing *t before *k)'a.', ma-aka 'f. (So.)'; KSR mo-tok 'feel welcome, uncomfortable, awkward'; POc *ma-taku(t) (Ross 1988) (PPN*ma-taku; SAA m-a'u; ULA ma-a'u; BUG ma-tagu; LAU mou,, momou; KWAm-a'u ' a. 'shy'; LAK ma-tao); UAN *[tT]acute 'fear'.

PWMc *matamata 'a fish': CHK masamas 'sp. by porgyf. (with big eyes)'; PUL mahamah 'Snapper (Monotaxisgrandoculis)'; CRL Masamas and CRN Mahamah 'sp. of edible red f.'; PCK*matamata; MRs mejmej 'snapper (f.)'. See PMc *mata 'eye, face'.

PMc * Augennippel 'nipple' (literally 'point of the breast or breastfeeding'): MRI mesa-n tuut; STW medium pile; WOL metal Li-Ttu; PCK*black-eyed, black-eyed; PEO *eye-and-suzu (FU meta-and-sucu). See also YAP People E-Words. Compare CHK mese-n dead[p.sup.w] 'nipple'. See PMc*mata 'eye, face', PMc *sulu 'torch'.

PMC *mate 'die, pass out': CHK ma, maa-; Pulma; CRL ma 'to die', maa 'dead'; STW ma, maa-; WOL mase ULImas; PUA manufactured; SNS created; MAP must; PCK *mate; PON mee-(la); MOKm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-; MRS. Mej; KIR Kumpel, KSR [m.sup.w]et 'to die', mis[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'death, to die'; POC *mate(PPN *mate; FIJ partner; SAA mae, PKB *mate); UAN * matay.

PCMC *mati-ciki 'a star': CHK maa-chik 'a s., name of a sidereal month'; CRL maai-shigh 'a sidereal month'; PUAmadi-siki 'a sidereal month equated with April)'; PCK *ler-ciki;MRS (le)-majs-pik-pik 'a page in Scorpio (prefix indicates the man's name)'; KIR mati-riki 'a s.'. Cf. MRS majet-dikdik 'Constellation composed of Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta Sagittarius' CHK shape (rather than the expected *may-chik) appears to be a loan.

PCMC *mati-lapa 'Altair, constellation Aquila': CHKmaa-lur 'the star A. (Alpha Aquilae) and ca. composed of Alpha, Beta and Gamma Aquilae, a sidereal month'; PUL maay-lap (sic) 'A., sidereal month'; CRL Maai Patch; STW maai-lur 'A.'; WOL maai -lape (sic)'A.'; PUA madi-napa 'year, age, one month equals May'; PCK *maati-lapa; MRS Maj-lep 'A., approximately composed of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Aquilae'; KIR mati-naba 'three stars in Capricorn' (Bender et al. 1984). The CHK form (instead of the expected *maayi nap) could be due to an old loan from MRS.

PMC *ma-toa, ma-toatoa 'firm, hard, strong': CHK ma-aw,ma-awa- 'f., h., ready to be picked but not quite ripe', (fatan)ma-aw 'walk hard and heavy, trample, walk restlessly in the presence of an important person', (maa)-ma-aw 'h. locality, shallow area dotted with sharp coral (maa 'behaviour, manner, habit')'; PULma-awo (sic) 'be ripe and ready to eat (as banana or breadfruit)', (maa)-ma-aw 's., healthy, vigorous'; CRLma-aw 'be ripe but not yet soft or sweet', (maa)-ma-aw 'be s., mighty'; STW Mamma-aw's.'; WOL ma-awe 'be s., ready toat, ripe, mature', (maa)-ma-awe 'be s., power', ma-sowe, ma-sowasowe 'be s., h., be ripe or ready to be picked (as breadfruit)'; PUA ma-doa 'be h., p.'; PCK *ma-toa; MRSma-yevev 'f., s., fixed'; KIR ma-toa, ma-toatoa 'f., h.'; PEO *toRa 'tree, Intsia bijuga' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *toa 'hardwood tree'; FIJ doa 'heartwood of a tree [solid and dark]'; BUG tola 'big canoe' [made of hardwood?]; LAUola 'big canoe '; ARO ora 'a species of wood from which the finest canoes are made'; KWA ma-oa 'species of wood from which boards are made for the manufacture of canoes'; PKB *toLa 'f.'); UAN *teRas 'h., hardwood'. Cf. PON maa 'ripe'; MOK must be "mature, middle-aged." Note the duplicates in WOL and the absence of the expected l in the KWA form.

PMC *untouchable, untouchable, untouchable „dick“: CHKma-anuun „sei t. (on the contrary)”, (a)-ma-anuunu “he is a dick, he is a dick”; MRT not-aluable, PUL not-alien (sic) 'be t. (complete Paper), Dicke'; CRL ma-alien, ma-alien, material; CRN non-Aluel, STW non-Aluel; WOL ma-aluyelu 'to be t., you are packed, nah', (ge)-ma-aluyelu-(u-vi) 'do it t.'; GELB is not understood; PUA ma-danu'be t., Dicke'; PCK *not-telu, tetelu, telutu; PON Mosul; MRS my-jewel, my-jewel 't., Dicke'; KIR ma-ten "dick," ma-tenten "Dicke"; KSR pronoun 't., nah', pronoun 'sehr t., taub'; STEAM *ma-tolu (TON ma-tolu't. [from Card or Paper]'). Vgl. also PKB *mata-tulu 'free'.

PMC *maturu 'sleep': CHK sleep, sleep-; Great MRI; PULMA watch; CRL main compartment; STW growth; WOL is not available; PUA seats; PCK *ripe; PONm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]year; MOK m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yr; PNGm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]year; MRS [major.sup.w]; KIR head; mutual KSR; PEO*maturu (PEO*ma'uru). See POC *headR (Ross 1988:461); UAN *tiDuR,tuDuR. See also PKB 'sleepy'.

PMC *mau, mau-ni 'trade, acquire in trade': CHK me 'trade, sell, pay', mee-ni 'buy', (a)-meeme 'sell (s.t.)', (kka)-me ' to buy, to be bought'; MRT(kka)-me 'to buy'; PUL mee-(n) 'his expense', mee-ni 'buy (s.t.)', (kka)-mig 'to buy'; CRL mee-(l) 'itscost', mee-(lo) 'to be sold out', mee-li 'to buy(s.t.)', (a)-mee-(w), (a)-meemee-(w ) ) 'buy (s.t.)'; CRNmee-ni 'to buy (s.t.)'; STW (kka)-I "buy"; WOL (kka)-mee 'buy', (kka)-mee-li-(i) 'buy'; PCK *mee, mee-ni-;KSR mou-l 'buy, save', mo-li 'buy (s.t.)'. See PCMC*[p.sup.w]ai 'value object'.

PMC *maura 'cold or cough, breathing hard': CHK moor'head c., chest cold, have c. or cough'; PUL mor (sic) 'b.h., have a c', CRL [m.sup.w]oor 'being out of breath, breathing heavily (as from exertion or asthma)'; KIR(te)-maua 'the spout or nostril of the sperm whale'; KSR wants to be "breathless". Compare PCK *[m.sup.w]or[ae] 'strong wind'.

PMC *mauri 'alive': STW mawur 'unopened bud (plant)'; WOL mauru 'be fresh, green, a. (as plants)', mauruuru 'to be very green'; PUA maulu 'be a. (of plants), green'; PCK *mauru; PON rocks 'a., raw'; MOK mow a, fresh, raw, life'; MRS mewir 'live, life, existence, & healed'; KIR(te)-maiu (indicates metathesis) 'life', maiu 'a. to be, to live, to be a comfortable state of mind or body'; KSR gal 'a., live';POc *maquri(p) (Ross 1988) (PPN *maquri 'life, life-principle, one, soul'; Fu mauri-[mu] 'your good health!'; SAA mauri 'live 'to be, regain health'; LAU mouri, mori, mamori 'to live'; KWA mauli 'a'; LAK mahuli 'life, good health'); PAN *qudip 'a' (Ross 1988) (cf. UAN *quDip). Note that Km mauli 'to be in good health' is an obvious borrowing from SAMmauli.

PMc? *mawa 'gap, be open': CHK children 'toy., a y.'; MRI fauces; PUL touch-(n-ate1) 'to y.'; CRL.(a)-where-(1), where-(l.atel) 'to y.'; WOL moo-(1i step) 'to y.,a y.'; PuA feet; PCK? *mawa, mawa, will be; uppercase PON-(d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l); MOK Mother;; KIR Kummer 'out of breath from fatigue'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] PEO? *sorry, sorry (Fu [laa]-sorry 'toy.,yawn'; SAM maavava 'to y.', TON mamao [? <*mamawa] 'toy.'; SAA [ahi]-sorry 'to y.' ; BUG maonaova 'to y.,gape'); UAN *barn's 'opening, mouth'. See PUL mmol "exhausted, breathless, exhausted"; SAA sin 'to scream'; AROMawa "scream" There are problems here.

PMc *mawo 'healed, wiped out': CHK mo 'abolished, wiped out, wiped out, ended, healed', moo 'remains, scar, place or place of previous activity', moo-(nu-pis) 'abandoned, having place' , (o)-moo-(y) 'get rid of, erase, wipe out'; MRTmo 'to heal', moo.(la) 'be h.'; PUL mo 'to disappear, to be erased, h.', mo (sic), moo-(n) 'scar or trace of', (o)-moo-(ye-lo) 'to erase it, to heal it ( like a wound)'; CRL mo'to have h.'; STW mo 'h.', moo-(lo) 'h. up';WOL moo 'be h., healed, erased (from the fire), erased',(ge)-moo-(vi) 'erase it, erase it, heal it, heal it'; PCK*mawo, maawo, mawo-, (ka)-mawo-(a); PON mo 'to heal', moo-(n oola) 'scar', mowe 'his scar, mark, ruin'; MOK mo 'rev.'; MRS mew "to heal"; KIR mao'h. (as a wound) (Eastman1948:53); KSR mae 'whole', mae (in p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]laen) 'scar, spot, scab'; PEO *mafo (Fu mavo'h. [of a wound]'; BUG mavo 'heal, be h.'; LAO mafo 'be h.'; KWAmafo-[te'e-nia] 'forget, allow slip'). See. LAK mahavu 'h. (a wound').

PMc *mawolo 'hole, cavity': CHK-moon, mondu-(n)'h., c., h. of', (nee) moon 'h., c., h. place, valley, inside' ; MRT mole-(n) (sic) 'h., depression, area of ​​the armpit', (lee)-mool 'area within the elbow or amphibian'; PUL mool,mooli-(n) 'empty hull, approx. i.e. f'; STW(1ee)-moolo- "area under the arm or inside the elbow"; WOL moolo 'chest'; PCK *maalo or *mawolo; MRS mawal 'period between series of large waves'; SAAmaholo 'space, time interval or distance'. Cf. KIR [m.sup.w]ano' indented, have an h. 'pressed', (te)-[m.sup.w]ancno 'narrow depression or pit'. See Marck(19943I8) PMc *malo concavity, depression, valley' (open question due to lack of adaptation of the KIR forms).

PCMc *ma-wono 'sved': CHK mo-onoon, mo-onoone-(n), mo-onoonu-(n) 's., sved, s. af'; PUL mo-onyon(sic),<*mo-ono-yon?); CRL. ([b.wup.w]oo-l)mo-oliyol, [m.sup.w]o-oliyol.[m.sup.w]-oliyal; PuA ma.onaona (sic, <*ma-onaona?); PCK ?*ma-wonoono;KIR ma-ono. See FIJ

PMc? *ma[w[theta]u[sS][au] 'tilberedt': CHK moot,[m.sup.w]oot, [m.sup.w]ooto-(mman) 'c., c. Langsam'; PUL[m.sup.w]oot og (y6)-[m.sup.w]ota- 'ting c.'; CRI. [m.sup.w]oot, [m.sup.w],oota-; WOL Mette; PuA mete; PCK? *maud[ao]; MRS matt; POC ?*maus[aol (PPN moso; LAK mausa). Jf. KIR [m.sup.w]ai-raoi (?<*[m.sup.w]aira-raoi) 'godt tilberedt'.

PMc *mece-en 'pointed thing': CHK mache- 'long protrusion, spike, spine', macha, mecha, macha-a-(n) 'sharp long protrusion, beak or beak (of fish), horn, spine, metal nail, metal, iron', Mache-(w), Mache-(wa.n) 'roaring tail, spear (with deer attached to it), it s.t,'; PUL meRe-(n) 'top of, end of, top of, top of', meRa 'metal, iron' (probably from iron nail); CRL. maash, meshe-(l) 'point, peak, border, edge, headland, small peninsula, t.', meshe 'steel, iron, scrap', mesehe.(n), meshe-(ne-l ) 'unopened peak or main stem of a tree, t.of”; CRN meRe 'steel, iron, scrap', meRe-(n) 'unopened top or main shoot of a tree'; WOL meeshe, meshe-'top end (of a rod)'; PuA meese- 'end, hem'; PCK *mece'end, tip, point', *mece-ya's. Thing'; PONm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'metal, nail, badge, spear for a harpoon'; MRS mede 'chisel'; KSR asra 'spear, nail, metal'. The PON form is felt by some speakers to be free of English metal (Rehg and SohI 1979: 59). In KsR the initial * occasionally became labio velar and is reflected by w or [theta] - the latter, especially when the following vowel develops as KSR o.

PMc *me-sein 'hvad?': Se PMc *-his, me-That'intenogative suffiks'.

PMc *mena 'thing': CHK meen; mine.(n) 't., t. from, man (not woman), relative, friend, polite address to a man whose authority one is not subject to', (ne)-min 'woman, polite address to a woman'; PUL miin' the person or t. Under Discussion'; CRL miil, mili- and CRN mini- 'person (known but unspecified), t., object'; WOL mele 'this t.', mele-(vi) 'that t.', mela-(i), min-(ni) 't., means or tool for orof'; PUA means "this"; PCK *mena; PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 't., one of, t. from'; MOKmii-(n) 'thing of'; MRS men 'thing, case, object; a person without a name'; KIR(te)-mena 't.'; KSR ma 'one, t. (indefinite pronoun)', [m.sup.2]e- 't.', mee-(n) 'one of, t. of the ancestor'. Compare PON mai[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'sir, madam'; PPN*meqa 't.'. See also PMC *mena-a 'to do (s.t.)'.

PCMc *mena 'live, dwell, exist': WOL mile 'stay, l.'; PUA mine 'stay, l.'; PON mi 'exist (a locative verb), be (in a place)', mi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'exist (an existential verb)'; KIR mena 'to stay, d.'. MOK mine'exist, be somewhere, l., live, there is or are' similar to aloan. See KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ta 'l.,stay'; CHK meyi, men, mmen 'to be (in a state)'; LAK moi, momoi 'to d.'.

PMC *mena-a 'do (s.t.)': CHK mina 'do s.t. repair (it), take care of (it), disturb (it), damage (it), destroy (it)', mina-a-(neni) 'do s.t. to (it), mess with (it), deceive with (it)'; PUL min, mina-(a) 'to treat, to care for, to arrange'; CRL mila 'do it to correct (a problem)'; KIR mena-a 'to do (s.t.)'; PEO *mena(SAA me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'ini) 'makes everything perfect'. The raised first vowel in the CHK and CRL forms contrasted with the KIR form attests to PMC *n .See also PMC *mena'thing'.

PMC *mera, meera 'yellow colored': PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r 'rusty, corroded'; MOK meer 'colored from coconut shells or fruit'; MRS mayar 'spotted, yellowish'; KIR meamea 'yellow', memea 'colored yellow by juice of green coconut shells'. See PEO *meRa 'red' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *me/q[theta]/a'reddish'; BUG metha, mela 'red'; ARO mera 'a sp. of small red fish'; KWA mela ' bright red ').

PMc *metu 'old times': CHK musu-(vi) 'old times'; CRL. [m.sup.w]oi-(vi), [m.sup.w]ei-(vi), 'the past (at least two or three generations ago), in olden days'; WOL [m.sup.w]oosu, [m.sup.w]osu-, [m.sup.w]asu-(wee) 'old'; ULI mesu-(vi) 'old times, long gone'; PUA Modu, module- 'old days';PCK *metu; MOK meej 'before, a long time ago'; KSR met "a long time ago". Note: [m w ] of CRL and WOL is probably a secondary formation. Also note that CHK [m.sup.w]uu, [m.sup.w]uu-, [m.sup.w]uu, [m.sup.w]uu- 'era, epoch', PON [ m .w]eey'reign, era' could be from the same PMC root. Cf. PON maas 'in the past, a long time ago'.

PMC *misi 'to smack the lips': CHK mmit, mitimit 'smakke with the lips, make a loud kissing sound', (e,)-mmiti'smack (the lips), let smack', miti-ri 'to smack' at kiss or suck on it noisily'; PUL with (sic) 'sounds made by pursing the lips', miti-i-(y) 'to make a kiss-like sound with pursed lips, conjure (p.a.) with this sound'; CRL m with "sounds made by smacking the lips or tongue to show displeasure at making such a sound"; PCK*mmidi, midimidi; KSR mitw-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'eat noisily, slurp'; PEO *misi 'sucks through the teeth' (Geraghty 1983) (Fumisi, misi-ka 'to pluck or nibble at [bats]'; PPN *misi 'sucking sound'). Also note PON meti-k miti-k 'to kiss(s.a.)'; MOK misi-k 'to kiss (see above on the cheek or hand)'; PPN 'suck, lick'; LAU Midi 'to taste'; PEO *midi < Pre-POC*minsi as a prenasalized variant. See also PPON *mici-ki "to kiss, to make a sucking sound".

PMC *[m.sup.w]a- prefix indicating to have a variable, oscillating or brooked state': CHK [m.sup.w]a-, [m.sup.w]a-, [m. sup. w]o-,[m.sup.w]e- (as in [m.sup.w]e-kinikin 'source'), [m.sup.w]e-,[m.sup.w]o -; MRT [m.sup.w]V- (vowels Varies); PUL [mw]a-, [mw]a-, CRL [mw]a-, [mw]a-, [mw]o -, [m.sup.w]e-, STW [m.sup.w] V-(vowel varies); WOL [mw]a-, [mw]e-; PUA [mw]a-; PCK*[mw]a-; PON [m.sup.w]a- (as in [m.sup.w]a-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ien'devious, deceptive'), [m.sup.w]e (as in [m.sup.w ] ]enininin'whisper', [m.sup.w]e-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]er 'spotted, spotted', [m.sup.w]e-rekirek'wrinkled'), [m.sup . . . . w]o- (as in [m.sup.w]o- cookie'whip'); MOK [m.sup.w]a-, [m.sup.w]e-, [m.sup.w]o-, MRS[m.sup.w]a- (as in [m.sup.w]). ] ][m.sup.w]aydikdik 'wipes'),[m.sup.w]e-; KIR [mw]a-; KSR wa- (as i wa-korkor 'killing'); PEO *[m.sup.w]a- (TON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-; THAT [m.sup.w]a-, ARO[m.sup .w]a-; KWA wa-). See PPC *[m.sup.w]a-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu 'flower', PWMC *-ali,-aliali, mwa-aliali 'craze, craze, confusing', PCMC *[m.sup .w]akusu 'to be in Being'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]aa 'actually (exclamation)': CHK [m.sup.w]aa'i., so, really (an exclamation)'; KIR [m.sup.w]a (sic) "exclamation of displeasure and surprise"; KSR was an "exclamation of surprise"; POC *[m.sup.w]aa (FIJ gaa 'just, just, anyway, but still [adverb]'; LAK ma'thus').

PMC *[m.sup.w]aane 'man, man: CHK [m.sup.w]aan 'm., male', [m.sup.w]aani-(n) 'her brother', [m .sup.w]aaneyan 'to be a brother and sister', [m.sup.w]aani-(i-nuk) 'younger brother', (a)-[m.sup.w]aani 'treat him as a middle-aged man'; PUL [m.sup.w]aan 'm.', [m.sup.w]aane-(n) 'brother of (a woman)'; CRL [mw]eel; CRN [mw]aan; STW [m.sup.w]aan.[m.sup.w]aani-(n) 'm., m. of'; WOL [m.sup.w]aale 'm.', [m.sup.w]aale-(nnape) 'uncle', [m.sup.w]aale-(tugofai,) 'old m.'; PUA [m f ]an; SNS [mw]an; PCK*[mw]an;PON[mw]an; MOK [mw]aan, , [mw]a; MRS [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ahan 'husband, husband, wife's brother'; KIR (te)-[m.sup.w]aane 'm', [m.sup.w]aane 'male', [m.sup.w]aane-(na) 'his/her sibling of opposite sex' ; KSR whom; PEO*[m.sup.w]aqane (FIJ gane 'siblings of the opposite sex'; TON[tuo]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a' ane 'brother of a woman'; BUGmane; SAA , [m.sup.w] ane ; LAU [m.sup.w]ane; ARO [m.sup.w]ane; KWA wane; LAK[hata]-han) 'm., man, brother of a woman'; PKB*tam[ou][h[theta]ane). See UAN *ba..Rani; PAN *RaqaNi 'commander, war leader' (Wolff 1993).

PMC *[m.sup.w]aau 'good, healthy': CHK [m.sup.w]aaw 'humble, reverent', (sa)- [m.sup.w]aaw 'sick' (lit.' not good')'; MRI (see)- [m.sup.w]aaw '[ill.sup.1]; PUL(he)-[mw]aay '[syg.sup.1]; CRL([m.sup.w]aa)-[m.sup.w]aay 'nice, nice, nice, g., h., successful'; STW([m.sup.w]aa)-[m.sup.w]aay 'beautiful', (see)-[m.sup.w]aay is sick'; WOL [m.sup.w]aau 'be g.' '(te)-[m.sup.w]aaw disease'; PUA mau (sic) 'be g., fine', (ta)-mau'sin, evil, fault, be mean, nasty, cruel'; PCK*[mw]aau,(ta)-[mw]aau; PON [m.sup.w]aaw 'g.', [m.sup.w]aaw-(ki) 'consider g., desire (s.t.)', (so)-[m.sup.w]aaw ' sickness, sickness'; MOK [m.sup.w] 'z. B. nice, nice'; KSR where 'g., will, satisfying, pleasant'. See also PCK *ta-[m.sup.w]aau-disease, to be ill'.

PWMC *[m.sup.w]aca, 'busy, occupied, detained': PUL[m.sup.w]aR 'to be late, detained'; CRL [m.sup.w]ash' be employed, arrested'; WOL [m.sup.w]aslui (sic) 'to be busy, to be busy'; PUA[m.sup.w]asa-(iki) 'Laziness, be lazy'; PCK*[mw]aca; MRS[m.sup.w]ad 'frozen, distracted, busy, busy'.

PWMC? *[m.sup.w][aca.sub.2] 'garden': PON [m.sup.w]aat 'clearing, field, plantation, garden, yard'; MOK[m.sup.w]""s-(wen) 'vegetable g.'; MRS (je)-[m.sup.w]ade-(n) 'wasteland (not garden)'. This is based on Marek's (1994:322) PPC *m'at'a.

PCMC *[m.sup.w]acaya 'physical deformity': CHK[m.sup.w]achey, [m.sup.w]acheya-(n) 'd., his d.'; WOL [m.sup.w]asheye 'birthmark on skin'; PCK*[mw]acea; KIR[m.sup.w]araa 'having a hairy lip, at the sight of s.t. be disgusted or shocked'. Cf. FIJ daa 'a childhood disease showing red spots' and ef. PMC *ma-cai 'the slimy one'.

PCMc *[m.sup.w]aire 'exaltation': CHK [m.sup.w]eyir 'dance of elevation (performed only by women)', (e)-[m.sup.w]eyir's song during at carry food to present to the chief', (e)-[m.sup.w]eyira 'sing on it (brought food to the chief)'; WOL [m.sup.w]eire 'to scream (usually in a large group of people), shout'; PCK*[m.sup.w]air[ac]; KIR (te)-[m.sup.w]aie "worldly pleasures, debauchery" (a missionary's disapproving remark), [m.sup.w]aie "devoting oneself to worldly pleasures" (ka)-[m.sup. w ]aie-(a) 'encourage (see above) to engage in worldly pleasures or sports'.

PWMC *[m.sup.w]aki 'nålefisk': WOL [m.sup.w]aagi,[m.sup.w]agi- 'ung n.'; PUA [m.sup.w]aaki, [m.sup.w]aki-'ål'; PCK*[mw]aki; MRS [m.sup.w] ak 'n.'.

PWM? *[p.sup.w]oku[m.sup.w]aku 'Pfeilwurz (Taccaleontopetaloides)': CHK #eek, [p.sup.w] eku, [p.sup.w]ek; PUL[mw][acomw]ak; CRL goat and CRN goat 'Pfeilwurz'; WOL [m.sup.with-[m.sup.with]; PCK*[m.sup.w][acid.sup.w]acid; PON[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k, MOK[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. k, MRS[mw]ak[mw]ek. KSR mokmok looks to be a loan.

PCMc *[m.sup.w]akusu 'to be in motion': CHR [m.sup.w]ekut,[m.sup.w]ekutukut 'to move', (e)- [m.sup.w]ekutukut 'emotional'; MRI [mw]; PULL [m.sup.w]oghut; CRN Mogut; break STW [m.sup.w]; WOL [m.sup.w]right; PCK*[m.sup..w]ear; PON[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]kind; MOK [m.sup.w]ekid-(then) 'hurry up!'; MRS [m.sup.w][m.sup.]market; KIR [m.sup.w] "akuri'work'. Note that KSR mukwi, mukwikwi 'move' appears aloan (initial m unexpected). See SAA [m.sup.w] a'uu'disorderly'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]a-nuu 'length from elbow to fingertips': CHK [m.sup.w]enuu-, -[m.sup.w]e-nu; CRL [m.sup.w]a-lu, [m.sup.w]a-luu-(lpeshe) 'inside the knee or elbow joint, the inside of the knee',-[m.sup.w]a - lu 'length from inside of elbow to fingertip, cubit (counting classification)'; WOL -[m.sup.w]a-luu 'length from elbow to fingertip (count classifier)'; PUA -[m.sup.w]a-nu (sic); PCK*[mw]a-[in]uu; KIR [m.sup.w]a-nuu 'a joint (like the elbow)'; PEO *([m.sup.w]a)-nuu (fu nuu 'elbow').

PMC *[m.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'at spise, mad':CHAK [m.sup.w] e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e. [m.sup.w] e[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ee-(n) 'essen, gekocht f., c. F. af',(a)-[m.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ee-(w), (a)-[m.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ee-(ni) 'giv f. bis Schinken, Futterschinken“; PUL [m.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e. [m.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ee-(n) 'eat,f., f. af'; CRL [m.sup.w] o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'heftf.', (a)- [m.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-o-(w) 'to feed(s.o.)'; CRN (a)-[m.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-o-(y) 'to feed(s.o.)'; WOL [m.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo 'zu e., f.';PUA [m.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'zu e., f. (Kogt-Basis), mel«; PCK *[m.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au; PON [m.sup.w]enE,[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'e., f., f. af'; MOK [m.sup.w]i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e'bis e., f.'; MRS in" e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ay 'to e.,f,'; KSR mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'e., f.'; PEO*(mwa)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au (SAA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] au,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eu 'at spise',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au-[he] 'en fest'; ULA nau-[ha] 'fest'; SAA og ULA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au- [laa] 'f.'; ARO[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'to e. f.'). Jf. BUG va[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'at spise, vegetabilsk mad'; LAU fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'at spise', fa[ UKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-a 'en fest',fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(gu) 'min mund'; KWA fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'mad'. Bemærk, at den indledende m i KSR-formen er uventet og antyder, at det er et lån .

PMc [m.sup.w]are 'shoulder garland': CHK [m.sup.w] aar,[m.sup.w] ara[m.sup.w] ar, [m.sup.w] ara[ m .sup.w]ar, [m.sup.w] ari-n,[m.sup.w] ari-ni 'Lei, wreath, wear an L., be L., attain as L.', [m .sup.w]are-(e-y), [m.sup.w]are-(e.y) 'carry it on the shoulders'; PUL [m.sup.w]aar, [m.sup.w]ara-[m.sup.w]ar, [m.sup.w]ara-ni-(y); CRL[m.sup.w]year; [m.sup.w]aar, 'possessive classification of garlands, chains, necklaces... worn around the head or neck'; STW [m.sup.w]year,[m.sup.w]are[m.sup.w]year; WOL [m.sup.w]aare, [m.sup.w]are[m.sup.w]are, [m.sup.w]era-le, [m.sup.w]era-li-( I); PUA [m.sup.w]aale,[m.sup.w]ale-[m.sup.w]ale, PCK *[m.sup.w]are, [m.sup.w]are[m. sup.w]are, [m.sup.w]are-na, [m.sup.w]are-ni; PON [mw]aar, [mw]ara[mw]ar,[mw]are; MOK [m.sup.w]ar[m.sup.w]ar; PNG [m.sup.w]ar[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][m.sup.w]ar; MRS [m.sup.w]ar[m.sup.w]ar 'necklace, wear necklace', [m.sup.w]are- 'possible. classification of flowers, medals, necklaces or fish baskets”; KIR(te)-[mw]ae; KSR da-(l)'his Lei'. See also PCK *ka[m.sup.w][m.sup.w] are 'carry with shoulder pole'.

PMc *[m.sup.w]ata 'worm': CHK [m.sup.w]aas,[m.sup.w]asa-(n), [m.sup.w]asa[m.sup. w]as 'stench (especially genital stench), be s.', [m.sup.w]as 'stench'; PUL [m.sup.w]aha-(n) 'his bad smell', [m.sup.w]ah 'to smell bad'; CRL[m.sup.w]aas, from [m.sup.w]asa-(l) 'stink, offensive smell, hisu.s.'; CRN [m.sup.w]aah 'stench, unpleasant smell'; WOL[m.sup.w]aase, [m.sup.w]esa-(le) 'Sperm, its s.', [m.sup.w]aate,[m.sup.w]eta- 'underground w'; PCK*[mw]ata; PON [m.sup.w]aas'w., bacterium, germ', [m.sup.w]asa-(koyl) 'maggot'; MOK[m.sup.w]aj 'w.'; MRS [m.sup.w] aj 'eel, gut w.'; KIR (te)-[m.sup.w]ata 'w.'; KSR Wet 'worms', wat(koekoe) 'some kind of w.'; PEO *[m.sup.w]ata 'snake'; POC[m.sup.w]ata 'snake' (TON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata'snake'; FIJ gwata, gata 'snake'; SAA [m.sup.w]aa'snake, the disease lupus'; LAU [ m w]aa 'snake'; KWawaa 'snake, w'; LAK mata-[guruguru] 'a little snake'; PWM*mata 'snake'). See L: MRT [mw]uso.

PWMc *[m.sup.w]ata[n[theta]]ala 'tarm': PON[m.sup.w]asaal, [m.sup.w]esaal[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'i., hans i. ';IOC [m.sup.w]ajaal. [m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]al,[m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ali-(n). [m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]al, [m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ali-(n); MRS[m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]al. FRU J expected. See KIR(te)-mata[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'pancreas' (Bender et al. 1984); FIJ gacagaca 'indvolde'. See also PPC *taka, taka-ni 'mave,har mave for' and PCK *daa 'tarm'.

PCMc [m.sup.w]aTie 'to sneeze': CHK [m.sup.w]is,[m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]er 'to sneeze', [m.sup. w] ] [m.sup.w]esi, [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]esiah-(n) 'ein s., sein s.'; MRT [m.sup.w]sea; PUL[m.sup.w]hey, [m.sup.w]ahey; CRL[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]us; CRN [mw][mw]whi; STW [mw]house; WOL [m.sup.w]have left; ULI [m.sup.w]house; PUAmodia; PCK [m.sup.w]e'Head[ed]; MRS [year]; KIR [m.sup.w]to listen. Cf. THEN 'bis s.'; KSR Sinus 'bis s.'; SAA asi[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e and ULA asihe 'to s.'; ARO 'bis s.'; BUGachihe 'bis s.'; KWA 'asi-lai' bis s.

PCMc *[m.sup.w[theta]]au 'to be finished': CHK [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ew, [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]ewu - (<*[m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]ewu) 'Come to the end, be finished'; KIR [m.sup.w]ai 'to be cooked'. See PEO*[m.sup.w]aRi 'roasted' (Geraghty 1990).

PCMc *[m.sup.w]ea[w[theta]]u 'be slow': PUL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]aay; CRL -[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]aay, [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]aayu- 'carefully, slowly, unhurriedly'; KIR [m.sup.w]eau 'arrive, come slowly, move slowly'.

PWMc *[m.sup.w]ese, [m.sup.w]e[m.sup.w]ese 'hop, move quickly': CHK [m.sup.w]et, [m.sup.w]e ] [m.sup.w]et,[m.sup.w]ete[m.sup.w]et 'j., Frühling, Sprung', [m.sup.w]ete-(ta)'j. op' [m.sup.w]ete-e-(y) 'j. over or on it'; PUL[m.sup.w]et 'to go quickly', [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]et 'toj.', [m.sup.w]ete[m.sup.w] a 'be quick', [m.sup.w]ete-(tiw)'to j. ned'; CRL [m.sup.w]et to go away, get away',[m.sup.w]ete[m.sup.w]et 'be quick, hurry'; WOL [m.sup.w]that will run; PCK *[mw]e, [mw][mw]e; MRS[m.sup.w]et, [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]et 'Tonhöhe (of a boat), bei Tonhöhe'. For the prize variant see FIJ goat 'two bob up and down'

PMc *[m.sup.w][ou]a 'before': CHK [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-(n) 'a. of him', [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-(mey) 'first breadfruit (of a season)', [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-e-(y ) 'present it as first fruits', (e)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-(ni) 'lead him, go b.him'; PUL [mw][mw]a-(n) 'a. from him'[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-(e-y) 'to lead'; CRL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-(l) 'in front of him'; WOL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-(li) 'in front', [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-(a) 'go away' ; PUA[m.sup.w]ua-'front, b.'; PCK [mw][mw]a-, [mw]ua-; PON[m.sup.w]ow[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'a. from him to offer as the firstfruits'; MRS [m.sup.w]aha- 'a., b., place before'; KIR[m.sup.w]oa 'first'; PEO *muqa (PPN *muqa 'b., first'; FIJ mua-[na] 'tip, tip, before'). Cf. PKB *muga 'first, go a., now temporarily, forward, further'. We have here an unusual case in the Mc languages ​​where PEO *u after *[m.sup.w] has either been dropped to o or a (presumably because of the following a) or to the preceding [m.sup .w] (see also PMc *[m.sup.w]o e 'sleep').

PMc *[m.sup.w]oe 'sleep': CHK (kuna)-[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e 'comfort, rest, peace, be comfortable'; MRI (China)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e's.'; PUL (kena)-[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e 'peace, comfort, ease, be at peace, calm, pleasant'; CRL (ghula)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ey 'deep sleep', #(ghil6)- [m.sup.w] 'deep s., freedom, rest, peace'; CRN (guna)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ey 'two p. deep', #(guno)- [m.sup.w] 'deep p., freedom, calm, peace' ; STW (kula) – [mw][mw]e's. So'; WOL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e's. good, pp. healthy',(ga)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-(e) 'let him sleep well'; PCK*[mw][mw]e; KIR [m.sup.w]ee 'two p.'; PEO *moze (Geraghty1983) (PPN *mohe; FIJ moce; ARO moe 'stay, sleep with s.o.'). Also note PKB *moqe 'sleeping mat and raincoat made of pandanus, the pandanus from which they are made'. Again we have the assimilation of PMC *o to a preceding *[m.sup.w] in PCK (see also PMC*[m.wup.w][ou]a 'before, preceding'). Cf. KJR [m.sup.w][em.sup.w]e, [m.wup.w] eme (sic) 'to dream'. Note the prenasalized doublets: SAA mode 'dull, be weak'; LAU mode 'mending, mending'; KWA mode 'Pandanus, Mat, Umbrella'; POC *state <pre-POC *monze.

PCMC *[m.sup.w]oka 'crumbled, crumbled': CHK(fewu)-[m.sup.w]o, (fowu)-[m.sup.w]o 'little pebbles', (fewu ) -[m.sup.w]o 'to be pebbles'; PUL (fawu)-[m.sup.w]o 'pebble, coral debris'; CRL (faay) mo, (faay) mokk 'gravel'; CRN (faay)mog 'gravel'; WOL (fau)-[m.sup.w]age 'gravel, gravel', (fau)-[m.sup.w]ega-(a) 'put gravel on top'; PUA (dadu)-make (sic) "gravel, gravel"; PCK *(fatu)-[m.sup.w]oka 'cracked stone'; MRS [m.sup.w]ek 'tired, exhausted'; KIR [m.sup.w][om.sup.w] oka, mka 'to be rotten, to be lazy'. Marck (1994:316) reconstructs PMC maka or fatu-maka "stone to throw".

PMC *[m.wup.w]onu 'squirrel fish': CHK [m.sup.w]een,#[m.sup.w]eenu-(n) 'species of s.f. (Myripristis), s.f.of'; PUL[m.sup.w]een, #[m.sup.w]eeni-(n) 'small red fox f. (perhaps a red snapper), f. of'; CRL [m.sup.w]aal 'sp. From. similar snapper'; CRN [m.sup.w]een 'sp. from s.f.'; WOL [m.sup.w]eelu,[m.sup.w]elu- "red snapper"; PCK *[mw]enu; PON[mm.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'f. sp.'; MRS [m.sup.w]ens. F'; KIR (te)-[m.sup.w] on 'a f. (Myripristis adustus, M.murdjan)'; KSR won 'kind of f.'. Cf. LAK mola 'of.'.

PWMC *[m.sup.w]ool[iu] 'great': CRL [m.sup.w]ool'be g., very kind'; WOL [m.sup.w]eelu 'g., liberal, open-handed'; PUA [m.sup.w]oni (sic) 'be g., kind'; PCK*[mw]oo(ln)(iu); MRS [m.sup.w][m.sup.w] ewel 'sei g., sei gedankt, thankful, liberal, free'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]out 'finished, ended': CHK [m.sup.w]u 'come to an end'; PUL [m.sup.w]eyi-(lo) 'forsvinde (som fødesult), være væk'; PON [m.sup.w]ey 'finish the bowel movement'; MRS [m.sup.w]ej 'completed'; KIR [m.sup.w]oti 'decided', [m.sup.w]oti-ka 'decided, end (s.t.)'; POC-Motu (ULA mou-si'at Bestemme'). C. PMC *[m.sup.w]out, [m.sup.w]out-Si 'to cut, separate, break off', PCMC *[m.sup.w]au 'to be finished', PCK*[ m .sup.w]uccu 'færdig'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]out, [m.sup.w]out-Si 'cut, sever, breakoff': CHK [m.sup.w]uu-(also [m.sup.w]u, [m.sup.w]uu-) 'to be cut off, to be cut off', [m.sup.w]uu-ti (also [m.sup.w]uu-ti) 'to break up; to adopt a child' ; MRT [m.sup.w]ew 'broken off, separated'; PUL[m.sup.w]ey (also mey, meyi-ti-(y)) "break like a rope, adopt a child"; CRL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ey 'be broken' , broke, separated', [m.sup.w]ei-ti 'break, separate, break (s.t.); STW [m.sup.w]ey 'aborted, disconnected'; WOL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]eu 'to be broken off', [m.sup.w]eu[m.sup.w]eu 'to break off', [m.sup.w ] eu-ti-(i) 'destroy it, take it (a child) from its mother'; PUA [m.sup.w]adu 'to break up', modumodu, modu-ti adopted child, adopt a child'; PCK *[mw]out, [mw]out-di; PON [m.sup.w]ey 'to be broken', [m.sup.w]ey-d 'to break (s.t., as astring)'; MOK [m.sup.w]ey 'snapped, separated', [m.sup.w]ey-d 'snap (s.t.)'; MRS [mw]ij[mw]ij, [mw]iji-t'cut'; KIR[m.sup.w]oti 'aborted'; KSR wot'cut' uti 'cut (s.t.)'; POC *motu-[sz] (PPN *motu; SAAmou, mou-si; ARO mou; KWA mou, mou-si-[a]). Cf. PMC *[m.sup.w]aus 'finished, finished', PCK *[m.sup.w]uccu 'finished'.

PCMC *[m.sup.w]oTo 'a fish': CRL [m.sup.w]oos 'edible f. looks like a snapper'; PUA Moodo, Modo- ​​"snapper"; PCk*[mw]oTo; KIR(te)-[mw][omw]oto 'of.'.

PMC *-[mw]u 'name (sg.)': CHK-[mw]; MRT-[mw]; PUL-[mw]; CRL - [mw]; STW – [mw]; WOL -[mw]u;PUA -[mw]u; PCK*-[mw]; PON -[m.sup.w], -[m.sup.w]i (early proof);MOK -[m.sup.w]; PNG - [m.sup.w]; MRS – [mw]; KIR -[mw],-[mw][mw]; KSR -m(Schlamp *[m.sup.w] > m); POC*-in (FIJ-in; SAA-in; BUG-in; LAU-in; PKB*-in).

PMC *[m.sup.w]ucu 'burning': CHK [m.sup.w]uuch, (a)-[m.sup.w]uch, (e)-[m.sup.w]uch' tree (some material), f.',-[m.sup.w]uch 'piece of wood (number classifier)'; PUL[mw]uuR; CRL(a) – [mw]ush; CRN (a) – [mw]uR; WOL[m.sup.w]uushu, [m.sup.w]ushu- „f., big f., that may be a long time“; PUA [m.sup.w]usu, [m.sup.w]usu- 'great f.'; PCK*[w]uck; KSR w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sr 'firebrand'. Cf. PONtuwi 'f'.; MOK means 'f.

PMC *[m.sup.w]ulo, [m.sup.w]ulo-Si- 'to rub together, twist, crumple': PUL mulo-ta-(a-tiw) 'to rub together (s.t.). a 'hand (as fragrant leaves)'; CRL Rub [m.sup.w]uli-ti, [m.sup.w]oli-ti' back and forth (s.t.) (like curling leaves with fingers), curl up (two lengths of rope). 'to rub (the eyes)'; STW[m.sup.w]ulo-ti 'to turn (s.t.)'; WOL [m.sup.w]ulo[m.sup.w]ulo' to ruffle, to ruffle, to ruffle, to be crumpled, [m.sup.w]ulo-ti-(i)'to to crumble, to crook, to curl (s.t.)', [m.sup.w]ulo-tagi 'wrinkled, wrinkled, wrinkled'; PCK *[m.sup.w]ulo[m.sup.w]ulo,[m.sup.w]ulo-di-' PON [m.sup.w]ul[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'to twist or wind (s.t.) together'; KSR olo 'a crease, crease, crease, crease, will be crumpled, ruffled, crumpled', ololo 'full of folds or creases', olo-i 'fold, fold or fold (s.t.)'; Peo*mulo (FIJ mulo 'to twist a single thread or thread', mulo-na'to twist [a thread or thread], mulo-ni 'to be twisted', mulo-a'a ring, reel, bobbin [per wire or band]', [vei]-mulomulo 'tower estle or hold together seriously').

PMC *[m.sup.w] [um.sup.w] uta 'erbrechen': CHK [m.sup.w][m.sup.w] os 'zu v., kotzen', [m. sup.w] [m.sup.w] usa-asi-ni'v. det op, v. på grund af det'; MRT [mw] [mw] os; PUL[m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uh; CRL [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uns; CRN [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]uh; STR [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uns; WOL [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] ute 'zu v., hochwerfen', [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uta-agi-li-(i) 'v . det op'; PUA[m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uta; PCK*[mw][mw]uta, [mw][mw]uta-aki-ni-; PON [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uns; MRS [mw] [mw] ej; KIR[m.sup.w] [um.sup.w] uta; KSR wot 'zu v.', wite 'v.(s.t.)'; POC *mutaq (Ross 1988) (Kwa moa 'opkast').

PWMC? *[m.sup.w] uno 'a fish': MRT [m.sup.w] uun'art of f.'; STW [m.sup.w] uun 'art of f.'; WOL[m.sup.w] uulo, [m.sup.w] ulo- 'spade f.'; PCK * [m w ] uno; PON[m.sup.w] uun 'egern f. (Myripristis adustus)”; MRS [m.sup.w] en 'squirrel f.' (Myripristis berndti). MRS n forventet. Jf. KIR(te)-[m.sup.w] på 'a f. (Myripristis?)'; FIJ mulu 'a long black f.'.

PMC * [m.sup.w] uri- 'bagved': CHK [m.sup.w] uri-; MRT [m w ] ure-; PUL [in] is-; CRL [m] is-; Srw [m] uri-; WOL [mw] iri-, (i)-[mw] iri-; PUA [in] ili-; PCK*[in] this; PON [in] uri-; MOK [in] eri-; Km (i)-[in] ii-; POC *in (PPN *in; FIJ in; PKB *in Li). Cf. MRS [mw] [irw], [mw][irw] i-(n); 'höfte, lænd, h. af'. Cf. also SAA puri 'bagside, bag', (i)-puri 'danach'.

PCMc *n[ae]i- 'female prefix (with women's personal names)': CHK neyi-; PUL with-; PCK *nai-; MRS this-; KIR no-.

PMc *[nam.sup.w]o 'lagoon, harbor': CHK [noom.sup.w],[nom.sup.w] u-(n) 'I., archipelago, sea around an island, 1. from';MRT [noom.sup.w]; PUL [nom.sup.w], [nom.sup.w] o-(n); CRL [loom.sup.w],(lee)-[loom.sup.w]; CRN[noom.sup.w]; STW [nom.sup.w]; WOL [lam.sup.w] o, [lam.sup.w] o-(li); PuA [naam.sup.w] o, [nam.sup.w] o-(ni); PCK *[nam.sup.w]o; PON [naam.sup.w], (n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-[nam.sup.w]; MRS[nam.sup.w] 'secondary lagoon'; KIR (te)-[nam.sup.w] o; KSR nwem 'deep area in a lagoon'; PEO *namo (TON namo 'sea near land'; SAAnamo 'inner port'; LAU namo 'inner port'; KWanamo 'lake, pond, deep place in a river'); PMP *namaw 'bay, harbour, lagoon' (Blust 1980:114). MRS severe n expected. See MOK Lamm 'Lagune'. See also PMc *[lama2] 'lagoon, lake'. Secalso Marek (1994:3 14) PMC *nam'o.

PMC *mother 'Eater': PUL naan, mother-(y) 'p., myp.'; View the CRL. or smegma', lal 'garden p.'; WORD 's., haben s.'; PUA mother, grandmother-; PCK *mother; PON naan; MRS mother'smegma'; KSR (noun[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-write; POc *mother (Ross1988) (FIJ-Mother; KWA-Mother); UAN *pain.

PWMC *nanasu 'halvblomst (Scaevola): CHK nnet, nnetu-n'h. f., h. F. af'; MRT nn[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t; PUL nnat, nnatu-n; Sperrliste llat; CRN nat; STW nat; WOL nnatu; PCK *nadu; MRS (ke)- nat.

PMc *natu 'child; classified for beloved possession': CHK ny, ny-n, ny 'child or children in general, relative of younger generation, political subject, pet, small objectively related to the person', 'to be c.', 'to be a parent or carry you a c.'; MTK naaW, naWu-; PUL nawu-n, melted, nayi-nay; STW nayu-; CRL layers; CRN your-; WOL laau, lau-le, ladleu, ULI lee-; PUAnaau, child-; MAP naha, nahy-not 'c., my c.'; PCK *child, child-child, child; PON naay, also [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], or 'c., possibly. classification for children, pets, toys”; MOK n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yn[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'have many children'; MRS naji-, neji- 'c. from, possibly classifier for children, pets, money, clocks or one's own Bible'; KIRnaati, nati-na, natinati, KSR naet[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l) 'hisc.'; POC *natu (Ross 1988) (PKB *natu). Note: Jackson (1983:190) reconstructs PCK *na(t)u. Cf. POC *natu(q) 'ovary, egg, baby bird' (Blust 1973:59); PMP *nati (Blust 1980:115).

PMc *nawo 'bølger': CHK noo, noo-; PUL no; CRL Loo; CRNnoo; STW no, WOL klo, klo-; PUA with, with-; PCK *they; MOK is not; MRS new;KIR (not)-with; KSR node; PEO *[nn]afo (this is SO; this is FALSE; this is KWA); PAN*BREAK (Blust 1984-85).

PMc *ney[ae] 'ben': PON n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'hans 1.'; MRS ney, ney[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) '1., 1.von'; KSR niye-(l), niye-(n) 'hans 1., 1. af'.

PMC *-if 'of, concerning': CHK -n; MRI-n; PUL-n, CRL-1; the CRN; STW-n; WOL-li; PUAs; PCK * day; PON-n; MOC-n; MRS -n;KIR -is; KSR-n; POC * is (FIJ is; SAA is; BUG is); UAN *is. Often referred to as a "construction suffix".

PCMC *-ni, -na 'verb suffix denoting acquisition or ownership': CHK -ni; PUL-ni-(y); CRL-four, CRN-nine; WOL-li-(i); PCK* tag; km - na. Cf. PON -ni-(ki) 'derive trans. v. from the alien. n.:[sap.sup.w] e-ni-ki '(land) own, ([sap.sup.w] e-'land')'

PMc *ni[ae] 'place': CHK ne-e-ni, ne-e-ni-(n) 'p.of, s., s. where s.t. or so. will be p.'; PUL ne-e-this,ne-e-meaning-(n); CRL be-e-liy, le-e-liya-(l), la-liya-(l); WOL the-I-, the-my-self, the-my-self-(le); PUA na-n-ni-(two); PCK *na-i-ni[ae], na-n-ni[ac];PON n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-([nam.sup.w]) 'lagoon, port'; MRSnine 'container, use as container, sheath', niye-(n) 'container of'; KIR vote- 's. To'; KSR is (n) 'p.of'.

PMC *nima 'drinkable object': See PMC *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma 'drink'. See Jackson 1986: 208.


PMC *niu 'coconut': CHK nuu nuu-, PUL nuu, nuu-; CRLluu; CRN now; STW diving; WOL diving, diving; FLOWER FLOWER; SNS Community; PCK * nuu; PON nii, MOK nii, PNG nii; WOMAN. KIR (te)-nii, nii-; New KSR; POC* Coconut (PPN* Coconut; Fu Coconut; SAA Coconut; BUG Coconut; KWA Coconut; PKB* Coconut); UAN*niuR. See yes.

PMc *noko 'midrib of coconut leaf or leaf': PUA nooko,noko- 'c. F'; PON hook 'head r. of the trunk of a palm f., any hard straw-like object'; MOK enough 'c. leaf m.'; MRS [nek.sup.w] bin. a c. l'; KIR (te)-noko bin. 'the smaller sections of a coconut leaf'; KSR hook 'm.' Cf. FIJ noko, noko-ta 'sharpen to a point'.

PWMc *noso 'a species of fish': CHK noot 'large lethrinid species f.'; PUL noot 'a kind of f.'; CRL bootysp. of edible f.'; WOL looto, loto- 'a kind f.'; PCK* nooto, noto-; MRS net 'a f. (Lethrinis variegatus)'. MRS[n.sup.w] expected.

PMC *now 'Drachenkopf, Steinfisch': CHK now,now.(now-also); new MRT; PUL current; CRL niedrig, dies-; CRN us-(in); STW-Loos; WOL-Loos, Lou-; PCK * Third; ON new 'Art of Saatfish'; MOK new, MRS new; KIR (te)-now 'a fish'; POC *Nose (Ross 1988) (PPN *Nose). Vgl. POC *nopu(q) (Blust 1978:5); PMP *lepu or* lepuq (Blust1983-84:76).

PMC *nu[sS]o 'octopus': CHK niit, #niiti-(n) 's., s.of'; MRT [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] uut; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iit,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ito-(n); CRL [UNKEYABLE ICON]uut,[UNKEYBOARD ICON]uti-(l), CIN [UNKEYBOARD ICON]iit; SRW[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uut; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iito, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ito-(li); PUA [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iito, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ito-; PCK * [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ido; PON now; MOK now; MRS network, network; POC * nus[ao] (Ross 1988) (SAA nuto; ARO nuto; LAK[e]-luso). The PCK form appears to be an innovation.

PMC *-na 'be, ihr, be': CHK -n; MRT-n; PUL-n; CRL-1; CRN-n; STW'-l,-n; WOL-og; PUA-og; MAP -θ; PCK * ; PON-[theta]; MOK -θ; MRS-n; KIR-na; KSR -[theta] (Jackson 1983:334,443fn.); POc * -na (Ross 1988) (Fu -na; SAA -na; BUG -gna; LAK -la; PKB *na).

PMc *nai-Sa, nai-Sa 'when?': CHK(i)-nee-t; MRT(i)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ee-t; PUL (yi)-neet-t, (yi)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e-t (sic); CRL (i)-lee-t, (i)-lee-ta; CRN (i)-nee-ta; (i)-lee-t; WOL(i)-lee-te; PUA (i)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ae-ta'w,? (past)',(wa)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ae-ta 'w.? (Future)'; PCK *(i)[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai-da, (i)-nai-da; PON (y)-aa-d; MOK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ee-d; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aya-t; KIR(ni)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai, (ni)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai-ra; KSRn[epsilon]; POC * [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai-za, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai-za(FIJ (ni)-nai-(ca); LAK (a)-lai-(sa) 'w.? (past)', gai- (sa) 'w.? (future)', gai 'soon, at the moment, in the near future'). These forms are not irregular but retain one or the other of the two forms of PMc and POC, as evidenced by the two LAK forms, one for the past and one for the future. See also PEO * [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iza 'when'(Geraghty 1883) (FIJ [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ica; BUG [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iha); POC * [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ica 'when?' (Ross 1988:225,461). Also note SAA(i)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]anite 'when?'.

PMc *nama 'taste': MRS nam, namnam 'tā, smell, taste'; KIR nanama 'to t. or to test the taste of (st.)' (but see PMc *nana, nanana 'to taste, taste'); KSR em 'taste', ema 'taste (s.t.)'; PWMP *naman 'tasty, delicious' (Blust 1989:153); PMP * NamNam (Blust 1989:154); PAN * NamNam 'delicious' (Wolff 1993). Note PON n[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]min[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m 'to eat, t. (usererogatory)', namanam 't.', nam 'eat or t.(s.t.)', n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'his taste'; MOK namnam 'have t., n[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to t. (s.t.)', which we suspect borrows from MRS. Cf. ULA-Name, Name-li 'an t.'; ARO-name, name-ri, nami, nami-ri 'to t., lick'; KWA name 'gobbleup'. Cf. also PMC *nana, nanana 'flavor, taste'.

PCMC *nama 'to make a loop or noose': WOL lema-si-(i) 'to make knots in (rope) without tightening it'; PON aam 'sling or sling for catching animals'; KIR nama 'to enter a noose loop (like a bird)'. Cf. PCK *llema, lema-ti- 'tie'.

PMC * [nam.sup.w]u 'Mücke': CHK (død)-[nom.sup.w],-[nom.sup.w]u-(n) 'm. Netz'; MRT [nam.sup.w]u-(kkek) 'm.';PUL [noom.sup.w] 'in.', (towu)-[nom.sup.w] 'm. Netz'; CRL[loom.sup.w], [low.sup.w]o-(l) 'm., m. af'; CRN [ noom . Suppe w ] ; ; STW [ noom Suppe . w ] ; WOL [laam.sup.w]u, [lam.sup.w]u- 'in.',(tau)-[lom.sup.w]u 'in. Netz'; PuA [Noun.sup.w]u [Noun.sup.w]u-; SNS[raam.sup.w]u; PCK *[name.sup.w]; PON [am.sup.w]i-(s[epsilon])'m.'; MOK [am.sup.w]-(I) 'm.'; MRS [Name w]; KIR(te-tail)-[nam.sup.w]o'm. Netz'; KSR em-(sy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]);PEO* namu (Geraghty 1983:155, 295); POC* namuk (Ross 1988) (PPN namu; FuBUG namu; KWA namu 'small flying insect'; PKB *namo); UAN *namuk; PAN * Mouth (Wolff 1993).

MRS light n expected. Note that the words for "mosquito net" have issues and appear to be recent borrowings, at least in some cases. See YAP no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'mosquito'.

PMC grandmother, grandmother 'Geschmack, Aroma': CHK voice, voice-(n)'t. es.', nne-yar't. süss'; MRT with 't.'; PUL with 't., ges.'; CRL lla-ri't. Das'; CRN four-ri't. Das'; STWnnan 't.'; WOL sister(<*sister) 'to t.', sister-rii't. Das'; PuA me-na 'being t.'; PCK *I-, I-, I-ri-;MRS four 'muffy t., muffy t.'; KIR grandfather 'to t. or try it. von Essen)"; PEO *nna-m] (BUG gna-mi 'knobs, beißen, t.[s.t.]'). Vgl. PUL lla 'The love affair'. Vgl. auch PMC *nanau 'like, schmeckt gut', PMC 'schmeckt'.

PMC *nanau 'delicious, tastes good': CHK nne, (a)-nne'd., delicious'; MRI nne; Put nne, name; CRL(a)-llee-(w) and CRN(a)-nnee-(w) 'make it t. better'; WOL nnee 't g., sweet taste'; PUA nnau 'g. t, t. G.'; PCK *nnau; PON yyow 'sweet, d.'; Mrs. Naw; KIR nanai "delightful"; KSry[KEYBOARD ICON],y[UNKEYBOARD ICON]y[UNKEYBOARD ICON],PEO ? *nau (BUG gnou 'to bite, t.'). Cf. POC *napi 't., bite (Blust 1978:59), Jackson's (1983:374) statement that this should be derived from POC *namu with inexplicable loss of intervocalic *m is questionable. Cf. PMC *nana nanana "to taste, taste". (See also Jackson 1983: 334.)

PMC *nanoa 'yesterday': CHK nanew, #nanew-(n) 'y.,y. from'; MRI walk; PUL something (sic); CRL events; go to CRN; STW new;WOL new; ULI laalow; PUA nanoa; PCK *[not] cooked; PON ayo; IOC is coming; PNGaaiyo, aaiyoo-(of); MRS (dies)-nney; KIR ([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]koa)-nanoa;KSR (len)-yo 'Day before y.', (ek[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'Evening before last evening';PEO *(nanoRa (Geraghty ) 1990). ) (SAA nonola; BUG[i]-gnotha). See POC*noRop (Ross 1988); POC *noRa[q[theta]] (Blust 1978:58); PMP* and Rab Blust 1980:116). PMC *l[au]tuu 'tomorrow', cf. Marck (1994:312) PMC *food.

PMC *non[iu] 'Morinda citrifolia': PUL neen; CRL leel, cover, CRN neen; WOL leeli, leli-; MAP not "a tree or plant whose root has been used as a brown dye" (ie M citrifolia, a possible loan from KIR); PONwey-([p.sup.w]ul), we-([mp.sup.w]ul) 'M citrifolia (cf. [p.sup.w]ul 'immature, of fruit'); MOK ween 'a tree', ween-([p.sup.w]u1) 'a tree'; WOMAN KIR(te)-non; KSR oi 'a tree'; PMP *NoNu (Blust 1984-85). See POc*nonu (Ross 1988:208). See also CHK [nop.sup.w]ur 'M citrifolia' (root used as yellow dye).



PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ace 'lower jaw': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aach,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nachi-(n) 'lower jaw, jaw, his j.' [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]acha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ach 'use or wear prostheses', (ite)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ach 'skinny elbows with hand under chin'; MRT -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ash[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'his 1st j.'; PUL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aaR 'j.'; CRL-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aash,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ashe-(l) 'lips, mouth, his l.j.'; STw naaR'1. J'; PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]Ass; KIR nare 'to laugh', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]are-aki-ni 'to laugh at' PON nara-aki 'to laugh heartily' is an obvious borrowing from KIR. Cf. PMC*[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aco 'palate, gums', PWMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ace 'edge'.

PWMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ace 'edge': CHK (wini)-after 'period just before sunrise or dawn'; CRL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ashe-(1) 'page, e.g. B. Edge of'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aashe, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ashe-(l) 'e., brink, e. of',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ashe-e(ye) 'make e. of it'; PCK*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]Ass; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and 'designededges of boat.s'. PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aco 'palate, gums'; PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ace 'lower jaw'.




PMc *-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ratu 'thousand (num.classifier)': CHK - [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-rew; MRI -ne-rew; PUL-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-ray; CRL and CRN -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-rew,-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ras; STW -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ras; WOL-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-rai, -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-rau, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-rasi; PUA -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ladi; PCk *-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-rati, -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-ratu; PEO-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-ratu (SAA [ta]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a]lau 'one hundred',[ta]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-lai [[m.sup.w]ane] 'a dog' ;BUG [ha]-thanatu <[ha]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-thatu 'one.'; ARO [ha]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-rau 'onehundred, of menonly'); Poc*-Ratu (PLk latu 'one skin'); UAN *Ratus 'hundred'. See KIR -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa 't'. Note here the reflex for UAN *R in PCK as *r rather than the more common reflex *θ and in BUG as th rather than the more common l reflex.

PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari-ti'nibble, gnaw, crunch': CHK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eriner 'benibbling, nawing', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri-i-(y) 'in. or'; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er'g.', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri-i-(y) 'g. The'; CRL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar 'having been gnawed or nibbled';[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari-i-(y), [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri-i-i-(y) 'taken. or n. on (s.t. hard)'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari 'scratched, worn', narineri 'chew, c., g.', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ari-si-(i) 'g. The'; PCK *[KEYBOARD ICON]ari,[UNKEYBOARD ICON]arinari, [UNKEYBOARD ICON]ari-ti; MRS[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar 'bite the dust, feed on a surface (like fish feed on a reef surface)' [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ari-j 'cat s.t. in this way'; KIR([m.sup.w]a)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ainai 'screams nosically with words'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]alryd 'bite, nip', nali-s 'bite or nip (s.t.)'; POC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari (TON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ali 'n., chew, g.'; SAM gali 'g'LAK gari (la-mavo) 'to bite (the taro)'. Cf. KIR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL ]au[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'eat greedily'; SAA[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ero 'chew, n. (of rats); Kwa [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ale 'chew with the gums' See also PCMc*li-[UNKEYBOARD ]a[ UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari 'little louse' and cf. PMc *kari 'to scratch', PCMc *ma-ari,ma-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari 'rough'.

PMC "[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aru or*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][eo]ru,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][eo]ru[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][co]ru 'to crunch': MRT su-[ABLE eruner] two C. when eating (like chewing beans)'; CHK su-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er (Bender et al. 1984); PULhi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er . (like burned breadfruit seeds being eaten)'; CRL (sa)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uru[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uru 'be crispy',(assa)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ur 'to c. with the teeth'; CRN(assa) ) - [ UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'to c. with the teeth'; STWsi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'to c. (crooked on bone)'; WOL su-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] eru [ UNKEYBOARD] eru 'to c., grind, chew with a loud crackling sound, squeeze, grind, kick, etc. with a loud sound'; PCK *Tu-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aru, -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL ]aru, -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] ]eru,-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]eru[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]eru; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]or[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]or 'crunchy'; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][ir.sup.w] [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][ir.sup.w] 'two C. (as food)', (ka)- [[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w]ir[[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] . sup.w]ir 'to grind one's teeth loudly, c., to gnaw'; KIR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'eat greedily'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r'crunch, crunch, crackle or pop',([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]or[unKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]or[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]or[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL ] ] crispy, crushing". Cf. KWA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]alu 'snatch, bite (ofangry dog)', golu-a 'to c.'; TON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'to bite, gnaw, ca. (like bones), eat with one's teeth with a crunching or gnawing sound'; LAU[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]utu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]utu 'c. the teeth'. Cf. also Fu quru, quru-ta 'two c.'.

PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]as 'hole': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aat,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ate-n 'h., h.of', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ate-ni 'pierceit',-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] at , [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ati-n'hollow or concave object (in counting)'; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aat, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ata-n 'h., h. of', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]at 'to be punctured'; CRL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aat, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata-l 'h., its h.',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]at 'holes machen',nata-li, nate-li 'make a h. in Das'; STW [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ata[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]at 'bore a h.'; WOL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aate, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ate[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]at, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eta-lii 'h., Löcher machen, durchbohren'; PUA [TASTATURFÄHIGES SYMBOL]aata, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata-'h.'; SNS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aata 'h.'; PCK*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]gada; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]at 'Gaumen des Mundes' (vgl. MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ad 'Gums', PMC*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aco 'Palatc, Zahnfleisch'); KSR nwet 'schau, öffne (eyec)'. Vgl. Fu gasa 'eine Sache, die Gelächter hervorrufen wird, Scherz'.

PWMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]asa 'ikke i stand til at holde ud': PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata- 'bekeed or tired ofs.t. gentagne'; FRU [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]at[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]at 'unable to s.t. to endure, unable to endure',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]atey 'unable to (s.t.) endure or endure'.Pon d forventet; problematic.

PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata 'fragrant': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aas, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ase-n 'perfumed oil,p.o. of', a-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]asa 'anoint them with p.o.'p*oo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]as 'f. Odor'; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ah 'be f.', ya-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ah 'scent'; CRL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aas 'aroma, scent', [b.sup.w]oo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]as 'have a f.or', CRN [b.sup.w]oo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ah ' have a f. smell'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ase 'smell good, be f.', boo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ase 'smell good'; PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ata; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aj 'f. Odor'; KSR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aes, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] means "expression when a foul odor is perceived"; Fu gasagasa 'smart, tasty (offfood)'.

PMC *-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]awulu 'enhed på ti (tæller)'; CHK (e)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oon, -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oonu-; PUL-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]tool; WOL -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aulu; PCK *-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]awulu; PON - [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] ugle; MRS (je)-[n.sup.w] because 'ten', (jil)-niwil 'thirty'; KIR-[UNKEYABLE ICON]aun; KSR -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]nul, -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oul; PEO *-nga-fulu (Fu [sa]-ga]vulu'ten'; SAA [ta]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-hulu; BUG[ha]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-vulu; KWA [ta]- [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-fulu);POC *-puluq (PKB *vulu); UAN *puluq. Jf. PPC *-ik[ae] 'tens counter', PCMC *-itaki 'tens counter'.



PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'to chafe, scratch': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]er[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]er or scratched (of skin), be rough, hoarse, r. (ofvoice)', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere-e-(y) 'saw it, cut it by rubbing', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'asaw'; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er'crackle, scratch, creak, a saw', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere-e(y)'saw it', (makure-[m.sup.w]a)- [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]is [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]is 'has frizzy hair'; CRL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er be rough scratchy',([m.sup.w]e)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er,([m.sup.w]o)- [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er, ([m.sup.w]o)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ara[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar 'have a rough surface, are very rough or scratchy'; WOL (me)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]are[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]he 'has a sore throat, has a dry throat', (ga)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]he 'to clear his throat', ([m.sup. w] a) -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere 'to be curly, frizzy (of hair)';PUA (ka)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ele[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ele 'to clear one's throat'; PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ers, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ers[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ers; km [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ee[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ee 'scratched'; POc *[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ere (Fu[val-genegere-[taka] 'to turn the voice or shake to sing tremolo'; LAK[e]-gere 'a cricket that calls at night', [la]- gere 'plant with seedpods used as rattles'). Cf. PCMc*ma-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari, ma-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]arinari 'rough', PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari -ti 'to nibble, gnaw, gnaw', for which there has been some confusion with.



PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii 'Buzz, sum, make sound,intonation': CHK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'b., h., sound,sing', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'tune,intonation 'accent, voice', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii-(ri) 'singit, h. it', (e)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'softly sung love song', (e)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii-( y ) 'give it a voice, begin it (of a song)'; MRT [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'humming tone, dialect, intonation'; [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii-(re)'gives the melody to a song'; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n) (sic) 'accent, voice, melody, pronunciation, sound of'; CRL and CRN [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'sound, utterance, speech' (cf. CRL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'scream, screech, of animals or machines); STW [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii-(n) 'Intonation, screeching, dialect, speech, Hisi.'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii 'mouth-generated humming, voice to make noise, to whimper, to make a small noise in the form of crying'; PCK *[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii-(n-wer) 'excessively talkative, protesting too much, talking all and doing nothing' (lit. 'Sound of loud talk': who 'to yell, yell, howl, shout, yell at, vocalize high '); PEO *[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iRi 'moan, b., h.' (Geraghty 1990). See PPC*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu, [m.sup.w]a-nunununu'whisper', PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iTi 'chant, sing, benoisy, laugh', PMC]LEKEYBOARD iTi 'song , sing, loud, laugh'. See also PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iLi 'buzz, hum, make sound' given by Goodenough (1995:76).

PWMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]il[ai] 'voice, sound': PON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ill, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ile 'voice, tune, hisv.'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]il, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ilo,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ile-(n) 'voice, sound, be, v., v. from'; PNG[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]il 'voice, sound'; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]il, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]illi- 'sound', cf. YAP[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uul 'buzz, buzz, a bee, wasp', PPC*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu,[m. sup.w]a-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu[UNKEYBOARD]unu[ UNKEYBOARD] 'to whisper', PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iTi 'to chant, sing, loud, laugh'. See PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iLi 'buzz, hum, makeound' given by Goodenough (1995:76).


PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]is a 'groan': PUL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]it 'pants (like a dying man)'; KIR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ira[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ira 'took. (audible in spirit)'. Cf. UAN *[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ist[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ist 'the whisper'. Also note SAA ('ala) [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]es 'collapse the teeth'; ARO[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ita 'gnashing teeth, baring teeth, growling', but see PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]udu,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]udju 'strong, resilient'. Cf. PMc*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]use 'moan, complain'.

PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iTi 'sing, sing, be loud, grin': PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iis 'a c.', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]er 'two c., be boisterous'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ij'c. in chorus, grin up'; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iji(r)'c. when pulling a canoe', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ij 'groan, groan, murmur'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] is, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] is [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] is 'grin, laughter'. KWA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'to sing, usual singing', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu-a 's. (s.t.)' [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uu-li-(a) 's. (a specific song)'; ARO [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] uu 'buzz'.

PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ixo 'to be tired': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to be exhausted, played out, unable to continue', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iye-(n) 'exhaustion from (see above)'; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir 'to be weary (honorable)'; KIR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]io, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]io[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]io 'dizzy'. See PUA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ei 'to be uncomfortable'; FU googoo 'weak, feeble, helpless'.

PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oro 'sing, intonate': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]or 'sing'; MRT [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oro[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]or 'to sing'; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oor, nore accent, dialect, melody, tone, its a.'; KIR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo 'to murmur or complain in a low voice',(te)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo 'muffled complaint, murmur',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo 'to speak in a loud voice' . could be the same root as PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oro,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oro, [sS]i-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oro to snore'.



PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'moan, groan': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'moan, groan', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE-SYMBOL] grunt repeated groan' MRT [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'the sound of an airplane, drones, conversations in the distance'; CRL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u'm. (of a person in pain), to sound (like a distant car or plane)',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'to speak loudly, to be loud'; STW[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'Mumbling, distant noise'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'make a heavy sound, roar', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu-regi 'cry, scream'; PUA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu'roar, m.'; PCK *[KEYBOARD ICON]uu[UNKEYBOARD ICON]uu, [UNKEYBOARD ICON]uu-raki; PEO *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu(TON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'grunt', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'hum'; ROT [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'grumble', grumble, complain, whine UKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL ] uu mumble, whisper, speak softly'; ER nuu'er, hum, whistle, beep'; ARO [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'answer with lips, hum'; KWA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu' sing, sing).

PMC? *oo 'it (out of sight or in the past)': CHK(e)-we -we 't. (from p. or in p.), der (the already mentioned and nonexistent)', (i)-vi 'then, then' (lit. 'atthat'); MRI we; PUL (e)-we, we, (i)-we; CRL(i)-vi; We; STW we; WOL(i) - ui, ui; PUA we (sic); PCK *wee; PON-o; Mrs. Yew; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Cf. LAK(ale)-o 'that'.

PWMC or 'be, exist': CHK wor 'be, exist', (e)-wor 'it exists', (e-se)wor, (e-so)-or 'there isn't, it doesn't exist', (meyi)-wor, (meyi)-yor 'there is, there is'; MRI yor; PUL Wor; CRL yoor (sic); STW yor; WOL yoro 'to be, to exist', (yo)-oro (</ye/-yoro) there is, it exists'; PUA wola;PCK*oro; FRU was "being". Cf. KSR asr, Dsr, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]sr 'to be, to exist'.

PMc *pa 'Seven': CHK pa-, pe-n. ppa-, ppa-(n) 'Site, Help, Site of'; KSR on 'Seven, Seven Against'; PEO *ba-, father (FIJ father 'Seite einer Sache, Wangenknochen'; KWA father Seite'). Vgl. PUL ppaan, ppaani-(n) 'Oil, oil'. See also PMC *palua 'Brett, Brett', PCMC *pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aki crossways', PWMC *palia 'side', PMC *pajki'side', PPC *[palua.sub ] 'On the contrary, Antwort'.

PMC *pote, 'bait, worm': CHK paa 'b.', papa 'to be baited', paa-ni 'two b. (a hook), put out (s.t.) asb.'; MRT tariff; Very STW; WOL paa, papa 'b., worm', paa-li-(i) 'have it like b.'; PUA paa 'b., worm', paa-ni 'use itas b.', papa 'use b.'; SNS much, PCK *much, much, much-[ln]i;PON much-(n) 'b., bait'; MOK pee (n); MRS final-(ney) 'feed, give b.' (old-fashioned); KSR father; PEO *baya 'worm' (Geraghty 1983) (RED paa; FIJ baca 'worm, b.'; SAA paa; ULA pasa; ARO baa). Cf. MRShanhan 'b., to lure, to mate for fish', haney 'to lure (fish)'; KIR (live) female 'Fisch b.'; YAP'waal'b.

PMC *[paa2] 'leaf and stem, leaf': CHK paa'f., wreath, s.t. with a row of leaflets or petals on it', -pa 'palm f., garland, stem with leaves (in count)';MRT paa-(le) 'l. made of coconut wood”; PUL -pa 'garland, beaded belt (in count)'; CRL -pa 'strings of flowers and compound leaves (inclusive)'; STW paa-(ley)'l. from coconut tree', -pa'count classification for coconut or taro leaf'; WOL -paa'palm f., lei, scalp bead belt (in count)'; PCK *on; PON paal. any large-leaved plant such as taro”; MOKpaa-(l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'midrib of coconut f.'; KIR (te)-baa 'midrib or main stem of a coconut f.'; KSR pae 'stem (of the taro banana), stalk'; PEO *baa (FIJ-bi 'stalk of taro leaf alone'). Cf. MRS carton 'Coconut f., midrib of f.'.

PMC *paa, paaaa 'to count, to enumerate': MRTpaa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'c. that, read that'; PUL paapa 'toc.', paa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], paa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y)'to c.', paapa 'to c.', paa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'c. (s.t.)'; STW dad; WOL paaaaa 'to c., count, calculate'; PCK *paapaa, paa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PONpaa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] to enumerate (s.t.)'; KSR[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]pa 'discuss', p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'discuss (s.t.)'. Cf. MRS benben 'calculate, count, revise, calculate'.

PWMC *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa 'to adhere': CHK pach 'to adhere, glued, connected', ppach 'sticky', pacha-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'smeared state, to be smeared with sticky substance', padre-ri ' cling' to, a. to (s.t.)', pache-ri, pacheri-ya-(n) kinsman, relative, be k.', pache-(yiti) 'remain on, cling to (s.t.)', (a) -pach 'attached, to be glued or glued together', (a)-pacha 'to attach, to connect, to stick, to stick (s.t.), to add (arithmetically)'; MRI pashapash 'sticky'; PuL paraRa-(lo) 'toa., stick', paRe-(eti-y)) 'a. to (s.t.)', (ya)-paR, -paRa' add or join, a or j. The'; CRL pash and CRN paR 'a.,stick', CRL ppash and CRN ppaR 'join; sticky', CRL pashapash and CRN paRapaR 'be sticky'; STW ppaR 'sticky', (ya)-paR 'gum, glue'; WoL ppashe 'tostick, stick to s.t. quick', pesha-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(i) 'stick with it', (ge)-pashepashe 'calculate, calculate, calculate'; PCK *paca, ppaca; PON gossip 'to be together'; MOK pas 'sit tight, cling'; MRS ddap, dedap 'stick to, cling to, en., sticky'. See also PCK *paca 'handle, tail (of fish)'. Cf. PMc *paca, pacapaca 'foot, fiat'.

PMc *paca, pacapaca 'foot, flat': CHK pacapach 'foot (of humans and animals)'; WOL pesha-(n-nime) 'hand (from wrist to fingertips)'; PUA pasapasa 'foot'; PCK *paca-,pacapaca; PON patapat 'flat (of a surface)'; MOK paspa 'flat, even'; KIR barara, barabara 'low (in high)'; MRS pede-(npay), ped (yin pay) 'a cloud formation' (pay 'ann, hand, wing'); Ks~pasrpasr 'a slab, level (a flat or planar surface)', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sra-(n ne) 'toe', t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-pas?pasr 'flat'. See also PWMc*paca, papaca or *capa cacapa 'to cling', PCK *paca 'handle, tail (of fish)', PCK *pecee 'leg'. See PWMP *pa(n)tar, pantay'flat, level' (Blust 1980:123,1983-84:93).

PMc *paiki 'side': CHK-look, peeki-n 's., s.of', -peek 's. (in counting)'; PUL peeki-(i-lan) 'compass direction (side of heaven), sky'; CRL peigh peighi- 's., half, direction', -peigh 'half (in counting)'; WOL peigi's., flank', -peigi's. (while counting)', peegiyegi 'lean on her.'; PUA peikis. beams of a house; PCK? *peeki or *p[ae]iki; KSR-Peiks. (of a mountain or slope)'. Also note PONpeekiek "being summoned to the presence of a high chief"; MRS pek'place (in place names)'. See also PMc *pa- 'page'.

PWMc *pa-i-la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'horizon' (lit. 'edge of the sky'): CHK ppe-yi-nen, (oro)-ppe-yi-nen; MRTpa-yi-le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; PUL (yoro)-ppa-a-la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL];STW ppa-yi-le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; PCK *ppa-yi-la[KEYBOARD ENABLED ICON]i;PON p[UNKEYBOARD ENABLED ICON]l[UNKEYBOARD ENABLED ICON]n 'stednavn';MRS pa-yi-len. Se PMc *lani 'heaven, heaven, storm', PMc *pa- 'side'. See also Marck (1994:314) PWMc *pailanji.

PMc *pakewa 'shark': CHK poko, popoo-; PUL paaawa (sic),paawa-; permanent CRL; STW always; WOL side; Solid FLOWER; SNS portal; PCK *pakewa;PON pako, p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MOK concrete; PNGpak[UNKEYBOARDABLE ICON]; MRS package; KIR(te)-fest; Standard KSR; VOICE *bakewa (SAA pa'ewa; KWA ba'ewa). See POC*bakiwa (Ross 1988); FIJ qio; PNK*boy; UAN *qiyu, kiyu. Note that the CHK form, with its unexpected k, may be a borrowing from another CHK dialect.

PMc *paku 'to cut, chop': CHK-kig, peku-(n) 'chip, chip off', -pek 'chip (in counting)', pek 'chopped, chopped', pekupek 'to chop', peku- u-(w) 'chopit, cut it'; MRT paku 'to cut, split', paku-u-(tew) 'to cut off'; PUL pakupak 'to cut, cut', paku-(w) 'cutit, cut it'; CRL pagh 'to be cut, to be split', pahu-(w) 'to cut'; STW paku-u-(w) 'cut it', paku-u-(tiw) 'cut it off'; WOL pagu 'to cut, split, cut off' pagupegu 'to cut, split'; PCK *paku; PON pak 'to be smashed (as by a fallen ripe fruit)'; MRS pak 'Taro residue for replanting after cutting off the edible part'; KIR (te)-baku 'upper part of taro root cut off for replanting', baku-a 'throat cut, decapitated (s.t.)' (Bender et al. 1984); KSR pakp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to chop, to cut', paki 'to chop, to cut, to chop (s.t.)'.

PMc *palapal 'en fisk': PON palapal 'kaninf.'; KSR paelpael 'en slags f.'. Jf. PMc *pali 'fisk'.

PWMc *bleg 'light, heavy': CHK ppan; MRI ppal; PULP; CRL pel; STW ppan; WOL ppale, PUA ppana; SNS ppare PCK *ppale; MRS(yak) pole 'light ship'. Cf. PON pala-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'dry, expose objects to the sun to dry them', pele-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'dry, expose to the sun'; MRS[hw] e[ls]a[ls] 'light in weight'; KSRm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]laelae 'light, slender, thin'; BUG maamatha 'light, not heavy'.

PWMc *pali 'a fish': CHK paan, paan 'a kind of trigger f.'; WOL pali 'a kind of f.'; PCK *pa[ln]i; MRS pel 'boxfish'. See PMc *paper 'a fish'.

PWMc * palia 'side': CHK peniya-, peniye- 'p., helper'; MRI paliye-(n)'s. from'; PUL peliy, peliye-; CRL and CRN paliya-; STW paniye-(n)'s. from'; WOL Paliye; PCK *Palia; PONpali 'part' s., division, section'; PNG pali- 's'; MRS palæye- 'spouse'. See KSR p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'part, piece, cut, segment of'. See also PMc *pa- 'side', PMc *paiki 'side', PPC *[palua.sub.2] 'opposite, answer'.

PCMc *panipani 'sea cucumber': CHK penipen 'sea cucumber'; PUL. the penis; CRL Pepper 'trepang' STW penipen;WOL Pepper; PCK *both; PON penises. Cucumber'; MRS(ji) Penpen. Cucumber'; KIR (nta) enemy, (ta) enemy 'sea slug'. Cf. ROT Penny, ballpoint pen 's.c. See also Mokjipenpens s.c. (alleged borrowing from MRs), KSR's s.c. (which does not show the expected initial p or reduplication) and PPON*payipayi 'sea urchin' (PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'little black sp. of s. urchin';MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] yp [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y).

PCMc *pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aki'crossways': CHK pe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]es, pe[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]esi- 'forward, vertical, across'; PUL pe[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ak; WOL pe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]agi; PuA pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aki'to cross over'; PCK *pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aki; PONpa[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to be crooked, crooked',pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]apa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to lie across'; MRS penak 'bay'; KIR banaki 'crossed vertically', (te)-ba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'indistinctly or from the side of a person passing', ba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'passed without being clearly seen'. Possibly related is MOK pa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]pa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'sideways, beside, horizontally'. See also PMc *pa- 'page'. Cf. PCK *pala 'inclined'.

PMc *papa 'board, board': CHK paap, pape-n. Cardboard n'b. or s., b. from (one), b. of (more than one); MRT #pave-(n) 'b.or p.of'; PUL paap papa-(n) 'b., p.', pappa-(n-phase) 'chain beam'; CRL father, father-(l); CRN father, father-(s); STW father; WoLpaape 'p., straight'; PuA Pope; PCK *father; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p 'thin B. or wooden board'; MRS pap 'coconut leaf, midrib of leaves'; KIR (te-kaira)-far'a b. used as a temporary platform or seat in a canoe', (ra)-bund 'broad'; KsR paep 'raised sides of the canoe' (i.e. strakes); PEO potato, pava 'b., s. (Geraghty (1983); POc *baba, paba, bapa (FIJ bava wash strip or the top of a canoe'; PPN *papa 'flat, hard surface'; SAAHapa's. , thwartof canoe' ; BUG pava 's.'; ARO bottom plate, b.'); UAN *mod 'b., p.'. See also PMC *pa-'side'.

PMc *para 'red': CHK par, parapar 'r.',(a)-para 'cause it r.' is, pare-ey 'turn r. an', pair, pare-(n) 'tree with R. flowers (Erythrina variegata), tree of'; PUL pair, pair-pair; par, papar, parapar; STW pair; WOL pairs' tree with re. Flower'; PCK *para; PEO *baRa 'slightly colorless' (Geraghty 1990); PWMP *baRaq 'r.' (Blust 1989:127).

PMG? *para, parara 'torden': CHK paach; PUL pachch, pachchi-(n) 't., t. af'; CRL pachch, pachchu-(l); STW ppaclwh; WOLpachche; ULI parr (Bender et al. 1984); PuA paala, pala-; PCK 7 *Abs.; MOKpalar; KIR (te)-baa; KSR p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lael. Siehe auch Marck (1994: 311) PMc * stk.

PMc *parapara 'a fish': PUL parapar 'a shallow f. with vertical stripes'; CRL parapar' sp. from edible F. found outside the reef'; WOL parepare 'a kind f.'; PCK *parapara;PON parapar 'f. sp.', parapar[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-('n 1ik)'f. sp.'; KIR(te)-baabaa 'surgeon f. (Acanthurusguttatus)'; KSR paelpael 'kind off.'.

PWMc *pasa 'depressed and flooded area': CHK paat,#paate-(n), -pat 'tidal inlet, offshore canyon in shallow water, canyon'; PUL paat, peta-(n) 'swamp, sides of'; CRLpaat 'flowing water, current, flowing water'; CRN paat 'pond, puddle'; WOLpaate, peta-(li) 'gap, space between two things'; PCK *pada; PONpaad 'bulge, depression, puddle', pad 'bulge'; MOK pad 'depression', padi-(npil) 'pity'; MRS pat 'Swamp'. See KSR pat 'hole, perforation, opening'. See also Marck (1994:314) PMc *pasa 'swamp'.

PWMc *pasiu or *pasui 'a fish': CHK petu, petu-'big-eyed scad f.'; CRN and 'Pompano'; WOL patii'akule (a kind f.)'; PCK *padu; MRS paytiy 'goggle-eyedscad f. cf. MOK pod 'Mackerel'.

PMc *top 'drive': CHK pass 'd. (like a canoe)', pass-(not) 'd. away', pass-n' d. To'; MRI pass, pass-(to)'d., d. hereto'; PUL to 'd.', to (16) 'd.weg'; CRL passed 'd'. in the water', passe-(lo) 'd., d.away'; STW pass, pass-(it) 'd., d. away'; WOL part 'land after drifting', peta-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j-(i) 'land over (after drifting)'; PCK *above; PON pass "Arrival by sea, return from fishing"; MOK paj 'to arrive (from people)'; KSR paet 'd., push, pull', paetpaet 'float, d.

PWMc *parti, parti-a 'placenta, afterbirth': CHK peey,peyiya-(n) 'p., ihr p.'; MRS page, Piji-(n).

PMc *patiki 'long-haired when diving': CHK ppeyis,#ppeyisa-(n) 'strength, ability to endure pain, ability to hold breath or stay under water for a long time, his f.'; PULpeeyik (sic) 'dive deep, hold your breath long'; CRL ppeigh 'being able to hold one's breath underwater for a long time, endure', peighi-(ma) 'being in a life-or-death situation'; to be close to death'; PCK *paiki, ppayiki; PON peyk "sent by a diver capable of going deep or holding his breath for a long time"; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yk 'able to hold breath'; MRS pakij, ppakij (showing metathesis) 'long-haired when diving, capable of staying under water long'; KSR paetok 'hold your breath long, dive, long-haired'. There are problems with the KSR form.

PMC *pau 'hand, arm, wing': CHK pau, hero-(n); MRTpaW, paWu-(n); PUL pawn, pawn-n; CRL Salary, Salary-(l); STW numbers, numbers (n); WOLpaau, pau-(l); PUA pau, pau-(of); PCK *pau; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'his arm'; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'his front leg'; MRS pay, peyi-; KIR (not)-bai, bai-(in); KSR po, p""o(l); PEO*baRu (Geraghty 1990). Cf. YAP paaq 'his hand or arm' See also PPC*last 'give up, drop easily'

PMC? *pau, paupau 'to blow (of the wind)': CHK pe, peepe'b.', pee-ni 'to blow on'; STW(uru)-pe 'tofan'; WOL peepee 'b. gentle (like a breeze)'; ULI (ru)-peu'to fan'; PCA (ulu)-pau 'to blow'; PCK *pau, paupau; KSRpaepae 'b., fan', pae-(I[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'fan (it), b.on (it)'. See MOK pairs 'wave'; MRS pal '(formants in place names) b.', ppalpal 'wave (of a flag), flutter'. Cf. also CHK a-ani-pe 'fan' (lit. 'makes the wind blow'), a-ani-pee-(w) 'f. him, waves to her', PMC *iri, iri-pi- 'tofan', and cf. PMC *paLu 'Blow (of Wind)' postulated by Goodenough (1995:77).

PCM *pawo 'platform': CHK poo, poo-n 'p., sleeping platform, copra drying rack, s. of'; PUL poo 'raised sleeping p.'; CRL poo 'ground'; WOL Poo 'floor, wooden floor, hallway, porch'; PUA paado, pado- "ground, floor"; PCK?*pawo; MRS stol 'shelf, top floor (of the house), attic'; KIR(te)-bao 'house with raised floor, s., podium'. Note that the PUA form is unexpected here where we would expect *pawo.

PCM *pei 'stone structure': CHK([sop.sup.w]-u-nu)-pi 'name of a major clan' (lit. 's. s. district'); WOLpeey, #peeyi- "raised platform of rock (for meeting places or houses)"; PCK *peyi; PON peey 'altar, some ancient structure made of stone, a heap', pey-(ni-kid) 'garbage heap, garbage dump'; MRS ppey'a platform of stones, build a pile of stones'; KIR (te)-at 'cairns on a plain (collected to catch fish)'. Cf. MOK pey 'Cemetery'; KSR potte 'pile of stones, stone wall', poti 'to build (s.t. with stones)'. Cf. PCK *peiya or *payiya 'to dig'.

PMC *peka 'feces': CHK a lot, a lot-, PUL a lot; Blacklist pa,pa; WOL page, page, page; PUA package, package; PCK *tip; PONp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'chairs'; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'to defacate', pack-d 'to d. on'; MRS give 'semen, semen', give-(tahan) 'usually defecate on the floor' (sic, but see tahan 'pee'); KIR beka 'chairs', (not) become.'; POC *Grants (Ross 1988); PMP *peka 'to separate, separate' (Blust 1980:125). Cf. PEO *vekaz 'defecate, e.' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ put, put-ca; SAA he'a, he'a-si; BUG vevega; ARO Jre'a, he'a-si; KwA fe'a ). Note that KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k, fox-(n) 'faces, dung, f. of' appears to be on loan from MOK or MRS. Also note LAK(la)-heka-(la) 'his hind end (of the flying fox)'; FIJ Set "Bat Species"; PPN *Insert "Flyingfox".

PCMc *pekopeko or *kopekope 'cough, cough': PONkokopop; MOK cup; MRS [pek w] [pek w]; KIR bekobeko. Note that KSRk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f, k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]fk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] is an apparent borrowing from English. Cf. rudder koho 'c.' See also FIJvuu; SAA hu'u, KWA fu'u. See also PCK *fatafaka fafaka 'cough, cough'.

PCMc *pe[in]e-awa 'a fish': CHK pene-yaw, -yawe-(n) 'art of bass f., f. of'; CRL Forward Yaw 'sp. of edible fresh water f.'; WOL light yellow 'sort of.'; PCK*p[ac][ln]e pain; KrR (te)-bane-awa 'at (Chanos chanos, formerly Mugilchans), cultivated in f. ponds'. Also note KIR bane-riki 'a kindoff.'. Cf. PCK *pa-ni-one 'a fish' (lit 'sideofcanoe').

PCMc *peni 'meat of coconut': CHK (e)-ppunā, -ppunu-(n)soft m. for drinking c., albumen, it is soft in.'; WOL Peeli, Peli-'white c.i.'; PON peen 'drinks C. (respectable)'; MRSpen 'torn c.'; KIR(te) -ben, beni- 'general term for a ripe one.', beniben 'right in ripe coconuts'. See KSR or 'c.oil for poi', or 'c. Milk'. See also MRT penuunu 'protein'.

PMC *peo 'push aside': CHK pe 'to parry or cut off', pee-ni 'parry (it) with open hand'; MRTpoo-ne 'to sweep'; PUL pee-ni 'to smack', peeope 'tosweep (like with a coconut branch)'; CRL ppe and CRN] pe 'to bounee aball'; WOL tisse 'hit (like a ball), hit', tisse 'sweep with a broom', tisse-li-i 'hit, sweep'; PCK *pee, piss;MOK pco-k 'wipe, sweep (s.t.)'; MRS pewpew 'sweep, brush', pewe-k 'sweep, brush (s.t.)'; KSR po-k 'clear, sweep (s.t.)'. Cf. PCK *pee, pee-n[iu] 'empty (as container)'.

PMC *pepe, pepepe 'to skip, flat': CHK pepe's. (like a stone thrown on the water), Bounee on the surface (as a fisherman or a seaplane landing)', peppep's. or bounee along', (a-tere)--pep 'to s. stone' (a-tere)-appepa 'cause (s.t.) to s. (as ton)', (kuru)-ppep 'to jump with (as Motorboat)"; MRTpep, pep 'two sides (like a stone on water)'; KIR bebe 'two offset'; POc *bebe 'to flutter' (PPN *pepe 'butterfly', RED pepe 'butterfly; SAA pepe 'butterfly, moth'; BUG pepepe 'to stutter', pepe-[riki] 'to be frightened, to jump when frightened'; LAU bebe 'moth, butterfly'; ARO bebe 'butterfly'; KWA bebe 'butterfly, moth'; PKB bebe 'flutter'). Cf. KIR bee-i 'slide along (like a plate when thrown)'; FIJ bi 'butterfly'; UAN *ambay 'to flutter, move about'. See also PCMc ? *[p.sup.2][cp.sup.w]e'butterfly'.

PMc *peti 'garbage, rubbish': CHK pii, piipi; MRI pei(sic); PUL peey peyipey; CRL peey, peipey; WOL beesi, besi-; PuA peedi,pedi-; PCK *small; MOK pej 'Pandanus Cud'; MRS pej, piji-n 'discarded pandan key, placenta', ([jak.sup.w]-pej 'garbage, waste', ([k.sup.w]e)-pejpej 'throw out garbage'; KtR (te) -bdi 'Section of pandanus fruit from which the pulp has been removed by chewing (i.e. the discarded portion)';KSR p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s'garbage, waste'.

PMc *peti, pepeti, pe(t[theta])ipeti 'to float': CHK pi,pii-pi or ppi, ppii- (< *pipii); PUL-Pey; CRL peipey 'Strandgut';STW peipey; WOL pessimistic; PUA-PDI; PCK *clean, clean; PON pey 'to swim', mpey 'to swim'; MOK pay; FRU page; KIR beat, beat; KSR pns. Cf. LAK party, pai-party.

PMc *peyata 'ash': MRT peyas 'a. (offreplace)'; PUL peyah, peyaha-(n), peyiha-(n) 'a, a. from'; WOLpeyase 'a.' (archaic); PCK*peyata; PON and NGK p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]s; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j 'stove, cooking area'; pngpaeae; MRS pahaj 'small stove or hearth, land of the chief for cooking', (wi)-pahaj 'fireplace, one'; KSR (a)-p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]t. See also Marck (1994: 325) PMc*peata.

PMC *pia 'vagina': PON pi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'here v.', piipi 'v.'; MOK pi, pi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],pie-(n) 'v., here v., v. of'; MRS Pipiy 'v.'; KIR(te)-bia 'spawn, tumor, wen, gland, bud, excrement, fish eggs'; PEO *biRa (SAM *pia 'arrowroot starch, smegma'; SAAPile 'fish roe'; ARO bira 'roe, yolk, waste, starch, sediment'; KWA bila-[na] 'roe'). See FIJ baby 'Vagina'.

PMc *pia, pipia, piapia 'sand, beach': CHK ppi, ppiye-n'sā, sā of', piyept 'low-lying sand island'; MRTpiya-(n); PUL ppi, ppiya-n; blacklist ppi; STW pii, piya-(n); WOL ppiye; PUA piia;PCK *pi[ae], ppi[ae]; MRS pey. piyepey 'sandbank'; PEO *bia,biabia (Fit biabia 'sediment'; ARO [hau]-bia 'white limestone, a rock of crumbling white limestone'; KwA [fau]-bia 'a growing deposit of limestone in flowing water'). Cf. PPN *pia 'willow root, starch', *piapia 'gum, sap, discharge (as from the eyes), exudation'. See also PMc *pike 'sandholm'. See Marcks (1994:316) *pika.

PWMc *pici 'loose, released': CHK pich 'unbound, unrestricted, released, pardoned', (ni)-pich 'unmarried person', PUL piRi-(lo) 'to be released (as from prison)'; CRL ppishi-(lo)' to be undone (as a shirt); WOL ppishi 'to slip out, to be separated, to be tense'; PCK *pici; PON pit 'to escape'; MOKpis-(la) 'become free (from work or imprisonment)'; MRS pid-(tewtew),ppid-(tewtew) 'loose (of clothing or rope), loose (of skin), shabby, baggy, baggy'. Cf. PNK *pidi 'to throw away'. Cf. PMc*pici, pici-ki 'snatch, vibrate'.

PMc *pici, pici-ki 'snap, vibrate': CHK pichipich 'pulsate, pulsate, v., vibrate', ppich 'snap, jump, vibrate, be a stabbing pain, a s., jump, vibrate', ( nike , nika, niko)-ppich 'bow and arrow, rubber sling and arrow'; PUL ppiR,ppiRi-(lo) 'to s. (as a fishing spear or rat trap'; CRL ppish,ppishi-(lo) 'to s. or break (as a string or rubber band), s. off (as a button of a shirt) , s. or to jump out of joint 'to hurt (from a broken bone), to throb (as pain)'; WOL ppishi 'to slip out, to be interrupted, to be tense'; PCK *pici, ppici; PON pit 'to jump back', pitipit 'quick in the ability to perform actions'; MOK pisi-k 'snap (a finger), strum (a guitar)'; KIR biri 'run'; KSR pisr 'splinter, burst, burst, a slingshot or bow and arrow' ,pisri -k 'shoot (s.t.) with a slingshot,,pisr 'swallow, hiccup'; POc *bidik (BUG pidi 'jump, bounce off'; PNK *pidi'smid , throw away'); PMP *pi(n) Tik 'knock, hit' (Blust1980:128). Cf. MRS pir 'slide down from position'; KSR pir 'sequence of quick movements, hit, jerk, jerk, twist'. See also PMc *fici fici-ki 'snip, cut, snap, flick', PWMc *pici 'loosened, let go'.

PMc *pike 'sandhill': CHK #piis, pisi-n 'sandhill', p. i. of', pise-(miau), pisa-(n), pise-(ech), pisi-(niyap) 'names of islands and reefs in Chuuk'; PUL piik 'the name of Pikelot Island'; STw piik 'name of small sand islands'; WOLpiige 'island', girls-(elee) 'name of a small island in Woleai', PCK *pike; PON piik 'sand', pikapik 'sand'; MOK tail, pike(n) 'sand'; MRS pike-n, piki-(n) 'flat land of, island of (in many place names)'; KIR (te) cycle 'white sand, sandy island without vegetation'; KSR p[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'sand'.p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]kp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'sandy'. Cf. PMC*pia, pipia, piapia 'sand, beach'. See Marcks (1994:316) PMc*pika.

PMc *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri- 'to clap hands, to hit (s.t.)': CHK pisipis 'to clap hands', pisi-ri 'to hit(it)', ppis 'to be hit with the hands'; PUL piki-ri-y 'touch (it) hard with hand'; CRL pighipigh 'to clap hands', pighi-ri 'to hit with hands'; WOL pigipigi 'to smack, hit, hit, smack', pigi-ri-i 'drop it, hit it, hit it, slam it'; PUA pikipiki "ball", piliki (showing metathesis) "hit it, hit it"; PCK *pikipiki, piki-ri-; PONpikipik, piki-r 'to knock lovingly'; MOK pikpik 'topat, to drum', piki-r 'p. or d. (s.t.)'; MRS piki-r 'brush off', pikpiki-r 'shake out (as a mat)'; KSR pik'slap', piki-l 'to brush off, dust off'. See PMP*pikpik "Clap or knock noise" (Blust 1983-84:95).

PWM? *piko, piko-si 'to mess up': MOK pukpuk 'to mess up, to mess up', puko-d 'to mess up'; MRS[pek.sup.w] 'confuse, confuse, bewilderment, trouble, muddle, muddle, bewildered, confused, snarling', [pek.sup.k]-tak 'become agitated, confused, stir, disturb' . Cf. PON pi[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'confused, jumbled, untidy', pi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ipi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'confusion, disorder, chaos'; KIR beo "tangled, tangled," KSR kupo "tangled with," f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s "muddled, confused, crammed, overflowing, mixed, tangled."

PMc *pili 'water': PON piil 'w., liquid', pil-(lap) 'river', pili-(tik) 'stream'; MOK pil,pil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], stack-(n) 'fresh m., be f.w., f.w.of', pil-(lap) 'flow'; png arrow 'w.'; MRS pit'drop liquid, drip, trickle'; KSR pul 'splash sound, dive with splash sound'. The vowel in the KSR form seems to be a problem. See also Marck (1994:318) PMc * pili.

PMc *pina, pina-ti- 'to be constipated, stop (s.t.) above': CHKpine-(no) 's. be up, plugged', pine-e-(y) 'plug (it) up (ofa hole)', pinepin's. up, stuffed, blocked'; MRT pinapen'stopper, s. up', pina-a-(y) 'stop it up'; PUL pina-a-(y) 'prevent it, stop it', pinapin 'bottle stopper, stopper (from Holein-Kanu)'; CRL pilapil 'plug' (Bender et al. 1984), stapel-e-(y) 'to close, cover, cover, turn off (offaucet)'; STW pinapin 'plug, s. up', pine-e-(y) 'stopit up', pile-sagh, pile-sagh 'to be blocked or clogged'; WOLpilepil 'plug, plug, plug, plug, be closed, plugged, plugged',pile-si-(i) 'close it, turn it off', pile-ta-(a) 'patch it (ahole), plug it ' , heap tagi 'to be closed, closed'; ULI pilpil'stopper'; PCK *pinapina, pina-ti-; PON pinapin 'patch, block, seal', pina 'patch, block, seal (it)'; MOK pin, pine 'cover or stopper, its c. or s.'; MRS pine-j'hide, block, cover, hide, block'; KSR ""n' toppatch, flick', pini-s 'two p. or m. (s.t.)'. Cf. WOL punnu'be plugged, obstipated, p. op.

PMc *pini, pinipini 'twisted, tangled': CHK ppin, pippin 'snarls, tangled', pin-ni 'twist it (of a limb or muscle)'; MRT pinipin 'plaited, woven', fyr-e-(y) 'plaited'; PUL ppin, CRL ppil 'to become tangled', pili 'to thread (agarland or lei)'; STW ppin 'plaited, tied, twisted (from Haarorleis)'; WOL ppili 'make flower chains by tying flowers together', pilipili 'tie, twist, fold', pili-(i) 'twist, fold'; PUA pini, pinipini 'turn, turn, turn'; PCK *pini,ppini,pinipini; PON pinipin 'tightly twisted or curled'; KSR pin' for binding, binding (s.t.)'. Cf. PCK *ffi, fiffi 'interlocked'.


PCMc *pi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u, [p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u 'appears, takes shape': CHKpu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'begins to take shape (as breadfruit)'; MRS[b.sup.w][i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] 'appears or arises'; KIR [b.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to appear or arise, to be born'.

PMc? *piri 'growth or lump under the skin, spongy kernel of a mature coconut': CHK piir, piri-(n) 'hard g. or 1. under s., its g.', piri-(n taka) 'spur of the ripe coconut when it begins to form'; PUL pir, piro (sic) 'g. or 1. under s., coconut fungus beginning to form to form an L.'; MOK pir, piri-(n) 'lymph node, 1.n. from'; MRS pr 'small, sprouted coconut, tumor, swelling, wen'; KSR pili 'mumps, has mumps'; PEO *biri (KWA bili 'skin rash all over the body'). Cf. KIR(te)-bia 'tumor, whom'; PEO*puRa 'Elefantiasis' (Geraghty 1990).

PCMc*[p.sup.w][ae] 'fordi': CHK [p.sup.w]e,[p.sup.w]e, wo, we; PUL [pw]e; CRL [bw]e; STW [pw]e; WOL be;PUA [pw]a; PCK*[pw][ae]; PON [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRS[b.sup.w]ey; KIR [b.sup.w]a. Jf. KSR ke. Jackson (1986:229 Fn. 4) Spender PCMc*[p.sup.w]a. Jf. PMc *[p.sup.w][ae] 'fremtidig aspektmarkør'. Jf. også FIJ mel.

PMc *[p.sup.w][ae] 'future aspect marker': CHK-[p.sup.w]e; MRT - [pw]; PUL-[pw]e; CRL - [bw]; STW-[see]; WOL -being; PUA -[pw]e; PCK*-[pw]; KSR-Fee. Cf. POC*s (Ross 1988). Cf. also PCMc *[p.sup.w][ae] 'because'. Jackson (1986:229 Fn. 4) Spender PMC *[p.sup.w]a.

PMc *[p.sup.w]aa 'to say': PON [p.sup.w]a; MOK[p.sup.w]a 'p.', [p.sup.w]ee-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'p. say (see above)'; MRS [b.sup.w]ah; KSR fae-k's., to say, to announce', fwae-k 'it is said'. See FIJ Kaya, Kwaya (Geraghty 1983).

PCMc*[pw][acai] 'solve': CHK[pw][pw]ach, [pw][achapw ]ach 'I., limp, wrinkled'; PUL[pw]aaR; CRL [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ash 'to be old and wrinkled'; PROBABLY? [b.sup.w]ashe 'to be crooked (of bow-legs)'; PCK*[pw]aca; MRS ([b.sup.w])[b.sup.w] adey(dey('rough (of the skin)'; KIR [b.sup.w]ara' l., united'.

PCMc*[Pw][aca2] 'Art of Round Basket': CRL[bw]aash; CRN[bw]aaR; WOL hash, bash-; PUA [pw]ace,[pw]ace-; PCK*[pw]cake; KIR (tea)-[b.sup.w]ara 'a casket-like b.made of coconut leaves' (but cf. PMc *[p.sup.w]asau 'basket').

PCMc *[p.sup.w]ai 'object of value': PON[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][yp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'bought, to be paid for, cost money', [p .sup.w]ay-n 'buy, pay, rent[(s.t.)sup.1]; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]ai 'thing, object', [b.sup.w]ai-na 'use, possess (s.t.), [b.sup.w][aib. sup.w] ai 'to have property'; PEO *[p.sup.w]aRi (BUT bali 'thing, by, thing for'). C. PMc *mau, mau-ni 'traded, acquired in trade'.

PMc *[p.sup.w]ai, [p.sup.w]ai – the 'pull up, pick up': CHK[p.sup.w][eep.sup.w]e, [p.sup .w ]e .w]e .w]ee-(die), [p.sup.w]ee-yi 'draw from the sea, p.u. Fischer pull it up'; PUL [pw]ee-(kill),[pw]ee-y; WOL beebee, bee-ye-(take) 'to take up', bee-tagi 'to be occupied'; PUA [p.sup.w][ep.sup.w]e, [p.sup.w]e-(yow),[p.sup.w]e-nj(sic) 'rise from the underground , fishpond, take it up'; PCk*[pw][eepw]ee, [pw]ee-, [pw]ee-ti; KSR fai, fai-s 'pull or pull'. See Fu Yavi.

PWMc *[p.sup.w] [aip.sup.w]ai 'stupid, stupid': STW[p.sup.w] [ayip.sup.w]ay 'to be stupid, disrespectful'; PON[p.sup.w][eyp.sup.w]ey 'stupid, stupid, idiotic, simple, stupid'; MOK[p.sup.w][eyp.sup.w]ey 'supid'; MRS [b.sup.w][eyb.sup.w]ey 'crazy, dumb, dumb'. This cannot be related to PEO *buRa'foolish' (Geraghty 1990). See ARO [p.sup.w]ai-, [p.sup.w]ei-' preferred. Exceptionally". See also KIR baba 'foolish'.

PWMc *[p.sup.w]asu 'open (like a bud or flower)': PUL[p.sup.w]ak 'open a little (like a bud)'; PON [mp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'flower bud'; MRS (hal)-[b.sup.w][ek.sup.w] 'flower bud', (te)-bak, (kab)-bek 'male flower of breadfruit'. Cf. PCk*[p.sup.w]aku, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]aku 'to be awake at night'.

PMc *[p.sup.w][ae]la, [p.sup.w][ae]la-nj, [p.sup.w][ae]la-naki'to split s.t. open': MRT [p.sup.w]ele-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e'to force (s.t.) open, to rape (see above)'; PON [p.sup.w]al 'cut, cut up, operate, divide', [p.sup.w]ala-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'cut (s.t.), slice (s.t. on), etc.' ; MOK [p.sup.w]al 'broken, split, operated', [p.sup.w]ala-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to break or divide (s.t.)'; PNG [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]la-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ek 'to share a coconut'; MRS[b.sup.w]el-(kek), [h.sup.w]el-(kek) 'cracks in the skin of the soles of the feet', [b.sup.w]el-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ak ' to split open, spread legs wide'; KIR[b.sup.w]ena-a- 'divide (s.t.) in two, split (s.t.)'; KSR fulfal 'split, store lengthwise', f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'cleft, cleft,creavsse, canyon', f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] split . (p.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]alili 'surrounds or covers a whole':CHK #[p.sup.w]een, [p.sup.w]enni-, -[p.sup.w]aan 'surroundings , go into orbit around s.t.', [p.sup.w]enni-I-(y) 'go all the way around'; PUL[pw]alli-i-(y); 'encircle it, surround it'; CRL[b.sup.w]al 'to go around', [b.sup.w]ali-i-(y),[b.sup.w]eli-i-(y), 'surround (s.t. or s.a.) 'to go all the way round (s.t.)'; WOL haanni, hanni 'to inspect, go around'; PUA[p.sup.w]aanni 'to inspect, go around and inspect'; PCk *[p.sup.w]alli;MRS [b.sup.w]alli-(n) 'clothes of, clothes of'; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]anin 'whole, whole thing', [b.sup.w]anin 'to be whole or whole'.

PMc *[p.sup.w]and 'cover, lie': CHK(e)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]en, -[p.sup.w][p.sup. w]enu-(n) 'c. or I.', c.of'; [p.supl.w]enough-u-w) 'c. it', [p.sup.w][enup.sup.w]en'c., l., c. with a l.', (e)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]enu 'make it covered'; MRT [p.sup.w] alu' bis c. (s.t.)'; PUL(ya)-[pw][pw]al,-[pw][pw]ale-(n)'c., l., c. af'; CRL [b.sup.w] [alab.sup.w]al 'c., l., [b.sup.w]alu-w 'toc. (s.t.)'; CRN [en] Alu 'bis c. (s.t.)'; WOL haluhelu'bedeckend, bis c.', balu-u-(wir) 'c. it'; PUA [p.sup.w]onu'a c., to c.', [p.sup.w] onu (sic) 'c. it';PCk*[p.sup.w]; PON (not)-[mp.sup.w]al, (not)-[mp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l'c. an earthenware furnace with Blades, (koduu)-[p.sup.w] al'to c. up',(code)-[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'bedecked'; MOK(co)-[mp.sup.w]al and PNG (co)-[mp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'c. earthenware with blades'; MRS [b.sup.w]al 'covered',([k.sup.w]e)-[b.sup.w]al 'c. an earthenware with Blade«; PEO*[p.sup.w]alu (ARO [p.sup.w] language, [b.sup.w] language, [p.sup.w]ar-si,[b.sup.w]ar- si 'to close, stop, put I. On', [p.sup.w]anu,[p.sup.w]an u, [p.sup.w]anu-si 'to ono-si 'to take out up, blocks, coughs, plugs". KSR kafa, kafa-I 'cover, lay on' is obvious loan from English.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]A 'hole': CHK[p.sup.w]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. [p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n),-[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hole or cavity, its H., hervagina', H. (in count)' , -[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'empty'; PUL-[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hole(in counting); WOL bba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'column, garden holes'; PUA [p.sup.w]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a,[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a- 'vagina'; PCK*[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'fish trap',[b.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'hide in a hole'. See Fu maga'vagina'. See also Marck (1994:319) PCMC *p'a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a.

PCMC *[p.sup.w][ap.sup.w]u 'zahnloser Hai':MRT[p.sup.w][oop.sup.w]; PUL [p.sup.w][oop.sup.w], [p.sup.w][op.sup.w]u-(n)'art of s., s. of (Bender et al. 1984 ); STW [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][p.sup.w] 'sp. Von s.'; WOL paabu'a Art s.'; PCK*[pw][apw]u; MOK [p.sup.w][oop.sup.w] 'ein weißes s.'; MRS [b.sup.w][ab.sup.w]; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w][ab.sup.w]u 'a pp. with a flat snout' (Bender et al.1984).

PCMC *[p.sup.w]ar 'rocky outcrop': PON[p.sup.w][arap.sup.w]ar 'ridge cap'; MRS [b.sup.w]ar'rock'; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]aa 'continuous height of hard coral reef'. See WOL pore beach rock; THIS is 'rccf'

PCMC *[p.sup.w]aro 'curved, bent': CHK [p.sup.w]or,[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]or 'c., b.', [ p.sup.w]ore-e-(y) 'bend it, curve it', (o)-[p.sup.w]ora 'make it c.',(eyii)-[p.sup.w ]oro-[p.sup.w]or 'be c., make a curve'; PUL[pw][pw]or; CRL [b.sup.w]or, [b.sup.w]ar; WOL baro, bbaro; PUA[pw]alo; PCK *[pw]aro; KIR [b.sup.w]ao 'crooked'. Cf. KSRfor, furo-k 'to turn, turn'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]aro 'box, hole': CHK [p.sup.w]oor,[p.sup.w]oru-(n); PUL [pw]oor, [pw]oro-(n); CRL [bw]oor, [bw]oro-(l); WOL baaro, baro-; PUA [pw]aalo, [pw]alo-; PCK*[pw]aro; PON [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r'hole, cave'; MOK [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r'hole', [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][rp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r 'full of holes'; KSR gets "cavity, hole, hole", becomes "full of cavities". Cf. KIR(te)-buro 'supply box, overflow hole, hole where the water stays'. See also Marck (1994-319) PMC*p'aro,

PWMC *[p.sup.w]as 'late': PON [p.sup.w] and 'l.,slow'; MRS [b.sup.w][b.sup.w] at 'l., too l. for s.t.'. KSRpaet 'l., delay', instead of the expected *faet, is probably a loan from MRS.

PMC *[p.sup.w]asau 'basket': CHK [p.sup.w]otow,[p.sup.w]otowu-; MRI [pw]otaw; PUL potoowo (sic); CRL [b.sup.w]utow; CRN[b.sup.w]utow; STW [p.sup.w]otaaw (sic); WOL dew; PUA [p.sup.w]atao (sic); PCK *[p.sup.w]adau; MRS [b.sup.w]ejaw 'b. of fine weaving; pocket bag'; KIR[b.sup.w]arai-(also) 'a little hat' (but cf. PCMC*[p.sup.w][aca.sub.2] 'art of the round basket'); KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]. Note MRS j instead of expected t, suggesting it is a loan, but from which source is not clear. Cf. FIJ kato 'basket, box'.

PCMC *[p.sup.w]ata 'dried up, withered': CHK[p.sup.w]as, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]as 'dry, d.o., light in weight' ;PUL [p.sup.w]ah 'dry, w.'; CRL [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]as.[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]asa-(lo) 'to dry out'; WOL bbase, bbate 'bedry, dead, thin, skinny', [p.sup.w][atep.sup.w]ate 'busy'; PUA [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ata 'to be dry', [p.sup.w][atap.sup.w]ata 'to be completely dry, w.'; PCK*[pw]ata, [pw][pw]ata; KIR [b.sup.w]ata 'black, dark-colored, tanned'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]au 'to crush food'; CHK[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]o, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]oo- 'breadfruit masher', [p.sup.w][p.sup. w]oo-nine 'p. it (breadfruit)'; MRT[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]o 'p.'; PUL [p.sup.w]o 'p.(breadfruit)'; CRL [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]o 'bumps to bump that bumps', [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ooo-li 'two p. (foodstuffs) with cupids and pestles”; WOL bboo 'to pp (breadfruit), pounding stone', bboo-li-(i); 'S. The'; PUA ppao (sic); PCK*[pw][pw]oo, [pw][pw]au; PON [p.sup.w]ay 'wooden tool for splitting breadfruit'; KSR faefae 'Art of Poi (puree)'.

PCMC *[p.sup.w]ana 'a snapperfish': CHK poow, powu-(n)'sp. Of s., s. af'; CRN [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ow 'sp. of s.';PON [p.sup.w]eew's. (Lutjanus semicinctus)'; KIR (not)-[b.sup.w]aua'a f.'

PMC *[p.sup.w]auSu 'næse': CHK [p.sup.w]eet,[p.sup.w]eetu-; MRT [pw]out, [pw]out-; PUL [pw]oot,[pw]out-; CRL[b.sup.w]out, [b.sup.w]out-; STW [pw]out,[pw]out-; WOL støvler; PUA [p.sup.w]auto; PCK *[pw]vand; MOK(s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d, -[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]di-; MRS[b.sup.w]receive(iy); KIR [b.sup.w]Luft; KSR fw[epsilon]; PEO *[b.sup.w]aRu[sz]u (Geraghty 1983) und *[b.sup.w]aRucu (Geraghty 1990) (SAA qualusu). Bemærk YAPP'eeth-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uun) 'hans næse'. Jf. POC *he'nose' (PPN *he; FIJ ucu; BUG he; ARO han 'næseornament'; LAK [ma]-he; PKB *he); UAN *øjne.

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PMC *[p.sup.w]ow 'fiskestang': CHK [p.sup.w]oow,[p.sup.w]oow-, [p.sup.w]oow, [p.sup.w] oow, [p.sup.w] oow]døds, 'f. p.', [p.sup.w]ow'at fiske med en p.'; MRT [pw]ow, [pw]ow-; PUL[pw]ow(sic); CRL[pw]ow, [pw]ow; STW [p.sup.w]ja; WOLbaau, bau-; PUA [pw]aau, [pw]au-; PCK*[pw]; PON[; MOK [pw]o; MRS [b.sup.w]ay; KSR für. Jf. YAP power'Angelrute', KSR [p.sup.w]e([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-i)'fish for w. en pæl (om natten)«.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ax[ae] 'come to see, reveal': CHK[p.sup.w]a, [p.sup.w]aa- 'c. to v.', [p.sup.w]aa-ri 'show', (a)-[p.sup.w]a 'pick or gather breadfruit'; MRT[p.sup.w]aa-again "announce"; PUL [p.sup.w]a, [p.sup.w]aa-; 'appear', [p.sup.w]aa-ri-(y) 'show'; CRL [b.sup.w]u 'be or become visible, appear' [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]a 'suddenly appear'; WOL baa, bbaa 'come forward to see, come from behind', (ga)-baa 'dig it up'; PCK *[pw]ae, [pw]ae-ri-; PON[p.sup.w]ar 'appears'; MOK [p.sup.w]ar 'come out, come to see'; PNG [p.sup.w]ar 'to appear, to rise (of the sun); KSR faek 'say, say, announce'; PEO *[p.sup.w]aka, [p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ka (SAA qa'a 'rising [from celestial bodies]', qa'a-[qito] 'sprouting, springing up [from plants]'; ARO[p.sup.w]aa 'ascend'). See also PCK *[p.sup.w]aya 'schooling fish', PMC *[p.sup.w]ere 'sprout, blossom'. See also PMC*[p.sup.w]era 'go or come through'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ece, [p.sup.w]ece[p.sup.w]ece 'white, powdered lime': CHK [p.sup.w]ech, [p.sup.w ]ece ]ece; eche[p.sup.w]ech 'w. be, be of light colour', [p.sup.w]eech, [p.sup.w]echa-, [p.sup.w] eche- 'S. 1.'; MRI [p.sup.w] [eshep.sup.w]esh, [p.sup.w]eesh; PUL [pw]eR, [pw][eRepw]eR, [pw]eeR; CRL [b.sup.w]esh, [esheb.sup.w]esh 'white, with lime on it', [b.sup.w] 'coral lime'; CRN[bw]eR; STw [pw] [eReppw], [pw]eeR; WOL beshe bbeshe, beshebeshe, beeshe, beshe-; PUA [pw] [pw]e, [pw]e[pw]e[pw]e-; PCK[pw]ce, [pw][ecepw]ece; PON[pw][epsilon]t[epsilon][pw][epsilon]t,[pw][epsilon][epsilon]t; MOK [p.sup.w]os 'limestone'; KsRfasrfasr, fasr. Cf. YAP weak 'lime, w.'; PWMP *budeq'w.' (Blast 1980:56). See Jackson (1986: 229: fn. 4) PMc*[p.sup.w]*tempo 'coral lime'. See rain BUG. See also Marcks (1994:317) PMc *p'[ae]t.

PMC *[p.sup.w]eci 'hot': CHK [p.sup.w]ich,[p.sup.w]ichi-kkar, e-[p.sup.w]ichi 'h., burning i.e., heat it'; PUL[pw]ER, [pw]eRi-kkar, ya-[pw]-eri-(y); CRL [b.sup.w]eshi-kkar, a-[b.sup.w]eshi; CRN Ri-kkar, Ri; STW [p.sup.w]eRi-kkar; WOLbeshi, beshi-kkare, non-beshi; PUA [p.sup.w]earth, [p.sup.w] dry land; PCK*[pw]eci, [pw]eci-kkara, ka-[pw]eci-i-; MOK[p.sup.w][particularly w]es; KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]srf[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sr, fisr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k.

PWMC *[p.sup.w]ee 'khot divination': CHK [p.sup.w]ee'd. by number (with knots in four coconut leaves, counting each of the four and using the remaining numbers in their permutations)', [p.sup.w]ee-(y) 'divine to'; PUL [pw]e(sic),[pw]ee-(ni); CRL [bw]ee, [bw](li), [pw]ee-(y); WOL bee;PCK *[p.sup.w]ee; MRS [b.sup.w] eye ​​'back, result of d.',[b.sup.w]eye 'k. in d.'.

PMc *[p.sup.w]your 'kind of bat': CHK (this)- [p.sup.w]e 'little art of Furibat'; PON[pw][epsilon][epsilon]c; MoK[pw]uge; KSR fat; PEO *[b.sup.w]in 'fruitbat' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ beka, Bekwa 'bat [Geraghty 1983]; PPN [peka.sup.w]'bat').

PMC? *[p.sup.w]eki 'bære, tag': MRT [p.sup.w]eke'to lift, c. (s.t.)'; PUL [p.sup.w]ek 'bis c. (på skulderen i hånden)', [p.sup.w] eki-(y) 'bis c. (s.t.)'; CRN[b.sup.w] [eib.sup.w]ogh, [b.sup.w] [oob.sup.w]ogh 'at bringe, t.,c.', [b.sup.w] ughi, [b.sup.w]oghi 'bei c., få, t., bringe, transportere(s.t.)'; CRN [b.sup.w] [ogob.sup.w]og ​​​​'at bringe, t., c.'; STW[p.sup.w]iki at bringe (s.t.)'; WOL begi 'to t.', begi-(i)'to t. (s.t.)'; PCK *[p.sup.w]eki; PON [p.sup.w]ek 'heben, annehmen (s.t.)'; MOK [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to lift',[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to lift (s.t.)'; MRS [b.sup.w][b.sup.w]ek 'to t., c.', bek 'to t., c., empfangen, bekommen, erfassen (s.t.)'; KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'at stjæle (s.t.), begå utroskab med (s.o.)'. Jf. PUA [p.sup.w]e, [p.sup.w]e,[p.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to t. (s.t.) op fra undergrunden'. Jf. Også SAA qa'i 'at løftestang, præmie'.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]elu 'break': STW [p.sup.w]El, [p.sup.w][elup.sup.w]El 'to break': WOL beliel 'snap off, to cancel', beli-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k-(i) 'to cancel, to cancel', beli-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]egi 'to cancel, to be cancelled'; MOK ki-[p.sup.w] ele-k 'bend s.t. with a movement of the wrist, rotation s.t. break off s.t. with a snap', ki-[p.sup.w]El'bend (s.t.) with a flick of the wrist, turn (s.t.) off, break (s.t.) with a snap'; PEO*[p.sup.w]elu'bend (Geraghty 1983:123). MRS [b.sup.w] [ilak.sup.w] 'b., crease, fracture (s.t.)'; KIR[b.sup.w] [enab.sup.w]ena 'to split'; PCK *[p.sup.w]ullu,[p.sup.w]ulu 'break'. See also KSR fok 'to break, to shatter (of brittle objects)', fokfok 'to break, shattered', fuku-l 'to break or shatter (s.t.)'.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]elu, [p.sup.w] [ep.sup.w]elu 'dirt, earth': CHK [p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]un, [ p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]unu-'earth': PUL [p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]el, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w] eli-'earth' CRL [p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]elu; PON[p.sup.w]eli-[p.sup.w]El 'dirty'; MRS [b.sup.w]-il(tewenwen) 'filthy, filthy' (ttewen 'filthy, corrupt, ugly, obscene, vulgar, coarse'); KIR te-[b.sup.w]on, [b.sup.w]oni- 'black earth, sifted clay'. See PMc*[p.sup.w]elu 'Dirt, Soil, Dirty' (Jackson 1986:229, fn. 4, and Marck 1994:316); WoL boole,bola-(li) 'center (of an island), c. from'; KSR folfd 'Blue, Indigo, Dark Blue'. See also PEO [bp]wela 'mud' (Geraghty 1983)(PPN *pela 'dirty, decayed'; ARO [b.sup.w]era a swamp',[b.sup.w] [erab.sup. w] era 'be in flood") and PCMc *[p.sup.w]alu'taro swamp, dirt as in t. s." found.

PMc? [p.sup.w]enu 'cause, beginning, basis': CHK[p.sup.w]un, [p.sup.w]unu-(ta) 'begin, originated',[p.sup. w]unu-(n) 'c. from 'reason for', [p.sup.w]unu-u-(w) 'begin with'; CRL [b.sup.w] El 'begin' [b.sup.w]elu-(w) 'to start (s.t.)', [b.sup.w] ele-(taa-) 'b. (from s.t.)'; CRN [b.sup.w]ene-(taa-) 'b. (from s.t.)'; WOL bbblu, belu- 'cā, reason', belu-u-(vi) 'original, it begins', bon-ne 'because'; PCk *[pw] enu; KSR fono-, f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]- 'buttocks, hips, (? bottom)'. Cf. MRS win, wini-(n) 'base, root, c., ground'; FIJ vuu-(na); PKB*vuhu, vuu 'trunk, foundation, bottom, c.'; UAN *puqun. Cf. PMc?*[p.sup.w]uku 'base, tail'.

PCMc? *[p.sup.w][ep.sup.w]e 'butterfly': MRS [b.sup.w][ap.sup.w] [b.sup.w] [ib.sup.w]; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w] [eb.sup.w] Poc*bebe (SAM pepe 'b.'; FIJ beebee 'b.', SAA pepe 'b., moth'; LAU bebe 'b., month'; KWA bebe 'b., month'; PKB *bebe 'to flutter '). The KIR form can be a loan from SAM and the MRS form can be a loan from KIR. If so, this would be the same root as in PMc *pepe,pepepe 'to jump with'.

PMc *[p.sup.w]era 'to go or get through, to pass': CHK[p.sup.w]ER, [p.sup.w]ere- 'to come, to go'; CRL [b.sup.w]ar, [b.sup.w]er, 'to go all the way through, s.t. through': WoLbbere 'get s.t. through a hole'; PON [p.sup.w] ar 'appears, a race'; MoK [p.sup.w]ar 'through, to be penetrated, to emerge or to become visible'; MRS [b.sup.w] eyrah-(dik) 'start running'; KSRfaer's., go, come' (on loan?). Cf. KSR faesr 's., go, come'; KIR baaki 'went ashore (like a boat on the beach)'. Cf. also PMC *[p.sup.w]awu 'fishing rod', PMC *[p.sup.w]ax[ae] 'come to see'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ere 'sprout, blossom': CRL[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ar, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]er ' come forward, s.'; PON[p.sup.w][epsilon]r 'appears, b. (of fruits and flowers)';KIR[b.sup.w][eb.sup.w]e (sic) 'germinating, sprouting'; KSR fili 'arrives'. See MRS [b.sup.w]el, [b.sup.w][b.sup.w]el'bloom'. See also PMC *p[p.sup.w]awu 'fishing rod', PCK*[p.sup.w]uku or *[p.sup.w]uku 'sprout' (of a seed)'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]exe, [p.sup.w]e[p.sup.w]exe 'twins': CHK(ni)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w] e, (ni)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ee- 'twin (of siblings)'; MRI (li)-[pw][pw]e; CRL (li)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ey't. of the same sex' (li)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]eya -(alu) 't of the opposite sex'; CRN (li)-[pw][pw]eya-(anu) 't. of the opposite sex”; WOL (li)-bbauge; PCK*(li)-[pw][pw]eye; PONm[pw][epsilon]r; MOK u[m.sup.w][p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r;MRS[b.sup.w]ew (Eastern dialect); KIR[b.sup.w]e[b.sup.w]ee; KSR opt. See PUA(ni)-[p.sup.w] u 'twins'. See also the reconstruction *[p.sup.w]exaby Jackson (1983:384; 1986:229 fn. 4).

PMc *[p.sup.w]ili 'to slip off, put aside': CHK[p.sup.w]in, [p.sup.w]ini[p.sup.w]in, [S.sup .w ]ini-ti 'sled on or off (clothes), thing undressed and so on one meets on a path, s. iton or off'; PUL [pw]il; CRL [bw]ili-ti, [bw]uli-tu, [bw]uli-ti; WOL bilibili, bili-ti; PCK *[pw]ili,[pw]ili[pw]ili, pwili-di; PON [p.sup.w] il 'write down or p.a (as one's beliefs); Fill in KsRfil, place or page one. or away'.

PMc*[p.sup.w]ili, [p.sup.w]ili[p.sup.w]ili, [p.sup.w]ili-ta'sap, gum, resin, gummy': MRI p .sup.*]ele-s 's.',(a)-[p.sup.w]ili-sa 'receive s.'; PUL[p.sup.w]ill 'bring toddyf from a tree'; WOL bili-se 'rubber, s., to glue, to be glued', bili-sa-(a) 'to stick'; PUA [p.sup.w]uunu, [p.sup.w]unu- 'g.,s., glue', [p.sup.w]unu[p.sup.w]unu 'to be clumsy'; PCK*[pw]ill, [pw]ill; PON [p.sup.w]ill, [p.sup.w]ili'g.'; MOK[p.sup.w]il, [p.sup.w]ili- 'g., s.'; MRS [b.sup.w]il's.', [b.sup.w]il[b.sup.w]il 'rubbery, r.'; KSR ful' breadfruit s., g.'. Cf. POc *belut(Fu pencil-pointed 'sticky'; PPN *pulu 'g., r.' SAApulu 'pitch, r.'; AROburu 'g. bread tree (parinarium) used for fueling canoes, for clubbing ';LAK hdu 'juice, s.'); UAN *pulut 'paste, paste'

PMc *[p.sup.w][iu]Sowa 'sweat': PON [p.sup.w]udo,[p.sup.w]udaw, [p.sup.w]udowE's., sweat, .be s.',[p.sup.w]ow, 'to be sweaty'; MOK [p.sup.w]udo 'to s.' [p.sup.w]udoo-n 'to be s., s. of', [p.sup.w]udoo-di 'to sweat'; KSR fiy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's., sweat, toperspire'.

PWMC *[p.sup.w]iti 'group': CHK [p.sup.w]ii-, [p.sup.w]ii[p.sup.w]i' g., siblings of the same sex , siblings of s.s. be; MRI[pw]ii, [pw]ii[pw]i; PUL [pw]i-, [pw]ii[pw]iy(sic); CRL [bw]ii, [bw]ii[bw]i; STW [pw]ii,[pw]ii[pw]i; WOL bisi-, hisibisi; PuA [p.sup.w]iidi, [p.sup.w]idi-,[p.sup.w]idi 'siblings of the same sex, friends'; PCK *[pw]iiti,[pw][pw]iti-, [pw]itipwiti; PON [p.sup.w]ii-(n) 'g.,hold'; MRS [b.sup.w]iji-(n) 'herd or multitude of'. Cf. KIR-[b.sup.w]ii 'Unit of tens in counting'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]oca 'turtle shell': CHK [p.sup.w]ooch,[p.sup.w]ocha-(n) 'armour covering the back of a turtle or crocodile, it's a p .'; MRI [pw]oosh, [pw]ocha-(n)PUL [pw]ooR, [pw]oRe-(y); CRL [b.sup.w]oosh; CRN [b.sup.w]ooR; STW[pw]ooR; WOL booshe, bosha-(li); PUA [pw]oosa, [pw]osa-; PCK*[pw]oca; PON [pw]EEt; MRS [b.sup.w]ed; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]ora; KSRfisrE- 'piece t. s'.

PMc? *[p.sup.w]oi, [p.sup.w]oa 'reach, reach': CHK[p.sup.w]oo-; MRT [pw]eW, [pw]e-(n), [pw]e-(n); PUL[p.sup.they, [p.sup.they-(n); CRL[b.sup.w]oo-; STW [p.sup.w]oo-; WOL bu, bu-; PUA [p.sup.w]oo; SNS [b.sup.w]ou; PCK? *[p.sup.w]oo, [p.sup.w]owe-; PON[p.sup.w]oo, [[epsilon]'s., o., Aroma, sein s.'; MOK[p.sup.w]o, [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's.,its s.'; MRS [bw]i-, [bw]i-; KIR (te) -[b.sup.w] oi'scent, o., s.', [b.sup.w]oi 'to s., have o.'; KSR fo'to s., have o.', f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l), foli-(n) 'dens s., s. af'; POC? *bo-i, bo-a 'tos., to have o., a s. oder o. (PPN *poa 'fish o.'; FU boi, boi-ca's., garden o., s. of', siehe 'stink from the worm'). Vgl. UAN *Ausgang; PAN *baSu. Here there is a Problem, before all KSR l.

PMc *[p.sup.w]ono, [p.sup.w]ono-ti, [p.sup.w]ono-ta 'to be closed, to be blocked, to close, to block, to close': CHK [p. sup.w] to 'be enough'; MRI [p.sup.w] on 'padded'; Set. [p.sup.w]ono-(lo) 'crowded, full, crowded'; CRL: [b.sup.w]ol and CRN [b.sup.w]on'have s.t. In the eye'; STW [p.sup.w] to 'to be full, to have no more space'; WOL Bone 'thick, to be bushy'; PCK *[p.sup.w]on[ao];PON pon 'clogged, clogged'; MOK pon 'blocked'; MRS[b.sup.w] [en.sup.w]'b., clogged, clogged, clogged, cut off'; KIR [b.sup.w]ono 's., closed, stopped, blocked', [b.sup.w]ono-ta 'to cover, s., c. (s.t.)', (te) [b. sup.w]ono 'sea wall'; KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nf[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n'jammed, b.', f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]no-s 'to block, blockade, jam, check, behind, stop (s.t.) with a prop'; PEO *pono-t (Geraghty 1990) (FIJ bono, bono-ta 'to b., dam up'; PPN pono'c., b. up'; SAA pono 'to c., patch', pono-si' tostuff up'; BUG pono 'to c. a hole'; LAU bono 'to c. a hole'; ARO bono, bono-si 'to c., stop up, pond'; ARO [p.sup.w ] ono [p .sup.w]ono-si 'to stop, b., to choke', bono, bono-si 'to o c., to fill up'; KWA bono 'closed, s., constipation', bono-ta 'plug, plug' , bono-si-[a]toblock'); UAN *written. Note that the PON and MOK start stops are not the expected reflexes. Sec PMC *[p.sup.w]on[ao] 'whole, complete'. Cf. PMC *[p.sup.w]alu 'cover, cover'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]on[ao] 'whole, complete': WOL bone 'mature'; PON [p.sup.w]to 'w., whole', [p.sup.w]ono[p.sup.w] to 'round, circular, a circle'; MOK [p.sup.w] on'w. (Number)'; KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'w., c., whole'; PEO *bono (ARO bono 'to spread (as grass or weeds)'. Cf. CRL [b.sup.w] ell and CRN [b.sup.w] onn 'to be fully planted (of a field)' ; KIR [ h.sup.w] for "really, truly, truly." See also PMc *[p.sup.w]ono, [p.sup.w]ono-ti, [p.sup.w]ono - ta' be closed, blocked, close, block, close'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ono 'promise': CHK [p.sup.w][p.sup.w] on,[p.sup.w][p.sup.w] one-(n) 'a s., agreement, promise, pledge, oath, s. of(s.t.), to s., make a contract, take an oath',[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ono-( ffe [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]da) 'to make an agreement, contract, or arrangement'; MRT [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]om 'agree, s.'; PUL [p.sup.w]on 'to p., agree'; STW [p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]on'agree, s.'; PCK*[pw][pw]ono; PEO *bono (PPN *pono 'truth, correctness'). Compare SAA qo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i and ULApo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to p.'; LAU (dau) bo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i 'to grasp' (dau 'to take, to hold').


PCMc *[p.sup.w]oto 'swelling': CHK [p.sup.w]oo,[p.sup.w]oo- 'swelling of any kind', [p.sup.w]o,[ p .sup.w]oo[p.sup.w]o 'to be swollen, to be pregnant'; MRI [p.sup.w]oo; PUL [p.sup.w]o, [p.sup.w]oo[p.sup.w]o; CRL [b.sup.w]oo, [b.sup.w]o, [b.sup.w]oo[b.sup.w]o; STW [p.sup.w]oo; WOL boo boo boo; PUA [p.sup.w]oo; PCK*[p.sup.w]oo, [p.sup.w]oo[p.sup.w]oo; PON m[p.sup.w]os 'boil, swell', m[p.sup.w] asa-(da) 'swell, rise (like bread)'; MOK um[p.sup.w] as "disease, chickenpox"; MRS [b.sup.w] [b.sup.w]et 'swollen, swollen, lump'; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]oto 'an onion root', [p.sup.w]oto 'to have an onion'. Cf. MRS [b.sup.w]ej,[b.sup.w]eji- "swollen corpse"; KSR fui 'bud swelling'; PEO *boo 'boiling, swelling' (Geraghty 1983) (Fu boo 'boiling'; ARO [p.sup.w]oo[p.sup.w]oo 'elephantiasis').

PMc *[p.sup.w]uasa 'slingshot': MOK [p.sup.w]uad; MRS[pw]iwat; KST bold 's'. #f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ti 'shoot(s.t.) with a.s.'. The MOK and KSR forms could be loans from MRS.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]uce 'foolish, stupid, crazy': CHK[p.sup.w]uch, [p.sup.w]ucho[p.sup.w]uch 'c.', [ p.sup.w]uche-(er) 'to cry in distress'; PUL [p.sup.w]uR 'c'.[p.sup.w]u[p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]uRe-(er) 'scream'; CRL [b.sup.w]ush'naive, ignorant, stupid, senilec'; CRN [b.sup.w] uR' naive, ignorant, stupid, senile'; WOL busho 'c., stupid'; PUA[p.sup.w]uuse, [p.sup.w]use- 'a fool'; PCK *[pw]ucc; PON[p.sup.w]ut 'cheerful, lustful'; MRS [b.sup.w]ed 'error, error, wrong'; KIR [b.sup.w]ure 'to fail, to miss, to do wrong'. See PEObuRe 'f.' (Geraghty 1990).

PMc *[p.sup.w]uk[ao] 'Knots, Knots': CHK[p.sup.w]uko[p.sup.w]uk 'a k., verknots will be made, knots will be made', [ pw ][pw]uk, [pw]uke-(n) 'a k., k. von' [p.sup.w]uko[p.sup.w]uk'k. (as in a Baum)', [p.sup.w]uko-(y) 'k. Datum'; CRL[b.sup.w] ughe-e-(y) 'to bind (it) in one's k.', [b.sup.w]ugho[p.sup.w]ugh'a k., bind Knoten' ; CRN [b.sup.w]week-(y) 'k. Datum'; STWpu[kw]o[pw]uk, [pw]uko-(y); WOL bugobugo 'to knot, bind, tie, fortify', bugo-si-(i) 'to bind, fortify', bugo-tagi 'be bound, fortified'; PUA [p.sup.w]uko-[p.sup.w]uko 'knot, tie, bind', [p.sup.w]uko-di 'to bind together, k. Datum'; PCK*[p.sup.w]uk[ao], [p.sup.w]uk[ao], [p.sup.w]uk[ao] [p.sup.w]uk[ao],[ p.sup.w]uk[ao]-of-; PON [p.sup.w]uko[p.sup.w]uk 'a k., the tie knot',[p.sup.w]uk[epsilon]-(n) 'k. of', [p.sup.w]uk[epsilon] 'to bind(s.t.)'; MOK [p.sup.w]uk 'k. gemacht, to be forgotten'; KSR foko'k., n.', fuko-und 'bind (it) in us knot'; POC? book-a'bundle of wood'. Vgl. Fu buki, buki-a 'bind, bind', Book, Book of 'bind a k.'; BUG (vari)-puku 'ak., to join together' Vgl. MRS [b.sup.w] iw[b.sup.w]iw 'hear a wise; Tie with Knots', biwij-iy 'Tie s.t. Vgl. also PMc ?*[p.sup.w]uku, [p.sup.w]ukua 'Knots, knots, knots, knees' and PON[p.sup.w]uk[epsilon]l and PON [p. sup.w]uk[epsilon]l,[p.sup.w]uk[epsilon]l[epsilon] 'k., Joint, n., sein k.

PWMc *[p.sup.w]ukari 'sedge': CHK [p.sup.w]uker,[p.sup.w]uker-(n) 'a s. (Fimbristylis polymorpha and F. cymosa), Aplant (chrysopogon aciculatus)”; PUL pukar (sic) "Fimbristyliss."; CRL [b.sup.w]ugher, [b.sup.w]ughar 'F. cymosa',[b.sup.w]ughari-(nnas) 'F.atollensis'; CRN [b.sup.w]uger'F.cymosa'; WOL bugori 'grasses of various kinds', bugori-(nase) 'a swamp plant with a pleasant smell'; PCK *[p.sup.w] ukari ;MRS [b.sup.w]iker 'a plant (Cyperus ferax)'.

PMc *-[p.sup.w]ukiwa or *-[p.sup.w]ukua 'hundreds': CHK(i)- [p.sup.w]ukuwa, -[p.sup.w]ukua- ; MRI [p.sup.anger]; PUL (is)-[] rooms; CRL -[b.sup.w]ugh; CRN [b.sup.w]water; STW-[pw]ow, WOL(se)-[pw]ow; ULI-buguy; PCK*-[pw] charge; PON(e)-[pw]i; MOK (e)-[pw]ki; MRS (ji)-[bw][ikw]iy; KIR(te)-[b have [b have]; KSR - people, - people. See PMC? *pwuku, pwukua knot, led, knot, knot'.

PMc? *[p.sup.w]uku 'Basis, Schwanz': KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]uki'b., Gesäß, hinten, t., Ursache, Reason, Motive'; PEO *book,book (Fu book 't.'; LAK vuu 'b., Ursache, Grund'). Vgl. UAN*pu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ku[rR]. Vgl. YAP book 't.';PKB *vuhu*'Basis, Ursache'; PMP *products. Vgl. also PMC? *[p.sup.w]enu'Ursache, Anfang, Basis', PMC *iku 'Schwanz'.

PMC? *p*uku, [p.sup.w]ukua 'knot, joint, knot, knee':CHK [p.sup.w]uku, [p.sup.w]ukuwa-, [p.sup.w] ukuwe-'nījīkī 'knee'; MRI [pw]uku, [pw]ukuwa-; PUL[pw]ukuw'knee' (Bender et al. 1984); CRL [b.sup.w]ughuwa- 'n., projecting j., projection'; CRN [b.sup.w]uguya- 'n., projection, projection'; WOL buguwe 'outer curved protrusion, knee'; PUA [p.sup.w]ukua; PCK *[p.sup.w]ukua; PON [p.sup.w]uki[epsilon] 'his knee'; MOK [p.sup.w]iki 'knee'; MRS [b.sup.w][b.sup.w][ik.sup.w]ey, [b.sup.w][ik.sup.w]iyey 'knee'; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w][ub.sup.w]us 'knee or elbow j.'; KSR fuku-(n)'j. from'; POc *buku, bukua (FIJ buku 'all that is knotted and bumpy'; BUG puku 'swelling, lump, k., tumor', [vari]-puku'a k., tie together'; LAK bukua 'swollen, outstanding ') ; PMP *buku 'knee' or *bu([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])knq 'bend, bend' (Blust 1980:130). Cf. PMC *[p.sup.w]uk[ao] 'knot, knot', PMC *-[p.sup.w]ukiwa or *-[p.sup.w]ukua 'hundred'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ula, [p.sup.w][up.sup.w]ula 'to flame,flare': CHK [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]un, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]una-(n) 'blows, flashes, flames, it is b.'; MRT [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ol 'flame', [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ola-(ta) 'flame on'; PUL [p.sup.w]ul (sic)'burn' (Bender et al. 1984: [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ul 'burn, flameup'); CRL [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ul 'burn, burn', [b.sup.w][up.sup.w][p.sup.w]ul 'burn , on fire' ; STW[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]un 'get off'; WOL bbule 'burn, light up', bulobulo 'shining, flaming', bbubbule 'flame, light'; PUA puna (sic) "glow, flame, flashing light"; PCK[pw][pw]ula, [pw][pw]ula; PON m[pw]ul 'flame'; MOK um[p.sup.w]ul 'flaming'; MRS [b.sup.w]il 'burn, hot, fever'; KSR fol 'hot, heated, sweaty'; PEO*bula (PPN *puLa 'to shine, glow'; ROOT pula 'to kindle, bum'). Cf. YAP(gu)-bul 'flare up'. Cf. also BUG beubethu 'to blaze, burn, a flame'.

PWMC *[pw]ulak[a1] 'a fish': CHK [pw]una 'a kind of unicorn f.'; PUL [p.sup.w]ula 'an ordinary reef.'; CRN bula 'type surgeon f.'; WOL bulaga-(aleye) 'a kind f.'; PCK *[pw]ulaka; PON pwulak 'Unicorn Fish (Nasounicornis)'; MRS[p.sup.w]ilak 'Unicorn f.'. MRS heavy [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] expected. See KWA bula 'Pacific Sea Bass'.

PMC *[pw]ulak[a2] 'Cyrtosperma taro': CHK[pw]una, [pw]unaa-; MRI [p.sup.w]night; PUL [pw] all; CRL[b.sup.w]all; STW [p.sup.w]night; WOL abdomen; PUA [pw]; PCK*[pw]hard; PFO *bulalka (SAM-Red). Cf. MRS qiwbilken 'variety of inedible t.' See also LAK ula 'Cyrtosperma t. and PEO*buRaka (Geraghty 1990).

PMC *[p.sup.w]uli 'Shell': CHK [p.sup.w]iin,[p.sup.w]ini- 'Cowrie s.'; MRI [pw]iil; PUL [p.sup.w]iilcowrie pp. scraper'; CRL Ruffles 'Cowrie S.'; STW [p w ] with; WOL (u)-bili; PUA guy, guy- (sic) "shellfish, clam"; PCK*[pw]; PON [p.sup.w]il (sic) 'cowry s.'; MRSli[b.sup.w]-([b.sup.w][ik.sup.w]ey) 'any cowrie s., any s.' (shows metathesis); KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]un 'a bivalve shellfish'; KSR full, full-n 'shellfish, S. of'; PEO *all (FIJevery; SAA pull 'Cowrie s.'; ARO buri 'Cowrie'); PMP*white (Blust 1980:56). IOC and PNG [p.sup.w]us. is apparently a loan from KIR. See YAP wool 'large cowrie'.

PMC *[p.sup.resin, [p.sup.recycle[p.sup.recycle, [p.sup.recycle'gum, juice, resin, gum': see PMC*[pw]ili, .[p. sup.w]ili[p.sup.w]ili, [p.sup.w]ilita.

PWM? *[p.sup.w]ulo, [p.sup.w]ul[ou]lo 'heart': PUL[p.sup.w]ull; CRL [b.sup.w]ull, [b.sup.w]ull-(l) 'h., his h.'; WOLbunne, bunne-(i) 'h., boiler of a canoe, my h.'; PCK*[p.sup.w]; MRS [p.sup.w]e[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] 'h. oftree, root to substance, kernel, marrow'.

PCMC *[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][iu] 'down, getlower': WOL bu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u, bu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u-(tiwe) 'bend down, g. 1., 1 .his body',bu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(matto) 'to sit down'; PUA[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(tio) 'to sit down'; PCK*[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; PON koro-[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'small waterfall'; MRS [b.sup.w][i[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w] 'fall down', [bi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w]i-(t)'fall down on s.o. or s.t.'; KIR [b.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'go down, descend', [b.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i[b.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be long (with hair) ), flood (after abortion), 'set (of the sun)'. See also PCK*p[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'to fall'. See also Marck(1994:319) PCMC *p'u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u.


PMC *[p.sup.w][up.sup.w]u 'Triggerfish, Starfish Cruise of the South': CHK [p.sup.w][uup.sup.w], [p.sup.w][ oben w] u-'t. f., S. C.', (taa-nu)-[p.sup.w] 'Ascent of the S. C.'; MRT[p.sup.w][up.sup.w]; PUL[pw][upw](sic); CRL[b.sup.w][uub.sup.w]; STW[pw][uupw]; WOL bubble, #bubble-; PCK*[pw][upw]u, -[pw]u; PON [p.sup.w][uup.sup.w] 'Drunk Fish'; MOK[pw][upw]; MRS [b.sup.w][ib.sup.w] 't.f.', [b.sup.w][ib.sup.w], [b.sup.w][b.sup.w]i- 'S. C.'; Km(te)-[bw][bw]; KSR fif 'kind off.'; PEO *pump (SAApupu 'S. C.'; ARO other sp. af Baliates f.'; KWA other'reef t. f.'). Note that the collection is named after the fish.

PMC *[p.sup.w]uro 'collision, fall': CHK [p.sup.w]ur 'be bump, stubbed, trip', [p.sup.w]uro-(ffe[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]da) 'to be hit, to collide'; PUL[p.sup.w]uro-ti-(y) 'to hit, c. with, bump against'; CRL[b.sup.w]ur 'to aim at the face'; WOL buro 'to fall on one's feet, f., to fall down'; PCK*[pw]rest; PON[p.sup.w]uur 'descend into, f. into, enter (as a hole)'; KSR? f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'drop, drop, slide'. See PCMC*[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][iu] 'seeend, get lower'.

PCMC *[p.sup.w]urua 'Insides': PON [p.sup.w]uri,[p.sup.w]uriy[epsilon] 'belly (of certain fish like tuna), kernel (like breadfruit) 'Hemorrhoids, it's s.'; MOK [p.sup.w]iri,[p.sup.w]urr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], [p.sup.w]irii-(n), [p.sup.w]urre(n),[p .sup.w]irii(n) 'fish belly, breadfruit seed, its s., s. of'; MRS [b.sup.w]erew, [b.sup.w]iriwe- 'seat of feelings, throat, heart, gills', [b.sup.w]iriy 'killer, esophagus'; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]uua 'belly, sack, pocket, sack, throat, mouth' (Sabatier 1971). Cf. KIR (te) office "the heart" (an MRS loan?).

PMC *[p.sup.w]usa, [p.sup.w]usa-ka 'bad, inappropriate': CHK-[p.sup.w]ut 'not liked, b.', (o)-[ p .sup.w]ut, (o)-[p.sup.w]uta 'not to like', (choo)-[p.sup.w]ut 'woman', [p.sup.w]uta- k 'b., i., unsuitable'; PUL -[p.sup.w]ut, (yo)-[p.sup.w]ut, (Roo)-[p.sup.w]ut; CRL (a)-[p.sup.w]uta, (o)-[b.sup.w]uta 'to dislike or hate (p.a.)', (shoo)-[b.sup.w]ut 'woman , Woman'; CRN(Roo)-[b.sup.w]ut 'woman, female', [b.sup.w]uuta-g 'b., i., coarse, ugly'; WOL -buto, (paa)-bute 'unlucky, in bad shape', (shoo)-buto 'woman'; PCK *[p.sup.w]ude,*[p.sup.w]udaka; MRS [b.sup.w]et, [b.sup.w]itey 'disobedient, impudent, disobedient s.o.; KIR[b.sup.w]ua-ka 'make war, be stormy, stormy', (te)-[b.sup.w]ua-ka 'war', [b.sup.w]ua-kaka ' b., objection' (with loss of *s before *k?); KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]s 'chaotic, confused, tangled'. Cf. Fu vuca, the rat.

PMC *[p.sup.w]u[sS]o 'scum': PON [p.sup.w][udop.sup.w]ud'f., scum'; KIR [b.sup.w]uro 'to boil',[b.sup.w][urob.sup.w]uro 'frothy, frothy, boiling',(te)-[b.sup.w][urob . sup.w]uro 'f., foam, bubbles'; PEO *buso, fuso(Fu vnso "to shower, forth"; SAA hutohuto "foam, foam"; ARO huto, hutohuto "foam, foam"). See MRS [b.sup.w]i[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w.s] i[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w.s]i[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w.sub .s] i[[ UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w.s] 'for boiling (water only)'. Cf. PCK *[p.sup.w]uro,[p.sup.w][urop.sup.w]uro 'bubble, foam'. Marck (1994:315) includes the forms in PCK *[p.sup.w]uro, [p.sup.w][urop.sup.w]uro 'Bubble, Foam' with these forms in his PMC *p' a usop 'uses' 'foam, foam'.

PCMc*[p.sup.w]uta[ei] 'feces': CHK [p.sup.w]ise,[p.sup.w]ise-; PUL [p.sup.w]ihe; CRL[b.sup.w]use; CRN [b.sup.w]wheat; PCK*[pw]; PON [p.sup.w] means "poop"; KIR (tear)-[b.sup.w]hide.Cf. MRS is "tree droppings (of birds)"; PEO *all- (Geraghty1983); POC *taqe (Ross 1988) (PPN *taqe; PKB *tahe; Fu dee-[na], always [<*sleep]; SAA 'ae; BUG tae; KWA ae); UAN *taqi.

PMC *[p.sup.w]uto 'Nabel': CHK [p.sup.w]uu,[p.sup.w]uwa-(n) 'n., sein/ihr n.'; MRT[pw]Kind-(n); WOL[p.sup.w]w, [p/sup.w]w-(l); PUA [p.sup.w]waist, [p.sup.w]uta-'navel', [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ua 'waist, Center'; PCK*[p.sup.w]ut[eo]; PON [p.sup.w]used, [p.sup.w]used; MRS [b.sup.w]ije-; KIR(not)-[bw]out, [bw]out-(to); KIR front, pasform-(l). Note also PUL[p.sup.w]uuk 'n.'; CRL [ b . sup . w ] uugh ; CRN [b.sup.w]uug. Cf. PPN*seven; SAM Pute; Vivid hair; BUG stand; SAA Poo; AT boo bou-(med); PNK *buso;UAN *pusej.

PMC *[p.sup.w]utu 'kick, kick, use his foot':CHK [p.sup.w]u 'put his foot down', [p.sup.w][uup.sup.w]u's ., t., foot on s.t. put, kick, kick, kick, [p.sup.w]uu-ri 's. on T. on'; PUL puu-ri-(y) (sic) 'two stem connector'; CRL [b.sup.w]u [b.sup.w][uub.sup.w]u 'two p., standon', [b.sup.w][uub.sup.w]u 'two p . on s.t., be standing ons.t.', [b.sup.w]uu-ri 'to s., stamp, t. on (s.t.)',[b.sup.w]uu-ragh, [b.sup.w]uu-ragh, [b. sup.w]uu-regh 'stomp one's feet (as in a tantrum)'; PCK *[p.sup.w]u[t[empty sentence]]u, [p.sup.w]u[t[empty sentence]]u-ri-; MRS [b.sup.w][ijb.sup.w]ij 'to step, a dance', [b.sup.w]ij-(jik) 'to step, step', (je)-[b. sup.w]ji 'spur, cut with spurs, kick'; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]utu 'a small weapon with a single shark's tooth used by women'; KSR futfut 'kick', futu-n 'kick, stamp (s.t.)'; PEO *butu (FIJ butu, buta-ka 'to stamp or t. on'; SAA puu 'to t., stamp, stand firm', puu-li 'to strike with the claws [of birds]'; BUG bubutu 'stamps the foot in dance, t. hard", butu-li "stomp, kick", butu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]agi "resist", KWA buu "kick, step", buu-li-[a] "scratch with foot" ).Cf. PON [p.sup.w]uur- (with directed suf.) 'to fall into, fall into, s.into (as a hole)'; MOK [p.sup.w]uuj, [p.sup. w]uuji 'push,shove' (loan from English?); KIR butubutu 'to push', butu-a 'to push or push against (s.t.)' (borrowed from SAM putu, putuputu 'to be crowded').

PMC? *[p.sup.w]uu 'to sound (when blowing like a trumpet)': CHK [p.sup.w]u, [p.sup.w]uu-; PEO Pupuu (TON Pupuu).

PMC *rani 'day': CHK rani, rani-; MRI run, run;PUL run; CAL raal, raal-; CRN ran; STW ran; WOL Rally; PUA line; PCK*run; PON rain; MOK reen; PNG ran; MRS rahan, rahani-; KSR went; POC*light, light (ULA give 'be d., be daylight'; BUG give; KWAgani); PAN *daqaNi (Blust 1980:61). See also Marck (1994:308) PMC *run. See. ]. ]i, da[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-si 'd., to light up'; FOR da[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i'd.').

PMC *rae 'branch': CHK raa, raa-n 'b. with leaves, b. from', raara 'has many branches'; PUL raa raa-n; CRL raa;raa-l 'b.', raara 'to be full of twigs'; WOL raa 'b.of a tree, branch', raaraa 'to be branched'; ULI raa- 'b., branch'; PUA laa 'b.', laalaa 'to be branched'; SNS laa'b.'; PCK *raae, rae-; PON raa 'b., tentacle'; MOK ranaa, raa-(n) 'b., be b., b. from'; WOMAN rah 'b.'; KIR(te)-ae 'driftwood'; KSR Lee, lion 'b., branch, limb'. Cf. PPN *LaaLaa 'little b.'; KWA laa 'leaf for wrapping custard for cooking', laalaa 'calamus vine'; POC*raqan and PAN*daqan (Ross 1988); PMP *da[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]kaq, da[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]keq'b.' (Blust 1986:33). See also PCK *irae 'wood, stick, lumber; Onion'.

PCMc *raki 'season of the south winds': CHK raas,resi-(n) 's. of southwest winds, breadfruit s., year, s. of'; MRT raak, reku-(n) 's., year, s. of'; PUL raak, raki-n 'main breadfruit s., s. of the southwest wind'; CRL. raagh, raghi-'year'; CRN raag 'year'; STW raak 'year'; WOLraagi, ragi- 'year, summer s.'; MAP (mje)-rak 's.'; PCK*raki; PoN Raaks. of abundance, breadfruit s.'; MOK r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'breadfruit s.'; PNG r[epsilon]k 'breadfruit.'; MRS rak 'south, summer'; KIR ajaki 'south' (showing a reduction with loss of consonants in some roots with aCi). Cf. Fudraki 'weather'. See also Marck (1994: 312) PMc*raki.

PMc *rak[ou]m[u.sup.w] 'crab': CHK [rokum.sup.w],#[rokum.sup.w]e-(n); PUL space (sic); CRL [ roghum . whoops w ] ; STW [rookum.sup.w](sic); WOL [ragum.sup.w]u; PuA public (sic); PCK *[rakum.sup.w]u; PON[rokum.sup.w]; MOK [rokum.sup.w]; PPC *[rakum.sup.w]u; PEO *rak[ou]mu (BUGragomu 'the crabs').

PMc *raku, rakuraku 'to be scooped out': CHKrek, rekurek 'to be scooped out', reku-uw 'to scoop out'; MRT rekurek 'to scrape out', reku-(w) 's. (traffic jams'; STW rakurak scratch', reku-(w) 's, (s.t.) out'; WOL reguregu 'take a handful, eat clumsily', regu-u-(vi) 'take a handful of it, eat it clumsily'; PCK *raku, raku-u-; PONr[epsilon]kir[epsilon]k 'to scratch, scrape with the fingernails',r[epsilon]ki-i 'to scratch or scratch (s.t.)'; MOK r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'work, serve, serve (food), arrange, scrape with hands', r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki '(s.t.) serve, (s.t.) scratch with hands'; MRS [rak.sup.w][rek.sup.w]" 'pick up, scrape'; PEO *raku (SAA rau 'scratch up, gather with hands'; ARO ra'u ra'u-ha'i 'a take a handful'); PMP *ra([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])kup 'collect in cupped hands' (Blust 1983-84:100). Cf. PAN *dakuC 'snatch, grab' (Blust 1986:54)

PMc *rama, ma-rama 'bright, shiny': CHK ram, ramaram'be orange-red, saffron-colored, b. colored'; (a)-rama 'colorit a b. color (as in tunneri)', ma-ram 'moon, month', sa-ram 'light (like the sun), be b. full of light'; MRI ma-ram'moon'; PUL ma-ram 'moon, month', ha-ram 'light, daylight, be light'; CRL ma-ram 'moon, month', sa-ram 'brightness, light, enlightenment, be b.'; CRN ma-ram 'moon', ha-ram 'brightness'; STw me-ram 'moon', WOL me-rame 'moon, month', te-rame 'kindle, illuminate, kindle', (ge)-ta-re.'na-(a) 'kindle'; PuAma-lama 'moon, month'; SN's ma-lama 'moon'; MAP ma-ram'moon'; PCK *rama, ma-rama, ta-rama; PON ma-ram 'moon'; MRS me-ram 'b., light, flash, glow, shine'; KIR ma-ama 'moonlight, be moonlight', (ka)-ama 'the constellation Southern Cross'; KSR mre-lw~m 'moon, month', (kre)-lwem 'clear, b.'; PEO *na (PPN *rama 'torch, fishing with torches'); UAN *damaR 'torch, light'. See also Marck (1994:308) PMc *marama 'moonlight, moon'. See BUG marara'light'; KWA la1a 'light'.

PMc *ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ira[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'warm up': Mwrre[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uren 'warm up by the fire'; PULra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ji-i-(y) 'warm (let's say) like from a fire'; Automobile. ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'warm (himself)'; STWra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'warm (himself); PON r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'to warm by a fire', ren 'dried (like copra or tobacco)'; MOK ranran 'warm up'; PNG(k[epsilon])-ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'heat on fire'; MRSra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'warm by the fire'; KIR and [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hot'; KsRla[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'warm up, warm up, dry off'; PEO *ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i (BUGra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'shine [of the sun]', rara[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i 'heat'). See UAN *gara[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'behot'. See also PMc *re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'turmeric color', PCK *ca[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to warm up'. MRSra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (shows vowel change) is expected.

PMc *rara 'to warm, be warm': CHK rar, rarrar 'bew.'; MR's rar 'Bleaching pandanus leaves over a fire, drying leaves by fire'; PEO *rara (FIJ rara 'to bask by a fire'; PPN*rara 'to heat'; SAA rara 'hot, pungent, shrivel, wither, dry up'; BUG rara-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'to heat by a fire'; LAU rara 'wither, be ripe'; KWA lala 'warm'; LAK lala 'keep over a fire').

PMc *rato 'hval': CHK raaw, rå-(n) 'hval, w.of'; PUL rawa-(fanu); CRL. rohe Roos, #rooso-l; STW roh; WOL mesa,raso-; PuA laado, lado-; PCK*Verhältnis; PON r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s; MOK roj;MRS raj; KIR (te)-ato, ato-(ni-marawa); KSR-lod.

PMc *ra[w[empty sentence])u 'to pull out from the inside with the hands.t.': CHK re, reere 'to grope, to grasp with the hands where one cannot see', ree-yi 'to grope, to grasp in and under for (s.t.)', ree-(little) 'method of nocturnal fishing by reaching into holes in piles of stones with the hands'; PUL ree ree-yi 'to catch fish with hands'; KIR auau 'to engage in hauling', (te)-auau 'to fish by pulling fish out of holes in the rocks'; PEO *rough(SAA rough 'to scrape, pick up with hands'; ARO rough 'to grab, grasp'). Cf. PPN *laqu 'pinch, pull up'; KWAlafu 'relieve, lift, pull up'; PKB *lapu 'pull; and UAN*ra[h[theta]ut 'tear off, .split'.

PMc *ra[w[theta]]u, ka-ra[w[theta]]u, ka-ra[w[theta]]u-si'scraped, to serape': CHK e-ree-ti, a- ree-ti's 'it, grind it, make it smooth', kke-re kka-ree 'to be scraped', kke-rre-t 'sand or s. smooth, grind or scrape'; CRL ghe-ree-ti 's.(the skin of a breadfruit)', kke-re 'two s'; [W.sub.OL] 'to s. from, against rubbing', reeree 'to be scraped off, to be rubbed against', kke-ree 'to be scraped off, to be swept', ge-ree-ti-(i ) 's .it 'sweep it'; PCK? *rau, ka-rau, ka-rau-di; PON ko-royroys. Meat from a coconut', ko-r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-d 's. (it out'; MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-d 's.with a hard object'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-lal[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to scratch, claw, tear', k[ NONKEYABLE SYMBOL]-lau-s 'scratch, claw, tear (s.t.)'; UAN *ra(m)bus 'tear away'. Cf. PMC *kara, kara-si, kara-sa 'scratch', PMC *kari ' toscratch'.

PMC? *[raya.sub.1] 'Inland': se PMc *[rea.sub.1]

PMC? *[raya2], 'Schwein': se PMc ? *[rea.sub.2]

PMC *re-, ra- 'they (3PL subject markers): MRT re-: CHK re-, ra-, ro-; PUL re-, ra-; CRL re-, ra-; STW again; WOL re-; BLUME and-; PCK *re-,*ra-; PON again; FRU yer, re-; KIR and; KSR el-(Tael). Vgl. BUG -they're.

PCMC *re-; ri- 'person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, or place)': CHK re-, ree-; MRI again; PUL ree-; CRL re-; ree-; STW again; WOLre-; uli again; PCK *re-, ice-; MRS ri-; KIR i-. Cf. PUA lei- "actor or agent".

PMC? or *[raya.sub.1] 'inland': CHK (ewu)-ra, -raa- 'river, stream' (literally 'inland stream'); UAN *Daya'inland'.

PMC? *[rea.sub.2] or *[raya.sub.2] '[girl.sup.1]: CHK(niye)-ra, -raa- 'girl, young woman', ([tim.sup.w ]e-ra 'menstrual hut' (lit. 'house of the girl'); UAN *dayan'girl'.

PMc *re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'turmeric color': CHKre[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'be yellow-green, saffron-colored (associated with turmeric)'; MRT ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aran 'yellow,orange'; PUL raa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'turmeric'; CRLraa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'yellow ginger' ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ara[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'be orange, yellow'; STWraa[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'turmeric yellow powder',ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ara[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'yellow'; WOLraa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'turmeric', ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]era[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'be yellow', (pee)-ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'some kind of yellow flower'; PUAlaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'turmeric',la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'be yellow'; PCK *ree[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a, re[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a, re[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]er[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a; PON r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-d 'dark (of colors)'; MOKra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] yellow';KIR(te)-e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]en 'the multitude of corals on flats, emitting much color'; KSR ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'yellow'; PEO *re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a (SAM lega 'turmeric'; ARO re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'be white, shiny, splendid'). Note that Km (te)-re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'red cloth', renarena 'to paint (s.t.) red' are borrowings from SAM lega 'turmeric'. Cf. PMc *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o'curcuma, turmeric, ginger, yellow', PMC *ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ira[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'bewarmed', PCK *[yalle-p . w]uta 'a tree (Pittosporum)'.

PMC *rere 'tremble (with fear)': CHK rer; PONr[UNKEYBOARDABLE ICON]r; KSR-Rarrar; PEO *rere (Fu rere 'fear'; ARO [rere-/[b.sup.w]eru/ 'run away [b.sup.w]eru 'run' \') cf. PMc *cece, cecece 'shake, tremble'.

PMC *ria 'siblings': PON ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'classification of siblings'; MOK riari 'siblings'; MRS riy-(liki-) 'cross cousin' (liki- 'outside'); KSR lili, lwe-(l), li-(n) 'brother, male s., hisb., f. of'. Cf. PWMC *rii 'bound, connected'.

PCMC *riea 'miserable, wretched': [C.sub.HK] riya 'be m., in distress, in fear'; MRI riya envy so do s.t. when you feel like you can do better'; CRL riya 'be frustrated, get rash as subject of bad gossip'; STW riya 'sin, feels sinful'; WOL riyaa 'get into trouble, suffer the consequences (of misdeeds)'; PCK *riac or *riea; PON riaa-(la) 'to be cursed (leading to misfortune)'; MOK na 'to sin'; MRS riwe- "guilt, sin", rew "angry, jealous, disappointed"; KIriee-a 'deceive, mislead (see above)'. Cf. PUA lia (sic) 'holiness, holy object, taboo, to be holy, holy, forbidden'.

PWMC *rii 'bound, connected': CHK ri 'to be bound, above', ruri 's.t. t. on, band, band, bandage, whip, tie, shackle', rii-(y) 'tie, tilt, twist, tie (of thread, rope, etc.)'; WOL riiri 'marriage, marriage, marry, be united, wed'; ULI riiri 'too many'; PuA liilii 'marry', hi-ni 'many him'; PCK *rii, rurii; MRS riyi- "spouse". Cf. KIRiein "to be married", (te)-ie "marriage, marital status"; PWMP *ri([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])kit, Dinkit "to touch or join along the length" (Blust 1983-84:103). See also PMC *ria 'siblings'.

PWMC *riku or *ruki 'gather from the earth': PUA luku 'pick up'; PON rich 'g. Objects from Earth'; MRS[rich.sup.w]([b.sup.w]ew) 'g. to throw rockets". Cf. PPC *rata 'cleared land'.

PMC *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi 'scratched, in pieces': CHK rup, rupurup, me-rip, ma-rip, #me-riper 'be s., b.into p.', rip-i- ( y), through-i-(y) 'Crush it, break it top.',#(e)-me-ripa, (e)-me-ripa 's. Das'; MRT ripirip 'breakthings', ripi-i-(y) 'break it', ma-rip 'break, crack', ma-ripirip 'kleine b. Stücke'; PUL rippe 'to throw.', ripi-i-(y) 'to break, to break', ripi-ya-(n)(sic) 'Object s. von ihm'; CRL rip 'it's broken, b.', ripirip'it's broken, it's in p eingebrochen.', ripi-i-(y) 'it, breach it', ripi-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ugh) 'be s ., b.', ripi-(sagh) 'Piece of s. Object, sei s.', ma-rip 'to throw into.', ma-ripirip 'b. in p sein.'; STW ripi-i-(y) 'breach in two hands', ma-rip 'breach, breach', ma-ripirip 's.pieces', ma-ripi-i-(y) 'in many on breach'. ; WOL ripirip'to break, break, crush, crush', ripi-i-(ye) 'break, crush', ripi-([eta]egi) 'be b., crush, break, crush', ma- ripi brechen, be s., b.'. ma-ripiripis. inmany p.', (ge)-be-ripped-(i) 'break it'; PUA ma-lippi (sic) “Pause”; PCK *ri pi, rip, rip-i-, ma-rip; MRS[r.sup.w]ip 'b.', [r.sup.w]ip[r.sup.w]ip 'breach, break, break'; KIR (ma)-here 'b. (als s.t. destroyed)', (te)-ma-ibi'b. Stück', (to)-steal 'weil (s.t.) b ist'; KSR-Lippe, Lippe 'split, pronunciation', mi-Lippe 's., small', mi-lpi 'sliced ​​into small pieces' The MRS Form and the CHK variants with many guidelines; If your around the labial consonants are written, it is probably from some meaning that the consonant remains omitted. Vgl. KIRibeibe 'to break or open', ibe-a 'to break (s.t.) (like a coconut shell)'; and vgl. PON ma-rop 'they will be crushed, b.'; MOKrep 'b.', rep-(la) 'b. through', repi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'break s.t.'. Vgl. Auch PPN *script 'Schneidinstrument'; FIJ ribiribi-a 'the sharp edge of some things (like Ayam, cut into small pieces)'; SAA ma-ri'iri'i 'b. in Silber.'.

PMC *roco 'be dark': CHK roch, rochoroch 'bed'. roche-(n) 'dark from', rocho-(no) 'd. get', (o)-smelt 'on d. wait, fight under cover of darkness', (o)-rocha'at darken (s.t. )'; PUL rooR (sic) 'd. be', roRa-(ppu[eta]) 'd. to be, to be ignorant'; MRT rosh'd.', rosho-(la) 'dark, become d.'; CRL rosh 'tobe d.', rosho-([p.sup.w][p.sup.w]u[eta]) 'be very d.'; CRRoR; STW roR; WOL roosho, rosho- "night, darkness", (ga)-rosho-(o) "do it d."; PUA looso, loso- 'dark', loso 'tobe d.', losoloso 'to be black'; PCK *Roko, Rokoroko; PON root 'dark', red 'a.', roto-(la) 'd. become', rotrot 'pagan, uncivilized'; MOK ros 'dark', rosros 'pagan'; PNG r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s 'd.'; MRS(ma)-re[k.sup.w] 'd., darkness' (r and d do not occur together); KIR roo'be d.' (shows metathesis); KSR losr 'd., pitch black unlit red'; POC *rodo (SAA rodo 'night', rorodo 'under, the clouds'; BUG rodo 'night'; LAU rodo 'night'; ARO rodo 'd., black, night'; KWA logo 'darkness, night'; PKB *Lodo 'night'). See also Marck (1994:308) P MC *rot'o. Cf. TON looloo 'absolutely dark, dark'; UAN *DeDem 'be dark'.


PWMC *rota 'finished, used up': CHK ros 'to be general & op, f., exhausted, consumed', (o)-ros 'to be eradicated, destroyed', (o)-rosa 'to end, to use up, to destroy' (s.t.)'; PUL roh 'be f., u. used up (as a supply)', (ya)-roha-a-(lo) 'finish it, use it up'; CRL ros 'to be f., u. WOL rete 'completed, completed, ended, completed, consumed', (ga)reta-(a) 'finish it, complete it, settle it', (ga)-reta-(li) 'the last or end of'; PCK * rotation; PON ros 'to be consumed, u.on'; MOKroj 'empty, empty, un. above'; MRS [r.sup.w]ej 'ebb', cf. KIR iti 'u. up, used up, all gone'.

PMC *route 'to'; CHK (e)-ruuw, (e)-ruu 'number to, to' (in series)' rupi-, ruwe-, ruwo- 'to (with classification facilities)'; MRI water; PUL ruuw, tun-; CRL ruuw, do-, ruwo-, ruwe-; STW do-; WOL ruwe, ruwe, do-, ruwe-; PUA ligge-; PCK*water; PON(a)-ri, (a)-re, ria-; MOK ria-; FRU Riwe; KIR ua-, uo-; KSR lo-, head-; PEO* to; POC*bis (Ross 1988) (FIJ bis; PPN *bis; SAA rue; ULA bis; BUG bis; AROrua; KWA lua; PKB *Lua); UAN * prayer (dyen *dewha); PAN * Punishment (Ross 1988). See also PMC *ru[ao]-ua 'two (general object class)'.

PMC *ru[ao]-ua 'zu (general Object class)': CHKruwuuw, ruuwu, ruu; PUL raw; CRL raw, raw; WANT to make it rough; PUA lieow;PCK*ruwouwa; PON riaw; MRS riew; KIR uoua; KSR luo. See PMC *rua'two', PMC *-ua 'general classifier ved optælling (suffixed tonumeraler)'.

PWMC *ruki 'gather from the earth': see PWMC *riku.

PMC *ruku, 'tap, go under water': CHK ruk, lukuk 'tip, be unstable, tip while boom goes under water', ruku-(no) 'tip over'; CRL ruh 'under water (of the boom)'; WOL rugurugu 'to be misleading, crooked, treacherous'; PCK*ruku; PEO *ruku (PPN *ruku 'to dive'; BUG rugu 'to duck one's head'; ARO ru'u 'to submerge, to disappear'; KWAlu'u 'to enter, to go through a door'). Cf. PCK *riki 'quickly turn'.

PMc *[ruku.sub.2] 'two dollars': STW nok 'enter with bowed head'; WOL nigu-(tiw) 'to bend forward from the waist, bow'; PON (pai)-ruk (dai)-ruk 'bending forward from the waist'; MOK ruk ​​​​'bending, bending'; PPC *ruku; POc *ruku-s (SAAru'u 'to withdraw, withdraw', ruu-si 'shrink, shrink'; LAU ruu 'to enter'; BUG rugu 'bow the head'; ARO ru'u -hi 'to withdraw to' ; KWA lu'u 'enter, go through the door'; LAK luu, luluu 'to submerge'). Cf. FRU dik*al 'to bow one's head, bow down', badik'to crouch, lower one's head, humble oneself, stoop'. See also PCK*roko 'bend, curve', PMC *[ruku.sub.1] 'peak, groundwater', PWMc *riku or *ruki 'to collect from the ground'.

PMC *rut[iu] 'pay attention, wake up, be surprised': CHKru 'a. (suddenly)', ruu-(ke) 'sā, amazed, amazed'; MRI ruu-(ke) 'S.'; PUL ru 's., be amazed, be frightened',('ya)-ru, (ya)-ru-(w) 'to startle, surprise, shock (see above)';CRL. ru 'to frighten, fearful, frightened, to be shocked', ruuru 'worried, afraid', (a)-ruu-(w) 'to frighten, to shock, to surprise (see above)'; STW rru 'S.'; WOL rusu 'fear, fear', (ga)-rusu-(u) 'scare him, frighten him'; PUAludu-(aki-ni)'s. to be afraid of'; PCK *rutu; Mas[r.sup.w]ij 'wake up, awake, awakened, conscious'; KIR uti 'rise, awaken'; KSR lut 's., be frightened, be amazed'; PEO *rutu(SAA ru'u 'to retire, withdraw').

PMC *[sS]aa 'destroyed': CHK ta 'be destroyed, into pieces, in ruins', (a)-taa-(y) 'destroy it, break it into pieces'; PUL go-(16) 'be r.'; CRL. (a)-taa-(y) 'to destroy, destroy, smash'; PCK *Constant; "in disarray, disordered" in KIR rae; PEO *zaqa (Fu caa 'r.'; TON haa 'bad', ha'ahah'a 'messy; SAA going 'bad'; LAUtaa 'bad, bad'; ARO going 'bad'); UAN *zakat. Cf. POC *bags 'Bad' (Ross 1988).

PMC *[sS]aa, [sS]aa-i- 'to weave a net': CHK tta 'meshguage', ttaa-yi 'w. (a net)', ttaa-yi-ya'net woven by (so.)'; KIR raai 'to twist and tangle easily (as thread or cord); POC *saa (LAK rara 'set up a fishing net'. Cf. MOK daur, dow 'make a net'; MRS ttaw 'fix a net'; TON ski, sia-'i 'have a net or spider's web'.

PCMC *[sS]aana 'to flow strongly': MOKdee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'giving abundant sap (of a coconut tree), a spout of coconut leaves along which coconut juice drains into a container'; PNG d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'gives a lot of juice (of a coconut tree)'; MRS taya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'selected coconut tree for collecting sap'; KIRraa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'flow like rainwater run'. Note that the MOK and PNG forms are likely borrowings from MRS.

PMC *sae 'torn': CHK ttaa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])'be torn (as clothes)', taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-ey)'tear, tear; PUL taa-(ru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-a-16) 'to tear away (like a sail)'; CRL. ttaa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'torn, torn', taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a), taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i-y) 'to rip or tear (s.t.)'; WOL taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e) 'to be torn, torn', taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-a) 'to tear, torn'; PCK *dae(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-); KIRraerae 'involved in removing (like leaves from a tree)', rae-a 'to tear (s.t.)', rae-(bae-a) 'rid a coconut tree of its leaves', rae-(bitia) 'tear (s.t. )s.t.) into pieces'; KSR(si)-S[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'tear, tear, tear', see 'tear(s.t.)'; PEO *saRe 'tear, tear' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *sae).

PMC? *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'gather, pick': CHK taf 'gather, pick (of green leaves)', tafataf 'gather, pick, pick (of leaves)' , tafe -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'g., s. (s.t.)'; PUL taf 'to s. (of leaves)', tefa-ni 's. (leaves) with hands'; CRLtafataf 'pick leaves (from branches)'; PCK *dafa, dafadafa,dafa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON dape-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to pull (s.t.) apart or away'; MoKd d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]pd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p 'squeeze by pulling',dapa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to tear off (s.t.)'; PPC *dafa,dafa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PEO? *[sz]afa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j (SAataha-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to eat the first fruit'). Cf. PMC ?*[sS]afi, "pluck, pluck, tear off", PCK *daf[ei] "open", PMC *tafa, tafa-si "cut into pieces, slice".

PMC? *[sS][afi.sub.1] 'Pick, Puck, Tear Off': CHKtefitef 'to tear, rip', tefi-i-(y) 'tear, rip (s.t.)'; MRI tafi 't.' ; PUL tefa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'pick (s.t.) with the hands (like breadfruit, bananas, etc.)', tefe-naa-(at) 'pick (s.t.) bring (leaves)'; CRL tafataf 'pick leaves from branches', tafe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'pick (leaves)';WOL tefitefi 'pull, pull, pull down, tug',tefi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-( i) 'pull, pull ', tefi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]egi 'pull out, pull down, tug'; PCK? *dafi, dafi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PEO *[szjafi (SAAtahi 'tear'; ARO tahi, tahitahi 'cut, cut off [shape like an arrow]'). Cf. PuA dei-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i and SNsfei-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'tear it apart, tear it to pieces'; PON dap 'having pulled back the foreskin of the penis', dape-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'pull apart, pull off'; MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]pd[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]p 'to squeeze by pulling',dapa-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to tear off (s.t.), to break (a lock)'; KIR rae-a' two t. (s.t.)', (te)-rarai 'section of a banana tree'; KSR sis[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 't., tear, tear', se 't., tear, tear, tear (s.t.)', sr[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]sra 'to shred, tear', srwe 'to shred, cut or t. (s.t.) into pieces".

PMc*[Ss]af[i.sub.2] 'be wide open'" CRL ttaf 'be w.o. (of wound, vagina, rolled back eyelid)', tafi 'to o.(s.t.) w.'; CRN tefi ' two o. (s.t.) w.'; WOL ttafi 'opened (of the vagina), pulled apart', tafi-i-(ye) 'o. it with fingers, pull it apart'; PCK *dafi, dadafi ; PEO * zafi (FIJ cavi 'penis after circumcision'; ARO tahi 'separated') Cf. PPC *daf[ei] 'to be open'.

PMc *saisai, sai-ti 'mother': CHK teete, tee-yi; PUL teete, tee-y; CRL teete, tee-dies; STW teete tee-dies; WOL teetee, tee-ye; PUA teitei,tei-di; PCK *daidai, dai-ti; PON tag; MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]yd[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]y;, MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]; KSRt[KEYBOARD ICON]ta, t[UNKEYBOARD ICON]; POc *saqi (Ross 1988) (PPN *saqi; ARO letter; KWA letter; PKB *sehi); UAN *zaqit. Cf. MRS taytey,tayi-k 'tie, roll up (as string or film on a spool)'; THIS tau-ri'scw'. Cf. PEO zaqi-t 'kopulatc; (Geraghty 1983); and jfr. PEO*[cz]aRu 'needle' (Geraghty 1990).

PMc *sakau 'reef, reef island': CHK tee 'uninhabited low i.', (wii)-tee 'clan name (on low island)'; MRI tee-(n)'i. from'; PUL-T-piece 'unoccupied r.i.'; CRL Tee 'small atolls, low islands'; STW tee 'inhabits low i.'; WoL tegau-(lape) 'name of an i. inWoleai', tee 'any outer i.'; PUA takau 'group of islands, archipelago'; PCK *dakau; PON deke 'in.'; MoK d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'atoll, small i., island, a. from'; MRS tekay 'strip on the right, long right between two islets'; KIR(te)-rakai 'r.'; KSRtaka 'i., atoll'; PEO zakaRu 'r.' (Geraghty 1983), *caKuRu (Geraghty 1990); POc *[sz]akaRu (FIJ cakau 'r.'; PPN hakau 'coral r.'; SAA taalu 'shallow water, coral patch'; BUGhagalu 'r., sea'; ARO ta'aru 'flat, shallow patch into that sea ​​';PKB *sakaLu 'r.'); PMP *sakaRu (Blust 1989:163). See also Marck (1994: 308) PMC *Sakau. Note the duplicate in WOL.

PMc *[sS]ake 'ride': PUL taata 'two r. on'; CRLtaay taaya-(l) 'means of transport, r., vehicle providing transport, be m. from t.'; CRN is "Means of Transport"; WOL takee-(ye) 'r. it, sail it'; PUA lasts. up, rise, climb'; PCK *thank you; PON daker. in or on (ship), be first or best, top (all others)'; MOK dak 'to r.on a vehicle', dak[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'r. on it'; PPC* roofs; MRS (yek)-tak 'load, drag'; PEO * [sz]ake (SAA ta'e 'get up, stand'; LAU take, take 'get up'; AROta'e ta'e-ri 'get into a canoc'; KWA ta'eta 'e -li -[ a] 'get on, board'; PKB *saqe 'ascend). See also PMc *sake 'above'.

PMc *[sS]aku 'nålefisk': CHK apavega 'n. f.', teku-(naar), teku-(raar) 'marlin'; PUL-Zuordnung; CRL taagh; CRN taag;WOL taagu, tagu-, tagu-(raare); PUA taku-(lala) 'sværdfisk'; PCK*daku; PON daak; MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k; MRS tak; KIR (te)-raku; PEO*saku (FIJ saku 'sværdfisk'; PPN *haku); PMP *saku (Blust 1980: 140). Jf. PMc *[ss]aku-laara 'sværdfisk, marlin'.

PMc *[sS]aku-Iaara 'swordfish, marlin': CHK telai-naar,teku-raar; PUL taaku-laar (sic); CRL tagha-laar; WOL tagu-raare; PCK *dakua 'yellowfin tuna'; PON deki-laar; MOK dak-lar; PPC *daku-laara; PEO*saku-layaR + a "sailfish" (Geraghty 1990). Note the assimilation of CHK n and WOL l to the following r. See also PMc? *lea or *laya 'Asail', PMc *[sS]aku 'Needlefish'.

PMc *salu, salusalu 'to scrub, wash': CHK ti 'scrubbed, scrubbed, washed (of hands and dishes, but not clothes)', tenu'to s., w., rub, dust (s.t.), shine ( shoe)', tena-a-(no),teno-o-(no) 'to wipe (s.t.) off', tetten 'to wash, scrub, scrub, erase'; MRT talu 'to w. (hands, dishes, rice)'; PUL tela-a-(lo), tala-a-(lo) 'two w. (s.t.) off', talk-(wu) (sic)' washed object, to w. (as hands or rice); CRL tattal 'two m. kitchenthings' (Bender et al. 1984), talu-(w) 'to w. (dishes, hands)'; STW tettal 'two m. thing', talu 'w.(s.t.)'; PCK *dalu; KSR taeltael 'to w.', taeltael 'to drag. (genital organs)”; PEO salu (SAA talu-hi 'draw water, draw through a well'; LAU talu 'sprinkle'; ARO tank taru-hi 'draw water, dip, fetch'; KWA talu-si-[a] 'carry or carry [ of running water]').

PMc *sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'at lugte s.t.': MRTte[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(w) 's. de'; PUL te[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u-u-(w) 'to s., sniff (s.t.)'; STW tte[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 's,', te[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 's. de'; PUAta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u's. de'; PCK *da[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u; MRS (ya)-te[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] 'to s.(s.t.)'. KSR (mi)-s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n's ildelugtende, stinking af urin'. Jf. CHK ttin 'to s., perceiveor', tini 's. the. Jf. JAB [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] u 'smell (and lugt)'.

PCMc *sapa 'stand, prepared': CRL tap 'to be free to do a task without outside interference', tape-(legh), tapu-(legh) 'to be ready to do a job despite outside distractions, ready , prepared' ; CRNtape-(neg) 'be ready, prepared'; WOL band 'be ready, prepared'; PCK *dapa; KIR raba-(kau) 'skillful, skilful, knowledgeable and willing'. PUA lepakau 'be able, able, cunning' appears to be a loan from KIR, perhaps from crew members of D.D.O'Keefe's merchant boat that sailed from Yap in the late 19th century.

PMc *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'to help': CRL tapatap 'to h., aid, assist',tepa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to h. (so.)'; STW (a)-tapatap'h., give h.', tipa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'h. (see above)';WOL (ge)-tapetape 'to h., support, assist', tepa-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(i) 'to h. or assist (see above)'; PUA tapatapa 'toh.', tapa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'two h. Hello M'; PCK *dapa,dapa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; MRS jipa-[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'h., help', jipa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(ey) 'h. (So.)'; KSRtaptap 'to h.'; PMP *taba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'h.,assist' (Blust 1989:168). See KSR t[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]taef 'toh.', taef[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], taefwe- 'h. (So.)'; SAA can “(see above) encourage”. See also PCMc *tape, 'busy', PMc*tap[ac], tap[ac]-ki 'pick up, carry, carry in hands'. It appears that the Chuukian forms beginning with the letter t are the result of an early (possibly PCK) borrowing from another Mc source.

PWMc *sasana 'dream': CHK ttan 'd.', ttana'd. about (s.t.)'; PUL ttan 'to d.', ttana-a ''; CRL number; CRN tan; WOL field PuA field; PCK *already; MRS tena-k'to d.'. Cf. FIJ tadra tatadra 'to dream'

PMc *sawa 'reef pass, channel': CHK hav, -hav-(n)'p. in a reef, sides of'; STW sea, ocean-(n); wol-stage, tewa-'canal, port'; PUA person (sic); PCK *drug; PON display; MOK daw; PNGdaw, dewe-(n); MRS ren, ren- "canal, pp. into a lagoon", tewah "place of beaching of canoes"; KIR(te)-rawa 'channel to a lagoon or port'; POC *sawa (FIJ (non)-sawa "landing place on the beach"; SAA tawa "opening in the coastal reef"; KWA takwa "landing place"); UAN *without 'landing pad'. See also Marck (1994:315) PMC *said.

PCMc *sawa-ti-, sawa-ta 'to break, fate (s.t.)': WoLtewa-si-i-(ye) 'b. it, d. it, tear it'; PUA tawa-di 'broken', (ka)-tawa-di 'two b. that, d. the'; PCK *[dt]awa-ti; KIRrawa-ta 'wounded', (te)-rawa-ta 'a wounded'.

PMc *sawee 'unhindered': CHK tawe 'be practical, ready, ready'; PUL tawe "to be free, not busy"; CRL tawe' be free, s.t. to do, be free from interference in one's work';WOL tawee? 'can, get through, be possible'; PCK *dawee; KSRtwe-(n) 'to be good'.

PCMc *sawu 'enough, sufficient': PUL tow 'be e. (infood distribution)'; CRL tow 'have e.'; WOL tau 'be e.,s.'; PCK *dawu; KIR rau 'cozy, quiet, undisturbed', rau-(aki) 'satisfied, has eaten enough'. Cf. PON daw 'tired out (like a muscle)'. Note that KIR tau 'e., s.' has an unexpected initial t and cannot be a true relative.

PMc *[sS]i- 'moves, goes': CHK ti- 'm., g.', (e)-ti-(no) 'to go off', (fi)-ti 'to accompany, go with ( see above ),to go to school)'; MRT (fi)-ti 'to accompany (see above)'; PUL(fi)-ti-(lo) 'go away with so.'; CRL (fi)-t 'mix together', (fi)-ti 'be on the side, go together with';STW' (fi)-ti 'go along, accompany (see above)'; WOL (fi)-ti-(i) 'accompany it, go with it'; PUA (ka)-ti-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]I throw it'; PCK*di; KIR ri-([m.sup.w]oa) 'go before, go first', ri-([m.sup.w]ii) 'behind, follow, go later'; PEO *zi- , zizi (FIJ cici 'to run', cici-va 'to run to (a place)'.

PMc *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka 'sew, pierce':CHK ti-k 'pierce, pierce', ti-la 'sew or stitch (blanket))' , tti-k 'to be sawn or sewn', ti-kek 'needle'; PUL ti (faaR) near straw (Pandanus)', ti-k'sew', ti-ki-i-(y) 'sew it', ti-kek 'needle', CRN ti-geg 'needle'; WOL ti-gi-(i) 'sew it; PCK *di-, di-ki-, di-kaki; PON di-k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'needle'; MOK di-k 'stick out'; KIR (te)-ri-ka 'wooden needle-lined'; PEO *si-ka 'net-needle' (Geraghty 1983) (SAA si-ke'a thorn'). Cf. PMc *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi 'inserted, penetrated'.

PCMc *sia- 'Lips': MRs tie-; KIR(te)-ria.

PCMc *siki 'much, more': CHK -ttik 'much, intensifying adjective', (para)-ttik -ttiki-(n) 'pink, b. redness of'; Set. -kkit 'repeatedly, constantly'; CRL -thigh 'hot, spicy, overly flavored (of food)'; CRN-ttig 'hot, spicy, overly flavored (of food)'; PCK *ddiki; KIR riki 'again, but also more (after an adjective, as in English suf. -er)'.

PMc *[sS]iko 'scoop up': CHK tuk, tukotuk 's.up' and tuko-(ppi) 'do sand scooping'; CRL tughe-e-y 'high, shovel (sand, rice)'; CRN tug. high, shovel (sand, rice)'; KIR riko-a, rikoriko-a "retrieve"; PEO *ziko(f) (TONhiko 'pick up, gather'; SAA si'a si'o-hi 'gather, gather'; BUG siko-mi 'take, gather, gather'; ARO si'o,si' o - hi 'to find, to find again'; KWA si'o-fi-(a) 'to find again'). Cf. Fu ciqo 'fang s.t. thrown'.

PWMc *still 'Lice Egg, nit': PUL. tiil, tili-(n) 'small growth stage of various fishes'; WOL. tili, tili- 'i.e. first stage of development of the louse; PON Agreement; MOK dil 'small'; MRS says 'nits, larvae of lice'. Cf. KIR (te)-rina "larvae from which lice emerge" and cf. YAP that is 'nist, louse-egg' Cf. PCK *is not a "small fish".

PMc *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi 'inserted, penetrated': CHK tin 'be i., interposed', (e)-tini 'insert, interpose', tini-fi 'to go under or between ( Things; matters)'; PUL to 'place, set'; CRL. to 'push brush or grass or other obstacles out of the way when walking in the forest', tili-fagh 'tuck an object into a crevice or space between objects for storage or storage', tili-faghe-(li)' to shove or wedge (s.t.) into a storage space, tili-(fatal) 'to wander between and among objects or people'; WOL tili-fegi-(li) 'insert it, pierce it, thrust it into s.t.'; PCK *dili, dili-fi-; PON dil 'penetrate above, go through, go in'; MOK dil 'enter' dili-m 'underlay (s.t., in weaving), pierce (s.t.)'; KIR(ka)-rina 'make (s.t.) come in'; PEO *zili, zili-fi, zili-faki(FIJ cili, cili-va 'to cut or start the body'; TON hili, hili-faki 'put or put or place on s.t.'; SAA sili, sisili ' enter' , sili-hi 'enter, enter [s.t.]'; BUG hili, hiihili 'pass over, injure', hili-vi 'pass over, injure, through'; ARO siri 'inside', siri-hi 'enter, enter' , siri-ha'i 'enter, enter'; KWA sili,sili-fi[a] 'drip through, seep through'). Cf. PMC *[SS]i-,[SS]i-ki, [SS]i-ka 'sew, pierce'.

PMC *[sS]in[ae] 'shine': CHK ttin, ttine-(n) 's.,shining, bright, ray, beam, s.of'; PUL tin 'to s.', tini-n 'shine from'; CRL ttil 'to s.', tili-(l) 'shine from'; CRN ttin 'to s.', ttini-(n) 'shiningof'; WOL ttule 'to s., glow, sparkle'; PUA Tine 'light,to s.'; PCK *ddin[ae]; PEO *zina 'shine' (Geraghty 1983); POC*sinaR (Ross 1988) (Fiji cina 'lamp or torch'; SAA sine'torch', sine-li 'kindle, give light'; BUG hina 'noon, sun overhead', hina-ra 'a light, to s.'; LAUsina's.', sina-li 'moon, month'; ARO sina 'sun, torch', sisina 'torch'; KWA sina 'sun'); UAN *sinaR'light'; PAN *SiNaR 'sun, s.' and PAN*SiNa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'sunbeam, light' (Wolff 1993). This construction by Marck (1994:309) from PMC*[sz]ina is not supported by the cited KIR and MRS forms. Cf. KSR t""n 'color'. See also PMC? *si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]et 'sunlight'.

PMC? *si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'Sonnenlicht': KIRriri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'klart sollys, solskin, toshi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e brightly'; PEO *si[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a(FIJ siga 'dag, dagslys'; KWA si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-li'moon, month'); UAN *si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aR 'light'. Se også PMC *[SS]in[ae] 'shine'.

PCMC *si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][iu] 'to flow out, to drip':CHK ttu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to flow (of juice or sweat)'; WOLttu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'step forward, come out slowly, pour out (sweat)'; PCK *ddu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; PON din 'drop, lick', di[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]idi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'drop'; KIR ri[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'overhang'. Cf. MOK dun 'to drip'. Cf. KWA (uta)si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]osi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'rain'.

PMC *sipa 'feelings, emotions, feeling, attitude, mind': CHK tiip, tipa-(n) 'e., etc, his e.', (nee)-tip'place of e. (in the abdomen)' ; PUL. tiip, type-(n); CRL-Type, Type-(l); WOL tiipe, tipa-(in); PUA type, type-; PCK *dipa; PON deep, dipe'sin, his s.'; MOK dip-(kel) "to suffer a moral fault", MRS tipe-n "way, way to"; KIR riba-a 'hate or dislike (s.t.)'; KSR tip [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l) 'his personality'. FIJ ciba "pass out, lose consciousness"; ARO siba,siba-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i siba-ni 'seek, seek, seek'.

PMC *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki 'slice, chunk, to cut, toslice': CHK tiip, tipe-(n), -tip 's., chunk, cut segment (only from breadfruit and taro) , shavings (of adzing wood), s. of, s. (counts with)', writing tip 'chips', (e)-tip 'fits with pieces of breadfruit', #tipe-ri 's. or cut into pieces (s.t.)'; MRTtiip, tipa-(n) 'piece, s. of', tipa-k 'cut into pieces', -tep 'classified for s., piece'; PUL. tiip 's.(as breadfruit or taro)', tipaa-ki-y) (sic) 'to s. (as breadfruit or taro), cut (as coconut leaves)', (ya)-tip 'to s breadfruit', (ya)-tipa 'to'; CRL tiip, tipa-(l)'s., chunk, piece, s.of', (sa)-tip, (sa)-tipa-l's., piece (wood, banana, breadfruit), s. from 'STW tiip, tipa-(l)'piece, s. from 'tipatip 'pieces', tipa-ki 'to cut into pieces'; WOL - tipe 'cut segment of the breadfruit' (count)', tipe-(shigi) 's. or chop into pieces', ttippe 'break off from body, knock off body, fall off, be removed from s.t.'; PCK *diip, dipa-, dipa-ki- ; PoN dip 'grain (of wood), pp., or chip (like breadfruit or taro) (in counting)', dip[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to pp. (breadfruit or taro)'; MOK dip's., chip'; PNG dip's., chip'; MRS tipe-(n) 'fragment of, piece cut off', tip-(dikdik) 'small pieces', tap 'wood chips'; KSR sipsip's., cut, chop', sipi-k's., cut (s.t.)', ip[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-l 'part, piece, scrap, fragment thereof', ipip 'to be chopped into small pieces'; PEO*[sz]ipa, [sz]iba (FIJ civa, civa-ta 'cut into small pieces [as a yam for soup]'; BAU sipa 'cut a yam, peel a coconut'). Cf. PUAka-ma-tipi 'cut or break it into pieces'; YAP thip 'wood shavings, sawdust'.

PMC *not 'down, to the west': CHK -heads; MRI -clean;PUL -clean; CRL -tiw 'd.', tiwe-(y) 'chop or slice (s.t.) down'; STW-tiw; WOL head; PUA -uncle; PCK *seeks; PON - the 'down'; MOK - the 'd.'; PNG -di; MRS tew 'westward', tew 'December, rise d.'; KIR-rio 'down, west', ruo 'down, come or go d.'; KSRtu-(folk people) 'keep coming back d.'; PEO* sites (Geraghty 1983); POC (Ross 1988:463) (FIJ as 'degraded, set d.'; PPN *hifo 'down', *flowing westwards'; SAA siho 'descend, go ashore'; LAU sifo 'go d.'; PNK * sivo 'down, well.'). See Marck (1994:324) PMC *sio. See also PCK *diw[ao] 'changelocation'

PMC *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'push, push': CHK ti 'to be crowded, pushed together', tiiti 's.,s., pushes, pushes', tii-ni' S it,, cut it off', tii-naa-(no) 'send it away'; MRT tiiti 'to p'., tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 's. the ten'; PUL tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'send, order, p'. tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa-(lo) 'send it away'; CRL tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'two p.(s.t.)'; STW tiiti 'two p.', tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'p. The'; WOL tiitii's. s., jostle', tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(i) 's. it, s. it, press it'; PUA tiitii 'p.,p.', tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'p. that, pp. that'; SNStii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'press'; PCK *dii,diidii,dii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON dir 'abundant, filled, be plentiful'; MOK dir 'many, much', (ka)-diri 'to fill (s.t.)'; MRS ji-(rahak)'s.; KIR rii-na 'to feel (s.t.), handle, touch'; POC *sigi, siki (SAA siki 'to press, to touch with fingers', siki-hi 'to infect, to carry infection [to s.o.]; BUGhingi-li 'to touch [s.t.]'; ARO sigi 'to press with finger', sigi -hi 'infect with'; LAK sigi-li 'fill up with liquid', (idogo) sigi-ri-(a) 'put a leaf funnel in a water bottle'). Cf. Fu cigi 'fills a crack or pushes something in'. Cf. Also KSR is [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s, is o-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], isiso-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'stick in, s. in, stuff in'. PPC *die 'squashed, pushed together'.

PCMC *soa 'far away': CHK also-(w) (from *too-[awa])and too-(waaw) (from *too-[awaawa]) 'far away'; PULtoo-(wo-lo); CRL taaw 'to be far', taawu-(lo) 'to be very far'; WOL ttaawe; PUA ttao; PCK? *doa-; PON doo 'distant, far away'; MOKdoo 'distant, far away'; MRS ttew-([lak.sup.w]) 'distant', tew 'long time'; KIR raroa 'remove, remove'. Cf. KIRrau-(tari) 'rinse off salt water'; POC *sauq (FIJ sau 'outside'; SAA [ha'a]-tau 'far away, far'; BUGhau 'be far, long'; ARO [ha'a]-tau 'far away'; KWA tatau 'far 'distant, long'). UAN *Za[h[theta]]uq. Cf. also FIJ yawa 'distant, far away'. Note: There may be a problem here.

PMC? *[sS]oka 'pierce, stich': WOL togatoge 'p., s., to stick s.t. ind i (en ung kokosnød)'; PCK *doka; PON dok 'bribed, impaled, impaled', d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to s., spear, spit (s.t.)'; MOK doc 's., poke,inject', d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's.etc.(s.t.)'; PEO *zoka's., spyd' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ coka'to p'.; PPN *hoka's., s.').

PCMC *soko 'against speaker so far': CHK -to, -also-; MRI up; PUL-two; CRL - two; STW-to; WOL took; PUA toco; PCK * doko; PON-do; MOK-do; MRS [tek.sup.w], KIR roko, see also PMC *[sS]oko 'good, arrive'.

PMC *[sS]oko 'reach, arrive': CHK must 'be reached, reached, be reached', for-ri 'r., en. to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to (something orthing)', too-(neni) 'to be able, to be able to'; MRI tooto'a.'; CRL too-ri'r., . At'; WOL togo 'arrive, land, come ashore, be safe at home'; PUA shop; PCK *doko; MRS (yi)-[tek.sup.w]'come'; KIR roko 'come, a.'; PEO *soko 'a. (ship)' (Gerghty 1983) (Fu soko 'sail, travel'; SAAto'o, to'oto'o 'hit, meet, succeed'; LAU also 'hit, own, have'; BUG hogo -vi' hit'; AROto'o, to'o-hi 'hit, hit, succeed, persuade'; KWAto'o 'receive, catch, hit'; LAK soo 'right now, recently') . Compare KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'come, country',t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to come'; FIJ must have arrived', soasoa 'to reach land alive after a storm'. See also PCMC *soko 'against speaker so far'.

PMC *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a 'mix': CHK ttona 'mixture', tonaa-ni 'm. (s.t.)'; MRT tol[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'knead together, rub'; CRL (a)-tola-(fenalli) 'm.(thing) together'; STW tolaa-li bin. The'; WOL telaa 'well mixed, blended, blended', telaa-li-(i) 'm. it, mix it, mix it' PUA tona 'mix well, mix, mix', tona-ni 'to mix, mix, melt (s.t.)'; PCK *dolaa,dolaa-[ln]i-; PON dol'to m.', d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'tom. (s.t.)'; PNG d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'm.'; MRS tewlah to knead preserved breadfruit; PEO jola 'm.' (Geraghty1983) (SAA dodola 'mixed', dola-li 'mix, dilute'; BUG joajotha 'mix', (horu)jotha 'empty'; ARO dora, dora-hi 'm., mix'; KWA dola 'm .'). Cf. PUL toola 'rub together (like leaves to get fragrance)'.

PMC *[sS]ola 'hide': CHK ton 'visible, recognizable', tono-(no) 'hide', (o)-tona 'make visible, see (s.t.)'; PUL tolo-(lo) 'to disappear', tolo-n 'putting of (a star)'; CRL Demands 'Go Away'; WOLtolo 'to disappear, to submerge, to go out of sight, to vanish'; PUA tono 'set (of the sun)'; PCK *dolo; MRS [l.sup.w] et 'disappear, die out' (shows metathesis). PMP * Fame 'to sink, to dip' (Blust 1989). Cf. PMP *telem 'to sink under water' (Blust 1986: 100), *teleb 'to sink, to disappear' (Blust 1989: 171).

PMC *so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o, so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oso[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'to smart, stitch': CHKto[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRT to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oto[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'two stitches', to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(y) 'sting(see above)'; PUL to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oto[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'burn, itch, sting, have a pungent taste', to[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-(y) 'sting (see above)'; CRL([b.sup.w]oo)-tto[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oton 'smells sweaty, unclean, unwashed'; STW to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oto[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; PCK*do[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o; KSR (mi)-s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ns[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n 'smells, stinks of urine'. Cf. MRS je[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'Pain in arm caused by throwing'; FIJcoga 'sharp point, barb'. See also PCK*li-[m.sup.w]a-do[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'Wrestling Jellyfish'.

PMC *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi- 'grab, catch, seize': CHK#tur 'be seized, taken, be seized', #(o)-turu 'have arrested', turu-fi ' to seize, c., g., grasp, seize (s.t.)'; PUL tottor 'to catch with hands', toro-fi-y 'to grasp, to catch (s.t.)'; CRL toro-fo' um s.t. (either captive or prey must move)'; WOL tottom 'catch with hands, c., gather, seize', toro-fi-(i) 'catch it, overtake it, seize it, c. The'; PCK *doro, doro-fi-; KIR roa-a 'to catch (a fish) with rod and line', rooroo 'to anchor, to anchor'; PEO *soRo-f'catch' (Geraghty 1990).

PMc *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti- 'dig': CHK ttu 'dig, dig' tuutu 'dig', ttuu-(w) 'dig (earth)'; PUL drag 'dig earth' (like a shovel)'; PCK *outside; MRS uew 'to dig taro', tiwij(iy) 'tam (tr.) to dig'; KIR rourou 'dig up', rou-ta 'dig up (s.t.)'; PEO *sopu-t (FIJ sovu, sovu-ta 'hollowed out [a canoe]'). Cf. SAA toliu 'to chop', tohu-le'i-ni 'to chop (s.t.)'; BUG or "dig, chop, cut a hole" or "gouge out"; FOR tofu 'to cut things up' cf. also LAK ovi, ovovi 'collect to tame', see PPC *dowu 'stab, to pierce, to be stabbed, to be pierced'.

PMc *[sS]ua 'dug hole': KIR(te)-rua 'grave, grave'; POc *sua 'to churn, dig up, pry up' (FIJ cua 'stick used to lift a fishing net'; PPN *sua 'to turn, straighten up'; ARO sua 'to churn up the ground like a pig'; LAK sua, sue-a 'press the stone of the earth oven with a stick'); UAN *sual 'liver'. Cf. CHK tuu, tuwa-n 'vulva, here v.' (vulgar).

PMc *suku 'hit, hit': CHK tuku-u-(w) 'blot(s.t.)', tuku-u-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eni) 'blot (s.t.) on(st.)', tuku-( ya) 'dance where hardwood sticks are struck against each other'; MRT tuku-u-(w) 'to hit'; PULtuku-u-(w) 'h., pp. (s.t.)'; CRO tughu-u-(w) 'to beat, h. (so.or s.t.);, to tug 'closed fist'; CRN tuug 'closed fist'; WOL ttugu 'to touch, abut, s. lightly, to come into contact', tugu 'to hit with fist'; PCK *duku, dduku, duku-u-; KSR tukutuk 'to pound', tuk 'pound (s.t.)', tok 'punder'; PEO *suku, suku-mi (FIJ suku, suku-ma 'to touch a woman in front or behind'; BUG juujuku 'to s., to hurt, hurt, be cruel'; KWA su'u-mi-[a] "poke , snap your fingers"). Cf. PPC *tukj 'pound, knock', with which there seems to have been some confusion.

PMc *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi 'to pack, a package, a pack (s.t.)': CHK tukutuk, tukutuku-(n) 'p., package, bundle, package, p. from', -tuku -m 's., packet (in count), tuku-ma-(n)'s. of', tuku-mi 'make (it) into a s. or bundle, pack (it) together'; MRI tuku-me 'w. The'; PUL tukutuk, tukutuku-(n) 'p., leaf p., p. from', -tuku-m 'p. (while counting)', tuku-mi'tow. (es) in a leaf p.'; CRL tughutugh, tughutugh 'any wrapped bundle', tughu-mi 'w. (st.) in a bundle'; CRN tugutug 'any tightly packed bundle', alga-mi 'w. (s.t.)in a bundle'; STW tuku-mi 'w. The'; WOL tugutugu 'funeral gift', tugu-me 'wrapped preserved breadfruit', tugu-mi-(i) 'w. it, cover it'; PUA tukutuku 'to be wrapped up, pull.', tuku-mi 'to w. that, hide it'; PCK *dukuduku, duku-ma,duku-mi-; PON Kidikid 'two w.' (shows metathesis), kidi-mi 'wrap (s.t.)'; MOK kidkid 'to wrap', kidi-m 'w.(s.t.)'; MRS kete-m 'bundle of mats' (shows metathesis), kiti-m 'mat used to cover a corpse, pull. (a body)'; Km ruku-ma'a packet' ruku-ma, ruku-mi-(a) 'twice or w. (s.t.) above, f. or w. it on'. KSR sroko-m, sroko-mi 'to w., envelop, w.(s.t.)' seems to be on loan.

PMc *slu 'torch': PUL stack 'torch'; CRL Stack, WOL Stack, Oil; PuA snow, snow; PCk*dulu; PON diii 'dried coconut leaves, t.', ndil 'torch of dried coconut leaves, for fishing with torches'; MOC dil; woman to; KIR(te)-rin, rini- 'dried coconut leaf'; KSR soul; PEO *nose (PPN *nose, nose); UAN *suluq. Cf. KWA unu't., light'. We can't account for the CHK Teen, #teenuor PULdoublet-teel.

PCMc *[sum.sup.w]ur 'there stars Antares': CHK[tum.sup.w]ur 'there s. A., Name of a Sternmonats'; PUL[tum.sup.w]ur 'A., a Star Moon'; CRL[tum.sup.w]ur 'A., Sternmonat'; STW [Zweck,sup.w]Zeit; WOL [ twn . sup . write ] ; PUA[tum.sup.w]uli 'a starry same March'; PCK*[columns]; PoN[dimw]ir (Bender et al. 1984); MoK and PNG[dum.sup.w]ur 'Constellation name'; MRS [tim.sup.w][ir.sup.w]'A., Starbird Tau, Alpha, Sigma Scorpionis'; Km[rim.sup.w]ii-(mother) 'Cor Scorpionis (A.), Summer'.

PMc *susu 'breast, breastfeed': CHK ttu-(n) 'herbs', ttuut, tuttu- 'suck (on a nursing child)'; MRT tuut,ttu-(n) 'b., herb.'; PUL tuut 'b., nipple'; CRL utt,uttu-(l) 'breast, you b.', tuut 'to die, nurse (from ab.)'; STW tutut 'b.'; WOL ttu-(u), ttu-(le) 'my b., herb.', tutu 'b.'; ULI theth 'b.'; PUA Tutu 'b., mother's b. suck'; PCk *dudu; PON diidi 'here b. die clay sister'; MOK diidi 'b., to die'; PNG diidi 'b.'; MRSyittit, tittit, yitti- 'b., nipple, teat'; KSR twetwe-(l), titi-(n)'here b., f. from'; PEO *zu- 'b.' (Geraghty 1983); POc*susu 'breast' (Ross 1988) (FIJ) susu 'to nurse a baby', sucu 'b to suck'; PPN *huhu 'nipple, b.'; SAA susu'bā, milk, suck b.'; BUG susuu 'b. the woman, milk, b. suck'; LAU susu 'b., to die'; ARO susu 'b., suck'; KWA susu 'b., f. milk, breastfeed'; PKB *susu 'suck, breast'); PAN *supsup 'sip, suck' (Blust 1989: 167). Note that YAP thuuth 'b.' appears to be on loan from ULI.

PMC *-Saa, mee-Saa 'question suffix': (mee)-t,(mee)-ta 'what?', ([p.sup.w]aa)-t, ([p.sup.w ] a)ta 'why?'; PUL (mee)-ta 'what?, why?', ([p.sup.w]e)-ta 'why?'; CRL(mee)-t, (mee)-ta 'what?', ([b.sup.w]e)-ta 'why, suppose what if'; WOL (me)-ta, (me)-ttaa 'what?'; PUA (me)-ta (sic) 'what?', ([p.sup.w]ame)-ta 'why'; PCK *-daa, (mee)-daa;PON da, daa, daa-(m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'what?',(m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-nda 'why? for which purpose?'; MOK da'what?'; MRS and 'what?, what?'; KIR raa 'what(s.t.)?' (follows the noun), (te)-raa 'what?': KSR[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], (me)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'what?'; PEO*zaa (Geraghty 1983) (TON haa; SAA taa, taha; LAU taa; KWA taa), cf. PMC*Safa “what? what relationship?' See also PMC? *faiSa 'do what?', PPC *p[a.sup.w]-ki-da 'because, why'.

PMC *Safa 'what? what relation?': CHK tafa-'w.r.?'; PUL tefa-, 'w.r.? Where?'; CRL tafa-, tefa- 'w.r.'; PCK *dafa-; MRS teye- 'w.r.?'; KIR raa'w.?' (follows noun); KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'w.!';PEO *zafa 'w.?' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ cava 'w.?'; SAA taha'w.?'; BUG hava 'w.?'; PNK *zova, zava 'w.?'). PON depe and MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'how many? how much?'.

PMC *sake 'upward': CHK -go, go- 'upward, eastward, rising', go-ni-yon 'sunrise'; PUL-ta; CRL-ta; WOL-take, take (li-alo) 'sunrise'; PUA roofs; PCK *black; PON-der, dark, MOK-der, i; MRS tak, -tah- 'to the east, upwards', tak-(n hal) 'sunrise'; KIR-rae; KSR -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k, -yak'upward', tak 'rise'; PEO zake-f 'ascend, climb' (Geraghty 1983); POC *Sake (ROSS 1988) (PPN) *axe; FU cake; SAA be;PKB *sake 'to rise'); HAN *ft. See Marck (1994:324) PMC*sake 'up(wards), east(wards)' and PMC *[sS]ake 'ride'.

PMC *Sali 'in a line or row': CHK ti 'be in1.', ti-(n) '1. of', tetten '1st, rank, r., list, character, generation, lineage'; PUL tali-(n)'1. from'; CRL tali-l'r. of, 1. of', tal 'make rows or lines', tali 'plant (s.t.) in rows'; CRN teli-(n) 'r, of, 1, of', teli'plant (s.t.) in rows'; WOL ttali '1. high. form a 1.',-tali 'rows, lines (in counting)', (ge)-tali 'walk in a L., form a procession'; PCK *dali; PON d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'move in large numbers, swarm'; MRS numbers "Procession of mourners or tribute-bearers"; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'march, parade,.Cf. KIR(te)-rinan 'a r., rank, l.', rinan 'stands in a r. or 1.'. Cf. also Saa (ta'a)-tala 'a line, row'; ARO tara-i 'in a row'; KWA speaks 'in a line'.

PMC * Same “outrigger float”; CHK tam, tam-(n)'o.f., o.f. from'; PUL time, teme-(n); CRL full, full (l); WOL taame, thema-li; PUA saw, all-; PCK *Queen; PON dam, d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'o.f., its o.f.'; MOK dam'outrigger boom'; MRS (rey)tam 'outrigger side of Acanoc', tem-rak 'sail without in the south', tem-yan 'sail without in the north'; KIR(te)-rama 'outrigger'; KSR 'boom'; PEO *zama 'outrigger' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJcama; PPN *reb); POC *breathe (ROSS 1988). Cf. MRS Yam 'Sailing unrigged out of the water, tp (of a canoe)'.

PMC *Sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'inner thigh, crotch':CHK taa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n) 'leg and foot together, his L.'; CRL taa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(l) 'upper, inner part of t., hisu.t.'; STW ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(l) 'within his or her'; PCK*dana; PON daa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't., his t.'; MRS(lov)-te[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ay, (lew)-tenay 'within t., c.';KIR (te)-ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(na)' leg, tā, his lā'; KSR e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ae 'area between two legs', (in)-ye[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ae 'groin';POC *sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'crotch', (ROSS 1988) (FIJ saga'c. ROT saga 't.'; SAA to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'thec.of the legs', ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]en 'forked stick';ARO to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'the step, forked leg ' ; KWA [ma]-ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'cut, branch point'; LAK sala 'thigh, groin'); UAN*sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'fork, branch', cf, PULhee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]an 'parts of arm above and below elbow, leg below knee, t., parts between nodes (as in cane and bamboo) ' ; KSR taenwe-(s) 'a form of intercourse'.

PMC *-seke 'friendly, friendly': PON (ka)-d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'friendly, generous'; MOK (ka)-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'please'; PNG (ka)-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'friendly, friendly'; KIR(te) shrimp 'mate, close friend'; KSR(ka)-w[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'friend', (kaka)-w[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'to become friendly or familiar'.

PMC *Give 'if'; CHK ttiiw, ttiwe-, ttiwa-, ttiwu-; MRTtied-; PUL ttiw, ttiwa-; CRL clean, clean, clean; STW Tee, Tee-; WOL tiwe;PUA tio-; PCK *gegeben; PON zu-; MOK zu-; PNG alcohol-; KIR rua-; KSry[UNKEYBOARDBARE SYMBOL]; PEOs *given (Geraghty 1983); POC *frø (Ross 1988)(FIJ frø; PPN *frø; SAA frø, frø-na 'n., niende'; BUG hia; LAUsiqa; ARO frø; KWA frø; PNK *(wala)-siwo (<walu- see also PCMC *siwa-ua 'neun (all classes of things)' and PPC *diwa-ike '90' Vgl. MRS riwah-tim-jiwen 'neun'.

PCMC *Siwa-ua 'nine (general classes of things)'; CHKttiwu-vw, (e)-ttiwu-uwa-(n) 'niece'; PUL niende-ow 'n.'(of)-dick-owa-(n) 'niende'; CRL head-ow 'n.',(a)-head-owa-(l) 'neck'; CRN tiwo-uw 'n.',(a)-tiwo-uwa-(n) 'niend'; WOL Night Brew; PuAtio-ow; PCK *diwo-uwa;PON duwa-w; MOK du[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-w; KIR rua-i-ua 'n. See PMc *Siwa 'nine', PMc *.-ua 'general classifier in counting (added to numbers)'.

PMc *Solo 'peak, hill': CHK Toon, Tone-(n) 'p., climax, peak, masthead, s. of'; PUL tool, tolo-(n)'mast head, m-h. from'; CRL tool 'mount p.'; PCK *dolo;PON dool 'small mountain, h.'; MOC and PNG dol'mountain'; MRS te[l.sup.w.sub.] 'mountain, h.';[l.sup.w.sub.] 'top of canoc's mast' (metath.); KSR eol, ol 'mountain', yol 'heap, stack', yoli 'make (s.t.) in a heap', yolyol 'many'; PEO *zolo (FIJ colo. 'inland, mountainous country'; SAA tolo 'h., h. country'; LAUtolo 'h.'; ARO toro 'h., inland'; KWA tolo 'mountains, mountainous interior') . See BUG hothoho 'Forest'. See Marek (1994:320) PMc*zolo.

PMc *Soru- 'near, near': MRS ti[r.sup.w.]i-,(yi)-ti[r.sup.w]i- 'near, near, n., b.' ; KIR (i)-rou-(na) 'with, of, because of him'; KSR y[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(l) 'his near', yuru-(n) 'near by, n.'. Cf. PMc *aro-'beach, shore, surroundings'.

PMc *Suu, SuuSuu,Suu-fi- 'to dive, to bathe': CHK tu'd., to dip the head under water', tuutu 'b., to take a bath, to bend (of the head)', tuu-fi d. Prince.)'; MRI set 'tob.'; PUL to 'to d. deep', tutu 'to swim, b.', tutu-fi-(y) 'to d. Prince.)'; CRL also for 'to submerge, i.e. from the surface', for 'to b.', for-fi 'to d. for(s.t.)'; STW Tuutu 'to b.'; WOL heap 'b., heap-(lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o) 'to d. i'; ULI thuthu (sic)'b.'; PUA cat (sic) 'to b.'; PCk * dove, blunt, dove-and-; PON du 'go under water, d', dust 'b.', dust-p'd. Prince.)'; MOK dudu 'b.',du-p 'b.(see above)'; MRS title 'b.'; KSR yield, give 'b. take a bath'; PEO *si[q[theta]]u-v 'to wash' (Geraghty 1983) (SAA suu,sun-hi 'd., sink,d. for'; BUG huu 'to d., sink'; LAU sun'to d .., to sink'; BUG huu 'to sink, d., to go down'; LAU sun'to d., sct [of celestial bodies]'; ARO sun, suu-hi'd., d.for'; KWA suu , sol -fi-[a] 'd., to sink, d. for'). Cf. KSR draw'to wash' draw-n 'to wash, soak (s.t.)'; FIJ su 'pour water on things, water' su-ya 'pour water on (s.t.)'; PEO*suq “pour wet R on” (Geraghty 1983). See also PEO *jo[bpv]u'to dive' (Geraghty 1983); POc *[sj]o 'descent, d.';PMP*ziuq (Blust 1983-84). Cf. PCK *du[pw][u3] 'seen (from the sun),set'.

PMc *taa, taa-ki 'to chop': WOL saasa 'to cut, to cut, to cut, to split, c.', saa-gi-(i) 'to prick, to cut, to cut, to cut,'; Mrs Jack; jekjek 'to cut, to chop, c,, to prune, to greet with hands'; PEO *taRa (Geraghty 1990, derivation of a PMc *taa); UAN *taRaq.Cf. KSR tiyet 'to dissect, cut up', tiye 'to dissect (it), cut (it) up', tiyok tiy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to come out'. MRS short vowel unexplained.

PCMc *go,ta-ni at like, be fond': CHK saasa 'to 1., bef.', saa-ni 'to 1. it'; KIR tan-na 'to be in love with, 1.(.s.t.)'. Cf. PPC *taka, taka-ni 'have wanted, have wanted for'.

PCMc *taapa 'knife': CHK saap, saape-(n) 'k., k.of'; MRI soap; KIR(te)-taaba 'k.', taaba 'peel (s.t.), carve, scrape'. See KSR color 'Tree k.'.

PCMc *taaw(ae) 'to be ashamed': CHK saaw, 'be one.',saaw-asi-ni 'be one. because of him', (a)-pronounced 'embarrassing, embarrassing'; PUL horses (sic); CRN surprised; KIR taawa-i'a. due to lack of success'.

PCMc *tae, tae-ki- 'removed': CHK sa, saa- 'removed, emptied' and saa-si 'to remove'; PUL. haa-ki-(y) 'remove (as clothes)'; CRL. saa-ghi 'to lift, move or remove (s.t.)'; CRN haa-gi 'to lift, move or remove (s.t.)'; WOLsaa-saa 'to deduct' and san-gi-(i) 'to deduct'; PCK*tae, tae-ki-; KIR tae 'extracted, pulled out' and tae-ki-(a) 'to stir up'.

PMc *tafa,tafa-si 'to cut into pieces, to slice': STW'safasaf 'two c., s.', safa-ti 'c. or s. (s.t.)'; WOLtafatafe 'to c., s., write (by carving letters)',#tefa-(a),#tefa-(li-i) 'c. that, pp. that'; ULI taftaf 'to s.'; PUA tada'to pp. soft things', tadadada 'to pp., c.'; PCK *tafa,tafatafa; PON sap' to c. in pieces', s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'c. (s.t.) in pieccs'; MRS jay'to c., chop'; KSR tae-t 'hoe', twe 'to chop or c.(s.t.)'; PEO *tafa, tafa-si 'two c.' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ tava'c. with a knife'; PPN *tafa 'to C.'; SAA aha, aha-si'to c., notch, notch'; ARO aha, aha-si 'to c. 'cut, cut, notch'; KWA afa 'mark, cut'); PMP *tabas 'cut off undergrowth' (Blust 1980:92) Cf. PUA tapatapa 'two c., split'. Cf. also PMc? *[sS][afi.sub.I], 'pick, pick, tear down', PMc*[sS]afa, [sS]afa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'gather, pluck', PPC*daf[ ei] 'to be open', PMc *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki 'to cut off, to cut off'.

PWMc *write 'again, return': CHK slowly, slowly, slowly(n), slowly-(n), slowly-(n) a., again, r., r. self'; MRTS[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]fail 'do (s.t.) a, r. (s.t.)'; PUL.hafaall, hafalli-, random-; CRL head, head; CRN remains; STW sefaan; WOLtefaali; PUA data; PCK *taphaali, taphaali; PON just 'repeat an activity, do one.'; MOK japaal; MRS go[l.sub.s] 'Turn Car'. Cf. KSR taepal 'to turn'

PMc *tai, ta-'not': CHK -es, it-, it-; MRI - see; PUL -and;CRL -se' CRN -and; STW - that; WOL-tai, to-; ULI -te, te-, -ta (Bender et al. 1984); PUA ta- 'not (neg. prefix)'; PCK *-tail, ta-; PON sa-,sai(kint[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'not yet'; MOK yes-; PNG yes-; MRSja-, ja-([k.sup.w][k.sup.w]ireyrey) 'play seldom, not be sporty',([k.sup.w][k.sup.w]irey 'play' ), ja-([rren.sup.w][ren.sup.w]) 'deaf, hard of hearing' ([ren.sup.w] 'to hear'); KIR-tai'neg. imperative aspect marker'; KSR se-, s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-.

PMC *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma 'to sharpen': CHK seyi-mi 'to sharpen', seyi-m, #seyi-mi-(n) 'grindstone'; MRIsaysey (Bender et al. 1984); PUL not me; CRL six, six; STW sai-mi;WOL taitei, taite-mi-(i); PUA taetae, tae-mi (sic); PCK *taitai, letter-mi-; PONs[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ys[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'be sharp', say-m; MRS jemjem's., whet', jem-(ey)'s. (s.t.)'; KIRtai-mi-(a)'s. it', tai-ma's. (s.t.)'; KSR twe-twe's.', twe-m 'chert'; POC * Tajim (ROSS 1988); UAN*tazim.

PWMC *takaka 'slice of copra': CHK sakka-n, #ssaka-n's. thereof (from c. or flesh of ripe coconuts)', -ssak's. ofc.' (in counting)', (a)-ssak 'c. cut, c. extract from coconut husk', (a)-sakka, #(a)-ssaka 'cut it (c.)' PUL#haakk , hakka -n 'halved peeled coconut husk, sides of it' -hakk's. by c. (in counting)'; CRL (a)-sakka 'slices from c.', (a)-sakka 'to S. (c.); CRN (a)-hakk 'slices of c.', (a)-hakka 'to s. (c.)'; WOL tegagu 'shell (skull, coconut), cup', tegagu-ch-[chim.sup.w]e (< *tegagu-li-[shim.sup.w]e) 'skull'; PUA takkakku-(ase) 'navigation cup with handle'; PCK *takak[au]; MRS jekak'c. Pieces taken out of the shell". Cf. MOK dakdak, daka-j 'to remove flesh from a coconut', (orin) dakdak 'c.'; KIR (te)-takataka 'c.', takataka 'to be very dry (like the kernel of a ripe coconut)', KSR kaki 'c., ripe coconut'.

PMc *takuru 'back (of the body)': CHK sekur, sekur-; MRIsakure-; PUL heat; CRL secured; CRN to cover; STW Sack; WOL created; PUAtaluku; PCK *cut; MRS [jak.sup.w]ir 'turtle or crab shell', KIR (te)-akuu (shows loss of *t followed by *k); PEO *takuRu (Geraghty1990). Cf. KSR tok, t[KEYBOARD ENABLED ICON]k[UNKEYBOARD ENABLED ICON]-(l),tuku-(n) 'b, be b., b. from'; Poc *lookR, lookR (Ross 1988) (FIJwater).

PMc *tala, tala-[sS]I 'loosen, loosen': CHK sene-ti 'untie, 1. (a rope)'; PUL hale-ti-(y) 'loosen, relax, excuse, pardon (s.t.)'; CRL sali-ti 'to relax or reduce (tension), make peace between (people)'; STW sani-ti 'to loosen (s.t.)'; WOLtela-ti-(i) 'develop, release, release (s.t.)'; PUA tana-ti 'tosave. save, forgive'; PCK *tala-di-; MOK jala-d 'to let go of oruntie (rope) jal-d-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to be free, to be one's own boss'; FRU jaljal 'to 1st, relax, loosen'; KIR tana-ra'to loose (someone else holds), take off (post-dance decorations)', (ma)-tana 'be s.', (ka-ma)-tana-a 'to 1st, loosen ( s.t.) '; PEO *tala, tala-[sz]i (FIJ tala, tala-ca 'to clean up garbage'; PPN *tala 'to undo, undo').

PMC *talai 'hazel': CHK sene, senee-(n) 'a., a.of', senee-ni 'to chop (it) with an a.'; MRI sales; PUL hell; CRLcell; CRN Hell; WOL-Tel; PUA tanae; PCK *younger; PON sil[UNKEYBOARDBLESYMBOL]; MRS Jellyfish 'Stone Axe'; KIR(te)-tanai 'axe'; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]la 'axe', tulwe-(n-t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k) 'axe'. Cf. SAA 'ala 'break off or detach (branch off)'; ARO ara, ara-je 'to chop, to fell (a tree)', ara-ra'i 'to chop'.

PCMC *Narration "clear, clear": CHK sana-, healthy-? "outstanding, striking"; PON sansal 'clear, distinct, evident'; MOK kandal 'clear (of the language), open, obvious'; KIRtane 'clear, clear'.

PMC *tali 'rope': CHK saan, seni-(n) 'r., r.of', seni, seni-iy 'spool or wind (a r.)'; MRT hall,s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]le-(n); PUL haal, hali-(n) 'rigging, rigging of'; CRL hall, sali-l'r., r. of', sali 'to coil (ar.)'; CRN heli 'to coil (a r.)'; STW saan 'r., line, sennite'; WOL taali, tan-ni 'rā, line, r. from', tali-i 'line of line (a r.)'; PUA taani, tani- "4th"; SNS taani'r., string'; PCK *tali; PON saal 'r., string, cord', sal'to gather r., to pull on a leash'; MOK j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l'r.', jal 'to win (r.)'; MRS jaljel 'roll up or roll up', jaliy 'roll up or roll up (r.)'; KIR tan 'to turn', tana 'to wrap sennit on the left hand'; KSR hall; PEO*tali 'rope' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ tali 'r., braid, braid', dali 'a pandanus tree of which r. is made'; PPN*taLi 'to braid'; SAA 'ali 'a cord' ;ARO ari'r.' [tari 'r.of a special kind' is an obvious borrowing];KWAali 'braiding';LAK tali-a 'wrap [r.]', tali [la-sulabe] 'make a tendril-binding for the feet of a climber'); UAN *tali. Cf. YAP tael 'rope, string'.

PCMc *tali- 'facing': CHK seni-(kasa) 'board-connecting outrigger trees on the leeward side (asa)'; MRS jal- 'toface' (with dir. suffixes); KIR tan-, tani- (with dir. suffixes) 'on the ~-side (of an island), facing (here or away)'. MRS heavyl is the result of assimilation to following directions beginning with heavy consonants.

PCMc *talia 'accessory to meat, fish or sauce': CHKseni, seniya-(n) 's. dā, be s.d.', seniye-ni 'as s.dōto (s.t.) set'; PUL haaliy (sic) 'accompanying meal', haliya-le-(y) 'eat (s.t.) as accompanying meal'; CRL saliya-, saliyali, saliili 'meat or sauce eaten with rice or taro'; PCK *taliya; PON sali 'eat meat or fish, the meat or fish is part of the flour', sali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'eats (the meat or fish part of the flour)'; MRS jaleuley 'meat dish, sauce, gravy'; KIR(te)-tanna (<*tania) sauce, relish, appetizer”.

PCMc *taliapa 'builder, bind together': CHK sennap,sannap 'canoe b.'; PUL hallap, hellap', hallapa-n'builder, f. of'; CRL. Sellap' expert canoe b.; CRN hallap;WOL Sennape 'kano b., artisan'; PCK *tallapa(<*tallapa); KIR tannaba-a 'wind up (s.t.) (as a fishing line)'.

PMc *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'ear, mushroom, mushroom': CHK seni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], seni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n)'e., his e.', seni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-( n sooma),senine-(n enu)' seni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(n soope) 'each of a large number of mushrooms' (lit. 'ghost ears, spirit fire'), ([p.sup. w] o )-sseni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'musty smell, earthy smell, smell musty'; MRI sali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-; PULhali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], hali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n),hali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n hooma) 'tree f., m.'; CRLsali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], ([b.sup.w]oo)-sali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'smells musty or musty from long storage'; CRN heli[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]; STW sali[KEYBOARD ICON], sali[UNKEYBOARD ICON]a-; WOLtaline 'e.', tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(a) 'to listen, obey'; PUA tani[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; SNS tari[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a; PCK *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PON sale[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],sale[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'e., his e.', sale[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e-n eni 'mushroom, fungus' (lit. 'ear of the spirit'; MOK jale[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-( SYMBOL walek) 'big-ear taro'; MRS(law-)jil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL](iy) 'e.'; KIR(te)-tani[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PEO *talina (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ daliga; PPN *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; RED faliga; SAA 'ali[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e 'e.,m.'; LAU alina 'e.'; KWA alina 'm.'; PKB *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'e ., edible f.');PAN *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a

PMc *tama 'father': CHK sam, seme-(n) 'f., f.of', sama-(n), sema-(n) 'his f.', samasam 'treat as af.', seme -ni 'acquire as f.'; MRI airways; PUL hammer-(n)'his f., hammer-(n) 'f. from'; CRL sam 'f.', sema-(l)'his f.; CRN ham; STW same, same; WOL taame tema-(li) 'f., f.of', theme-li-(i) 'has him as f.'; PUA saw, all-; SNStama (sic); PCK *Size; PON saam, s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'f., his f.'; MOK jema-(a) 'to be f.'; PNG seme-;MRS jema-; KIR tama-(na) 'his f.; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][m.sup.w]e-(l) 'his f,'; POC *tama (Ross 1988) (FIJ tama; SAA 'ama- 'f.' [ref.]', ma'a 'f. [voc.]'; BUG tama-; LAU maa' 'f. [voc.]' ]'; '; ARO for-; KWA for-[and]; PKB tama'f.'); PAN *Size (Ross 1988).

PWMc *tanisi 'finger eller tå': PON s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]nd 'Anhang, f., t.', s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ndi-(np[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]) 'f.'; MOK jaid, jandi-(n) 'f. eller t,f. oder t. af'; FRU Janit, janti-(n) 'f., Krabbeklo, f. af'.

PMC *tanitani 'skin disease': CHK senisen 'tinea, tinea', ([p.sup.w]oo)-senisen 'smell of tinea'; PONsens. i.e. caused by a fungus, musty or stale-tasting', ([p.sup.w]oo)-sense 'musty smell'; Ms. Jan. d) white patches on the skin”; KIR Tantan 'spotted (like the skin)'; KSRt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'a s.d.'.

PMc *tano 'earth, low': CHK soon. sonu-n, o-sona 'level the ground, level the place of, make it level (from g.)', sono-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aw) 'unlevel', (teki)-søn 'be l., humble', (mo)-sono-son 'meek, humble, humble'; PUL hoon, hono-'surface, g.', hono-(fiR) 'smooth, level, be flat', hoon 'below', hon 'be lower', (taki)-hon 'i.,be short' ; CRL sossol'l. be, be near the ground, l. to be in rank or rank'; STW sool 'land, ground'; WOL taalo, talo- "ground, ground, g."; PUA totano (sic) 'earth, g.'; PCK *tano; PON son 'adjusted, done, arranged, ordered'; KIR(te)-tano 'earth, earth'; POc *tanoq (Ross 1988) (SAA 'ano 'g.'; BUG tano 'erde, g.'; ARO one 'g.', [I]-'ano 'down'; KWA ano 'land, g.' ; PNK *-tano, 'down, to the west'). Cf. WOL saalo, salo-, taalo, talo- 'west, down', -salo 'down, down'. Note TON tano 'burial ground, graveyard', tanu 'to bury or mount (s.t.)'; BUGtano 'ground, earth', tanu-vi 'immerse, soak in water', KWA en 'earth', alu 'buried'; POc tanoq "earth" (Ross 1988); UAN *tanem 'bury, plant'. Cf. also PCK *itano ,)'put down, put away'. See Marck (1994:317) PMc *tano 'ground, ground, ground'.

PMc *tano-mi- 'to catch (water) in a container': in MRTsano; STW solo; WOL talo-mi-(i); PCK in *tano; PEO *tano (FIJ tano – a "large wooden bowl for preparing kava"; BUG tano "to collect").

PMc *tanifa 'a small fish': CHK senif senife-(n) 'herring, h. from'; PUL hanif, hanifa-(y) 'anchovies, a. from';CRL salif 'sp. from s.f.'; PCK *ta[nn]ifa; PON sayp 'sardine'; MOK jayp'f. sp.'; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i 'some kind of f.'



PMC *ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri 'tun': CHKse[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir, se[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri-(n) 'yellowtail t., t. af'; MRT sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ur 'big t.'; PULha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir 'yellowfin t.'; WOL ta[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iri 'King-Size-t.'; PCK *ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri; MRS([m.sup.w]e)-ja[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir 'pindsvinsfisk';KIR(te)-ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii 'yellow-fin t.' (Benderet al. 1984); PEO "'ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]jiRi 'pelagic fish'(Geraghty 1990) (SAA aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ili 'kingfish'; Aroa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri 'stim af marsvin'); UAN*OLKEYBOARDABLEIUN 'slags fisk' Jf .LAK tariga'a fisk'.

PMC *tao 'a frustration, silence': CHK sso 't. from acanoc', (fo)-sso 'step or rung of a ladder'; PUL ho, hoo-(n)'canoe t., t. from'; CRL sso, soo 'canoe t.'; WOL too'kano t.'; PUA ttao 'canoe t.'; PCK *ta[w[theta]]O,tta[w[theta]]O; PON soo-(ro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'ridge mast of the building'; MRS jewjew 'outrigger Spar, band between holm andoutrigger'; PEO *tao (BUG tao 'back, saddle of a mountain', [labu] tao 'to nail all over the place'; ARO aoao 'to stick out over the bottom'; KWA aoao 'shelf in a house') . Cf. Fu soka 'ribs of the boat'; PAN *senkar 'across the boat' (Blust1970:142).

PMC? *[tapa.sub.1] 'a fish': KIR(te)-taba 'of.'; KSR type 'a kind f.

PMC *[cover2] 'cheek': CHK Sap, sap-(n), sap-(n)'c., his c., c. of'; MRI is available. each (n); PUL cap-(n), cap-(n);CRL(au)-sap; CRN (au)-hap; STW soap, sepa-(n); WOL-Tape-(and); ULIcover-(l) 'his c.'; pua-cap, cap- 'c., gill (of fish)'; SNS cap (sic); PCK *Cover; PON s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'his c.'; MOK even 'c., his c.'; MRS yes, even-, although-; KIR output (with) 'be c.'; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]pae-(l)'his c.'; PEO *item (PPN *tapa 'edge'; SAA 'apa 'part, side, half'; LAU aba- 'hand, arm, part, blade'; BUGtaba 'coast'; ARO aba 'half, part, side'; ); UAN*tambarj 'page'. See also PCMC *[cover.sub.2] 'face,turn'

PMC *[tapa.sub.3] caught, hooked': CHK sap 'c.,s., stuck, hung'; PUL hap 'to be firm, s., c., to delay, to be reticent'; PCK *Tapa; UAN *taban.

PCMC *tapa, ka-tapa 'to speak, spoken': CHK a-pass 'say, pronounce', kka-pass, kka-pass-(n) 'speech, speech, utterance, language, to s., say, lecture , pages of', ed pass 'mention'; MRT a-pass "speak it", kka-pass "word, language"; PUL ya-paha 'to say that, pp. that', kka-pah,kka-paha-(n) 'speech, word, language, pp. of'; CRLa-paha 'say (s.t.)', kka-pas, kke-pas 'word, speech, speech, speech'; CRN kka-pah 'word, speech, speech, speech', a-paha 'say (s.t.)' '; STW a-pass 'to say', kka-pass 'word, language'; WOL kke-pate 'word, language, speech', kkekke-patekke-pate-pate 'to speak', -pate 'a fragment of speech (count)'; PUA cover 'say, announce', cover 's. about or announce (s.t.)'; PCK *foot, ka-foot, kka-foot, or *cover (all ChuukicIgs represented here have undergone metath., except PUA); KIRka-tabataba-a 'calling (a bird) to catch'. Cf. PUA paata,pata- 'cut out a piece' and kapakapa 'talk behind the back' This may be the same root as PMC *cover, cover-[kn]i 'to answer'.

PMC *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki 'raise, carry, carry in hands': CHK sap 'hold up with open palm (in hand)', sapa, sassapa 'hold (s.t.) hold up in open Palm tree'; MRT sapa 'carry (s.t.) with both hands to support (s.t. or s.o.)'; STW sepa'to support, hold up (s.t.)'; PON sape 'to c. (s.t.) in one's arms'; MOK japa-k 'an I. (s.t.) from behind up (asin catches turtles)'; MRS jepak 'support, persevere'; KIRtabetabe 'to engage in carrying, to carry repeatedly', tabe-ka 'to lift or (s.t.) take in hands', tabe-ki-(a) 'l. itup'; KSR taptap 'support, hold up, carry',tahp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 'support, uphold, or carry (s.t.)';PEO *tapa, tape (FIJ tabe tabe-a 'hold or carry in hands', tabetabe ' bring food into the basket'; SAA 'apa-a 'astaff'; ARO abaaba 'carry'); UAN *tapak 'palm of the hand, sole of the foot'. Cf. FIJ taba 'upper arm (of man), front leg (of animal), taba-(caca) 'one-handed, unequal, no game'; LAU aba- "hand, arm, blade"; SAA 'apa'leaf', 'apa'apa 'wing, shoulder, leaf'; PEO*taba. Cf. also PMC *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ni 'to help'.

PMC *tapa, tapa-[k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]]i 'to answer':PON sap[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to answer,a'; MOK japo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'a., talk back with (see above)',jap[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to give et a'; KIR taba-ka'to snap (like a dog), kick (like a horse)'; KSR top'an a', topu-k 'two a (so.)'; PEO *taba (BUG taba 'pay, pay, reward'). This may be the same stem as PCMC *tapa, ka-tapa 'speak, spoken'.

PMC *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki 'cut off, cut off': CHK sep 'z. B. to cut off, to cut off (from coconut leaves and pandanus leaves)', sepesep 'to cut off or cut off (from leaves and leaves)', sepe-si 'to e, it or cut it off'; MRI sepasep'cutting off', sepa-ke'c. below (leaves of anything)', sepa-te 'c. dun (coconut leaves)”; PUL hepa-ki-y ''; CRL. sapasap 'broad-bladed machete', sape-ghi 'to chop with a machete'; CRN hapahap 'machete', hapi-gi 'hack it with a machete'; STW sapasap 'big knife', sepa-ki 'c., to cut off, trim (s.t.)'; WOL Tape 'to c. (usually leaves)', tepa-gi-i 'c. it', tapetape 'big knife', PuA tapatapa 'two c., split', tapa-ki 'to split it'; PCK*tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki-; PON juice 'to c. in pieces', sepe'c. (s.t.) in pieces', sapa-k 'to reap (of bananas)'; MOK yes 'c. with upward motion', japa-k 'c.(s.t.) with upward motion'; MRS Jeep 'c. from 'trim, cut', jepa-k 'c., chop, chop off, divide, chop (s.t.)'; KSRsipsip 'c., to chop or cut into small pieces', sipi-k 'c., to chop or cut (s.t.)'. Cf. FIJ teba "an iron battle-axe", SAA opa "divide, separate"; BUG tobi 'fells (a tree), clears (the bush)'; LAU oba 'take away, separate, share'; KWA obu'at to cut down the undergrowth'; PMP *tabas 'c. fortunderbrush' (Blust 1980:92); PAN *tebaS 'to cut, to remove vegetation' (Blust 1986: 97). Cf. PMc *tafa, tafa-si 'to cut into pieces, cut'.

PMc *tapaka[w[thetha]]u 'a mat': STW sepaaw 'made of young coconut leaves'; WOL tapegau 'coconut leaf m.', tapegau-u-(vi) 'put a coconut m. on it'; PUA Tapau 'young, white, unopened coconut leaves'; PCK *tapakau; MRS jepkaw 'rough ground m.'; KSR sawpk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] bin. sewn from pandan leaves'; PEO *tapakau (TON tapakau 'large coconut leaves, suitable for use in making floor mats'; SAM tapa'au 'coconut leaf floor m.'). PUL sepaawo (sic) 'Coconut leaf m.' is clearly a loan from another Chuuk language, and the KSR form may be a loan from MRS.

PCMc *[tape.sub.1] 'busy': MRS jep 'workplace'; KIR tabe 'b., engaged, employed', (te)-tabe 'the state to be employed'. Cf. PMc *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki 'pick up, carry, carry in hands', PMc *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa,[st]apa-rji 'to help '.

PCMc *[tape.sub.2] 'face, turn': CHK sap, sap 'f., presents a face in a given direction', with directional suffixes sape-no, sape-no, sape-ta, sape-ta , sape-to, sape-to, sape-tiw, sape-tiw, sape-wow, sape-wow, sape-wu, sapewu, (a)-sapa 'to turn (s.t.) to f. in another direction' , (a)-sapasapi-n (ppewut) 'repel (witchcraft)'; CRL sape-(with dir. sup.) 'f. or further (toward)'; CRN hap' f. or further (in a certain direction)';WOL sape 'turn, f.'; PCK *Band; Km (ka)-taba-a 'distract one from what he is doing, interrupt', (ka)-taba-a 'give in, step aside to let another pass'. See KSR taep[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-l'to turn (s.t.)'. See also UAN *tamba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'side'. See also PMc *[tapa2] 'check'.

PMc *tapia 'bowl, constellation Delphinus': CHK sepi,sepiya-(n) 'b., dish, dish, dish, constellation D., its b.',sepiye-ni 'acquire (a b.)'; MRT root, root-(y) 'b., myb.'; hold PUL, 'b.' seize, hold (and) 'hold or possess (from.)'; CRL root, root-(l) 'b., his b.'; CRN-Hepi; STW root;WOL rug 'b., dish, constellation D.'; PUA printed (sic) "wooden board"; PCK *Wall; MoK received 'Tree b.'; MRSjapey 'Wood Tree, Constellation D.'; PEO *tabiRa (Geraghty 1990) (ARO versus "basket of coconut leaves"; BAU versus "wooden bowl"); UAN *tambiR + an. See BUG 'wooden mortar' table.

PCMc *[tap.sup.w]akea 'art of turtle': PON[sap.sup.w]ak[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hawksbill t.'; MOK[jap.sup.w]ako 'sp. from t.'; MRS [jeb.sup.w]akey 't. with multicolored shell'; KIR(te)-[tab.sup.w]akea 'species of T. with brilliant shell'. See also CHP [p.sup.w][aap.sup.w]a 't.' and CRN [p.sup.w][aap.sup.w]a 't.', which may well be derived from *[p.sup.w]akea.

PMC *[tap.sup.w]o 'district, department': CHK[soop.sup.w], [sop.sup.w]u-tiw, [sop.sup.w]o-notow, [sop. sup.w]o-notow, [sop.w]o. sup.w]o-ta,[sop.sup.w]u-n 'district, village, lower d., eastern d., upper d., d.of', -[sop.sup.w] 'half, division 'part (in optælling)'; PUL [ tires sup . w ] ; CRL[sob.sup.w] [sob.sup.w]o-(l), -[sob.sup.w]; CRN[hoob.sup.w] [hop.sup.w] o-(n); STW [soop.sup.w] [sop.sup.w]o-(n),[sop.sup.w]' WOL table, table; PCK *[tap.sup.w]o; PON [saap.sup.w],[sap.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'Country or household location, its 1st'; MOK[jap.sup.w] [jop.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-n 'land, ø, 1.of'; KIR (tea)-[tap.sup.w]o 'place'; KSR taef[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'half of'. Cf. FIJ tamo 'part, section'. See also PMC [tap.sup.w]o, [tap.sup.w]o-[sS]a 'to end, to end'. See also Marck (1994:322) PCMc *tap'o.

PMC *[tap.sup.w]o, [tap.sup.sup.w]o-[sS]a 'end, end':CHK [sop.sup.w] 'be at an e, ended', ( nope )[sop.sup.w]u-(n)'e. of it', [sop.sup.w]o-(noo-n) 'e, of it',(o)-[sop.sup.w]a 'make an e. of', (o)- [sop.sup.w]u-(ni) 'make a termination party for it', [sop.sup.w]e-(ey) 'bring to conclusion'; MRI [soop.sup.w] 'e. part (of the canoe)'; PUL.[hoop.sup.w] 'e.', [hop.sup.w]e-(lo) 'Finish Hero'; WOL taabo, tabo- 'e.', tabo-(gapi) 'western e. ',(ge)-tabo 'use s.t. before it disappears', sabo 'finished, completed'; PUA [taap.sup.w]o, [tap.sup.w]o- 'top, front, right'; PCK *[tap w]; PON [sop.sup.w] 'well e.g. a round ofkava'; MOK j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-d,j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]- 'the top of a growing tree' . and its base; MRS[jap.sup.w]e-(n) 'Point from, e.g. from'; KIR (te)-tabo 'e.'(te)-tabo-(ni-bai) 'finger'; KSR saef 'came to an e.', cf. FIJ tavo 'side, e., area (Geraghty 1983:374) PMP *tapus 'finished, complete' (Blust 1986:96) and cf. PMc *[tap.sup .w]o'District, Division'.

PMc *[tap.sup.w][u.sub.1] 'taboo, ritual restriction, betabu': STW (a)-[sop.sup.w][usop.sup.w] 'specified prohibitions, explanations of taboos'; WOL taabu, tabu- "taboo, prohibition, ritual restriction, protected by supernatural sanction (indicated by a taboo sign)"; PuA [taap.sup.w]u, [tap.sup.w]u, 'taboo, prohibition marked with taboo signs'; [PCK]*[tapw]u; KIR [tab.sup.w]u 'to be taboo, forbidden, holy', (te)-[tab.sup.w]u 'a taboo'; PEO *tabu (Futahu; PPN *tapu; SAA 'apu BUG tabu, LAU abu; ARO abu 'holy'; KWA abu). Cf. MRS [jab.sup.w]iy 'taboo' (archaic). See also PMc*[tapw][U2] 'future negative', PWMc*[aapw]a'no'.

PMc*[tap.sup.W][u.sub.2] 'Future negative': CHK-[sap.sup.w] 'Future negative, will not, must not'; MRT [sap.sup.w] 'future negative'; PUL -[hap.sup.w]. -[hop.sup.w] 'admonishing-negative'; CRL -[sop.sup.w], -[ssop.sup.w] and CRN -[hob.sup.w]'future negative', [soob.sup.w] 'no, I don't want to' ; CRN-[ha/f 'future negative', [soob.sup.w] 'no, I don't want to'; CRN -[hob.sup.w]' 'future negative';[haap.sup.w] 'no, I don't want to'; STW [sop.sup.w] 'future negative'; MRS [job.sup.w] 'not (future)', jahab'no'; PEO *tapu (ARO abu 'not'; KWA ahs- [preferred tovb.] 'not able to...'). See also PMc *[tap.sup.w][u.sub.1]'taboo, ritual restriction, being taboo', PWMc *[aap.sup.w]a'no'.

PMc *tara 'holy, sacred': PON sara-wi, sara-wii-(n)'sā, hā, a worship, magic, taboo, r. s. of'; MOKj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r-wi 'h., s., a service, to hold a service'; PNG s[UNKEYBOARDABLE ICON]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE ICON]-wi; 'H.'; PPON *tara-wii; MRS jar 'pray, go to church'; KSR (m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-tael 'h., consecrated, s.'. Note that Km tataro "to pray" and taro-mauri "to worship" are borrowed from Polynesian, e.g. SAM talo 'topray' (deprecated).

PMc? *tara, tara-[sS]i 'to see': PON sara-(da)'I. upwards” (since “upwards”); MOK glass 'bend head on back'; KIR #taratara 'to be awake, to see', tara-a(?< *taa-ra) 'to I. to, to see (s.t.)'; PEO *taRa-c 'I.up' (Geraghty 1990). Geraghty's reconstruction relies heavily on the Micronesian forms, which he appears to have misinterpreted.

PMc *tara 'squirrel fish': CHK near 'yellow lined. F'; MRT tariff; PUL hara 'a kind of red f.'; CRL Corn sp. of edible reef f.'; STW enemy; WOL arrives 'a bit off'; PCK *tare; PON content; MoK lion 'b. sp., a kind of soldier'; Mrs. Jerak; KIR(te)-taa 'a fish'; LAK looks like 'k. from.'; PEO *taRaqa'k. from. (Adioryx spinifer Holocendridac)” (Geraghty 1990). Compare TON would be 'a fish (red, edible)'.

PWMc *taraki 'to sail': CHK seres 'to sail, go on a sailing ship, furl a sail'; MRT serek 'to s., to sail'; PUL Herak; CRL Seragh, Seraghi-; STW Serac; WOL teragi'to s., journey on water'; PUA taleki 'to page, navigate';PCK *taraki; PON Serek; MOK j[KEYBOARD ICON]r[KEYBOARD ICON]k; MRS Jeraks. away', jerakrek 'to go sailing'.YA.P tareg 'two p.' is evidently borrowed from a Chuuk source. Cf. PPN *tere 'p., flow'.

PCMc *accumulate 'barracuda': CHK saraw, sarawe-(n)'b., b. of'; MRI Saraw; PUL haraw, haraw-(n); Cm. Sarah STW Saraw; WOL whistle; PuA talawa; PCK *accumulation; PON Sarah; MoK saw; KIR taawa See PMC? *European 'Barracuda'.

PWMc *tare 'peer group, level': CHK sassar, sassari-(n)'tā, floor (of the house), rung (of the stairs), shelf (of the closet), tāof'; CRL sare-(1), sari-(1) 'age companion of, peer of'; CRNhera-(n) 'his peer, his peer'; WOL taare tera-(Ii) 'generation, age group, G. of', -tare 'generation (count)'; PCK *tare; MRS jar 'crowd, any group of people as class, unit or department'. Cf. Fu tara tara-va 'to follow'; ARO areha 'relative by marriage', tare-ha 'a crowd' (a loan?); UAN *ta[rR]ap 'row.

PMc *tare, tare-ki- 'move, remove': CHK sar 'move, not stay in one place', sari-si 'm. (s.t.) from his place, r. (s.t.)', ssar 'raised or capable of being raised; WOL tera-gi-(i) 'to m. or pull (s.t.) up, m. it up , lift Es; PCK *tare,tare-ki-; KSR tal 'to in., rub, paddle fast', tal 'rootout', tael[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 'root (s.t.) out, pull out, pull up (a net)'.

PMc *tari 'child': MRT seri (sic) 'baby, C. (up to seven years old)'; PUL haar hari- 'c., infant'; CRL saar sari-;STW saar 'person born at the same time', sarisar 'born at the same time'; WOL saari, sari- 'c., boy, girl, baby'; ULI tar (fefel) (sic) 'prepubescent girl'; PCK *tari;PON seri 'here C.'; MOKjeri 'c.', jeri-([m.sup.W]eyn) 'boy', jeri-(peyn) 'girl'; PNG s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ri'c.';

MRS(ha)-jriy 'c., child, infant'; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]like 'c.' (probably t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li-k 'myc.'). Expressed final vowel without suffix form in MRT, MOK, PNG and MRS poses a problem. See also PCMc? *atarei 'child'.

PCMc *taro 'to be capable': CHK (o)-sor 'offer to aspirit' (i.e. 'to effect'), (enuu)-sor 'to effect mind', ([m.sup.W]aane)-sor 'more influential Man'; MRS[jet.sup.w]" 'can'; KIR tao.(n) 'embark, goat, embark'.

PMc *ta[sS]i- 'younger sibling': CHK seti-(p"itur) 'youngest child of a woman' (lit. 'rock child'), seti-(peen) 'little child'; MRS jati- 'y. S';KIR tad- 'er.of the same sex';PEO *tazi (Geraghty 1983);POc *tazi (Blust1978:108);';SAA'dsi- 's.f of the same sex';BUG tahi- s. of the same sex'; LAUasi 's.of the opposite sex'; ARO asi 's.f of the opposite sex'[sic]; KWA asi-[na] 'and s.'; LAK tari- 'and .s.of the same sex' ) See UAN *aji(h).

PMC *taSi 'salvand': CHK saat, seti-, -set; PUL hat,heti-; CRL saat; CRN-Hut; STW saat, sati-; WOL taati, tati-, saati, sati-; PUA taati, tati-; SNS-taati; PCK *tadi; PON-Samen; MOK jed; PNG sed; MRS(lov)-Jet; KIR taari, -tari; KSR (kifin)-te 'Salzvand'; PEO*tazi (Geraghty 1983); POC *tasik, dasik (Ross 1988) (FIJ taci; PPN *tahi; SAA'asi; BUG tahi; ARO asi; KWA asi; PKB *dasi); UAN *[tT]asik. Siehe auchMarck (1994309) PMC *tazi.

PWMC *tata 'Yellow Snapper': CRL saas 'sp. from y.s.'; WOL taate, teta- 'a kind of y. Fish'; PCK *tata; MRS jaj'a s.'.

PMc *tau, 'person': CHK sco-([tup.sup.w]), soo-(ma),soo-(pe) 'abandoned (dead) person, corpse, ghost'; PULhoo-([tup.sup.w]), hw-(ma) 'abandoned person, ghost'; CRL soo-(ma),soo-([tub.sup.w]) 'respectful term for one who is dead', soo-(pe) 'respectful term for ghost or ghost'; CRN hoo-([tub.sup.w]) 'respectful expression for someone who is dead'; PUA tou-([tup.sup.w]a)'spirit, god'; PCK*tau; MRS je-([teb.sup.w]) "spirit", POC *tau "body, person"; (LAK tau- 'man of an orclan in a place'; SAA 'au-[sala] 'to be a loafer, neglect his home'; ARO au-[henua] 'man of the place'); UAN *[tT]au 'person'. See also PMC *[tawu.sub.-1] 'master, expert', PMC ? [tawu.sub.2]'clan, family'.

PMC *[tau2] 'season, sun': CHK se-(fe) 'New Year'; MRI see 'season'; PUL hee-(fe) 'to be new'; CRNhee-(fe) 'new'; WOL tau-(wate) 'daylight, day, sun'; PUAtai-(dau) 'new, fresh'; PCK *tau-, tau-(fau); PON so'sun' (archaic); MOK jow 'sun'; PNG j[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]w 'Sun'; KIR taai 'sun', (te)-tai 'time, season, harvest'; PEO *taqu (PPN *taqu 'season'; SAA aau 'season of the southeast wind'; KWA au 'southeast wind'); UAN *taqun 'year, season'. See Marck (1994:309) PMC *ta[w[theta]u'sun, year, season'; YAP duw 'year', day 'tide time'. See also PCMc *ta[wθ]][u1], 'period', PCK *tau 'sunset'.

PMC? *[tau3] 'who?': CHK(i)s, (i)s-(n), MRT(i)s; SUBSTITUTE. (this)-is CRL (i)-this, (ii)-this; your CRN (i); STW; (ii)-you.WOL(i)-not; ULI(this)-tey; PUA (I)-teu; PCK *pain, -t[ae]u; MOC? (in)-I; PNG?(i)-his; KIR (en) tail; KSR s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. There are problems here. Cf. POC said "who?" (Ross 1988) (FIJ [o]-cei, [ko]-cei; PPN *hai; SAM ['o]-ai; SAA [a]-tei; BUG [a]-hai; KWA dai; LAK [e ]-re [e]-rei). Note that KIR ae 'who (relative pm.)' appears to be a borrowing from SAM(i)-ai 'who (relative pm.)'.

PMc *tautau, tau-ki 'to catch': CHK seese 'to engage in some kind of fishing with nets'; MRI see 'c. Fish with Anet'; PCK *tautau; PON say-k 'to c. (Fish)'; MOK jay-k'to try to c. or to c. on to (s.t.)'; MRS jjay 'two c.', jayi-k 'two c. (a falling object or fruit)'; KSR sas[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to c.', sau-k 'to c., grab (s.t.)'. Cf. LAUdau, dadau "hold, catch, take, touch", cf. PMC *[tawu3] 'kept, held tight'.

PMC *tautu 'sea urchin': CHK look, see; MRTsee; PUL tung (sic) "large growth stage of edible longspined puffer"; CRL Canine sp. from lagoon f., perhaps a goatfish'; WOLtausu a kind of fish'; PUA taudu; PCK *tautu; PON s[UNKEYBOARDBLESYMBOL]y ; MOK joy; KIR (not)-tauti 'a fish'; KSR stricter 'Needlefish' (Bender et al. 1984: 's.f.'); PEO *Routes (Geraghty1990) PMP *RoutesRoute[s] (Blust 1984-85). Cf. YAP t'uuy 'p.f.

PMC *tawaa 'to break, broken': CRL ssowa 'to b. (waves of ash on a beach), hatch (like an egg)'; CRN ssawa 'two B., Luke'; WOL tewaa 'to be broken, broken (like an egg), to be crushed' PUA tawa-(di) (sic) 'to be broken'; PCK *tawaa; PON sawa 'broken'; KSR looked 'to hatch'. Cf. SAA awaa 'convalescent from fever, to be over the attack'; KWA gwaa 'fracture healed from an abscess'.

PWMc *tawia 'one of several species of sea bass': CHKsewi, #sewii-(n) 'one of several sp. from b. fish, b. f. of'; PULhewiy, hewiya-(n) 'blue-colored s.b., b. from'; PCK *tawiya; PONsawi 'Grouper (Plectropomus)'; MoKjawis. B'; MRSjawey 'a giant s.b. of the genus Primicrops, s.b. of the genus Plectropomus'.

PMC *ta[w[theta]o, ta[w[theta]]o-ni 'drücken': MRSjewe-n 'niederdrücken, belasten (s.t.)'; KIR tao-na'press (s.t.) down, control (s.t.)'; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to press', to-n 'to press(s.t.)'.

PMC *[tawu-1] 'master, expert': CHK sowu-'master, expert'; PUL hawu- "expert, master, master"; CRLsou- "expert", sousow" "evil magician, sorcerer", CRNhou- "expert"; WOL sau-, tau- 'master, expert'; PCK*tawu-; PON so- 'expert in' and sav- 'prefix in rank titles'; KIR tia- 'expert' (shows metath.); KSRt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]srae) 'King of Kosrae'; poker *taqu, daqu 'expert' (FIJ dau 'expert'; TON tou- 'person who does s.t.'; SAM tau- 'owner, expert'); UAN *taquh 'connoisseur, expert'. Cf. FIJsau 'chief chief'; PPN *sau 'Rule, Rule' (the so safe PON-High titles are probably a PN loan). See also PMc*[tau2]'season, sun' and PMc ? *[tawu.sub.2] 'clan, family'. There are problems.

PMc? *[tawu.sub.2] 'clan, family': CHK sowu- 'c.(prefix in some c. names)'; PUL hawu-'c. (preferred in some c.names)'; CRN sou- 'c. (preferred in some c. names)'; WOL sau-'c. (preferred in some c. names)'; PCK *tawu-; PON so, sowi-, sawi- 'matrilineal c.'; MOK jow 'c'; MRS jewiw, jewiy'matrilineal c.'; KSR sow 'f.' (on loan from MRS?). See also PMc *[tau.sub.2] 'season, sun', PMc *[tawu.sub.-1] 'master, expert'.

PCMc *[tawu.sub.3] 'stored, preserved': CHK soo-(chik) 's. be, put away, kept', soo-(lur) 'wasted, discarded, lost'; PUL hoo-(lap) 'waste, waste'; CRL soo-(lap) 'waste, waste'; WOL tau 'be s., conserved, conserved'; PCK*tawu; KIR tau-a 'grasp, seize, hold back, hold, hold (s.t.)', tautau 'participate in holding or holding'. Cf. PEO *taRu 'lay down, place' (Geraghty 1990) (SAA 'alu 'lay, place'; BUG talu 'lay, place, appoint'; LAU alu 'lay, bury'; KWA alu 'lay, hold') . Cf. also PMc *tautau, tau-ki 'to catch'.

PCMc *ta[w[theta]][u1] 'period': CHK(faan)-sowu-n 't. of it, t. from'; PON(a)-nsow 't., often a point'; MRS Kiefer 'before was, was before'; KIR tai 'in duet.'. See PCMc *ta[w[theta]][u2] 'two walt'.

PCMc *ta[w[theta]][u2] 'wait': CHK sowu-ni 'greet (a visitor upon his arrival)'; CRL ssow, sousow 'waiting for prey (as a hunter), waiting patiently to catch a desired black fish', sou-li 'awaiting (s.o.), awaiting (s.o. 'arrival)'; CRN hou-ni 'expect (see above)'; WOL sau-li-(i)'wait for it, expect it'; PCK *tawu-ni; MOK jowjow 'to wait', jowi 'wait for (s.t.)'; KIR tai-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'wait for (see above)'. Cf. pon awii 'wait for (s.t.)'. See also PMc*[tau2] 'season, sun', PCMc*ta[w[theta]][u1] 'period'.

PMc *ta[w[theta]]u[iu] 'placenta, efterfødsel': CRLsee-(la) 's., a.' (Bender et al. 1984); WOL seeu-(le); MOK jou; PEO*tafui (SAA 'ehui). See KWA afuni-(na)'s.'; UAN *(tT)a(m)buni'a'.

PMc *tawu, tawu-ni 'put, put (of a fire)': CHK so 'be kindled, be kindled (of a furnace)', soo-ni 'put, kindle (of a fire or furnace)' ; PUL hoo (sic) 'kindle (like a fire or furnace)', hoo-ni hoo-ni-(y) 'build up (like a fire)'; PCK *tau, tau-ni; PONsow 'make (of a fire)', save-n 'make (a fire), add wood to (a fire)'; MOK jow 'light a fire', jaw-n 'light a fire'; MRS jaw 'kindle, kindle (of a fire), run (of an engine)'; PEO *tafu-n (Fu tavu, tavu-na 'roast, roast enmber', tavutavu 'second burning of land for planting'; BUGtafu-ni 'kindle, kindle [a fire]'). Cf. PMc *tawu, tawu-ni,tawu-na 'plant, bury'.

PMc *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na 'plant, bury': PONsow(di) 'bury oneself in mud (of crabs)', sow 'grave, graveyard'; MOK j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]wj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w'grave, graveyard'; MRS jaws 'slide underground or sand (fish), lay in sand where turtle lays eggs or skins coconut crabs'; KIRtautau 'to b.', tau-na 'to b. (s.t.)'; KSRtat[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'b., cover, fill in', tau-n 'b., cover, or fill in (s.t.)'. Cf. PEO *taRu 'to cover' (Geraghty 1990) and PEO *taRu 'put down, put down' (Geraghty 1990) (FIJ tau 'put down [of burden], put one thing on top of'; SAA 'alu' put down, put down ' ; BUG talu 'lay, place, appoint'; KWAalu, alu-a 'put, keep'; PKB tau 'put, lay down, deposit [money], lay [an egg]); UAN *taRuq 'lie down or away'. See also KSR toto 'b.', to-n 'b. (s.t.)'; and cf. PCMc*ta[w[theta]][u 1 ] 'period of time', PCMc? *For 'rest', PMc *tano 'ground, low'.

PCMc? *tawu or *co[w[theta]]a- 'a fish': CRL sau 'a lagoon f. (perhaps a sea bass)'; WOL soowe, sowa- 'kind off.'; MRS Jew 'Goat Fish'; KIR(te)-tau 'a f.'. The WOL and KIR forms are incompatible and probably don't both belong in this set. See also PMc *tauta 'sea urchin'.

PMc *short 'tritone or trumpet shell': CHK sewi, sewii-;MRT say; turn PUL, turn-; CRL say, say-; CRN face; STW said; WOL found;PUA found (sic); PCK *Card; PON s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] said; MOK five, PPC* found; KIR tau (? tauu) 'newt shell, trumpet shell' (Bender et al. 1984); PEO*taf uRi (Geraghty 1990); POc *tapuRiq, dapuRiq (ROSS 1988) (Fu davui; SAA 'bad' BUG tavuli; ARO bad); PMP *footRiq.

PCMc *taxe, taxe-ki- 'removed, cut out': CHK sa 'removed, emptied (from the earth oven), detached (from the support float)', ssa,sassa 'to walk', saa-si 'to remove (clothes) , ( from place), swing out (from arms or fishing rod), remove or peel off (from skin), exile', (a)-saa-(y) 'drive away, make running'; PULhaa-ki-(y) 'to remove (clothes or props)', haa-(lo) 'leave, not stay'; CRL ssa 'swing anns quickly while walking or running, run away, run away', saa-ghi 'lift, move, or remove (an object or spell)'; WOL saasa 'to peel off', saa-gi-(i) 'to peel off; PCK *tae, tae-ki-; PON sar 'peel (of skin after sunburn)', sansar 'cut open, peel', sansara-da 'be uprooted', s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'cut, peel with an instrument', sar[UKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL ]-k'to uproot, peel, pry'; MOK jar 'to come out', jar-(la) 'to pull out', jare-k 'to pull out'; KIRtae 'stripped, pulled out, pulled out, conquered', tae-ka 'uproot, tear at the root, pull on a fishing line to catch the hook in the mouth', tae(*[b.sup.w]oto ) 'uprooted remain".

PMC *te- 'one (with prefix for classifiers)': CHK e-, i-; MRT e- and se-eik) 'ten animals'; PUL is-; CRL. e- and sa-(naras) "thousand"; CRNa-; STW e- and sa-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aras)'thousand'; WOL se-; PUA from-; PCK *te-; PON e-; MRS ji-(ja), KIR non-, non-(uana); KSR is.

PMc *telu, telu-ua 'three, three (general)': CHK een,wunu- 'three' and ini-ik, ini-ika-(<*wunu-yik) 'thirty'; MRI Eel, Elu- and Eli-k; PUL se, se-, se-(uw) andyeli-ik; CRN urban; STW yellow, yellow; WOL yellow, vacation and holiday-like; uli yellow, sulu-; PUA deni- and deni-iki; PCK *not and *not-like; PON (e)-sil, sili-; MOK (e)-water, water, water, water (r), MRS-water, water-w; KIR keni-, tenu-(ua),teni-(ua); KSR high, high-(u); PEO*tolu (Geraghty 1983); POC *black (Ross 1988) (FU blank; PPN *black; ROT blank; SAA' black; BUG blank; ARO black; KWA blank; PKB*black); HAN *not. See PMC *ua 'general classifier by counting (added to numbers)'.

PMC? *tewe, tewe-mea 'goat fish': CHK woo-may 'sp.of g.'; CRL o-mey 'sp. of reef fish”; WOL woo-meye; PCK*[tw]o-m[ac]; MOK joo-me 'art of g.'; MRS jew-mey 'a g.(Mulloidichthys auriflama)'; KIR (not)-not; PEO *tewe (Fu toa 'two kinds of fish'). Cf. PON yomo 'g. (Parupeneus indicus)'

PMC *[tia.sub.1], 'stomach, stomach, abdomen': PUA diia,dia-; ULI sie-'s.', sii's. Pain'; MRS (law) property, possession, (law)-property, possession; POC *this (SAAs and ULAs; PKB *this); UAN*(tT)iyan 'stomach' cf. PPC *taka, taka-ni 'stomach, garden stomach closed'.

PMC? *[tia.sub.2], 'a fish': KIR(te)-tia 'of.'; PEO *tia (Fu tiatian 'a fresh water f.'). Cf. PMC *tia 'stomach, tummy, tummy'.

PCMC *tiaa 'border': CHK iya, iyaa-(n) 'b., b.of'; CRL tried-, tried-(l) 'b., b. from'; political WOL 'b., division'; PUA film (sic); PCK *option[option]; KIR (tea) card. See CHK my,my-(n) 'b., b. from'; PUL (of)-border, -border-(n) 'border,b., b. of' (loan from CHK?); MRS ketaha- 'b.'. Cf. also PPN*tia 'stake, post', *tia-ki 'guard'; UAN *effort'effort, post'.

PWMc *[tiap.sup.w]o 'growing top of a tree': CHK[wuwap.sup.w], #wuwap* p* e-(n) 'g. t. the palm tree or the banana plant”; CRL. [uwob.sup.w] o-(l) 'growing top shoot of leaves (like bananas)'; CRN uwa[b.sup.w] o-(n); WOL siyabo-(li) 'top (of trees, poles, poles), top, crest'; PCK *ti[wy][ap.sup.w]o; MRS[jiyab.sup.w] 'heart of the palm tree'. Compare CHK [kuwap.sup.w],[#kuwap.sup.w] [p.sup.w] e-(n) 'g. t. of a tree'.

PCMc? *tici 'bamboo': CHK iich, ichi-(n) 'b., b.of'; WOL shishi, shishi- 'a subfamily of b.'; PCK *tici; KIR(te)-Head 'Panda nut sprout for planting'.

PMC *tiku or *tuki 'tropical bird': CHK wuuk 'white-tailed t. b.', wuku-(par) 'bird with green body and red tail'; MRT uuk 'a bird'; PUL wouk't. b.', wuku-(chcha) 'red-tailed t. b.', wuku-(pak) 'a short white-tailed t. b.'; STW suuk't. B'; WOL suugu. sugu-'white-tailed t. b. with a long tail'; PCk *tuku; PON siik 'white seabird'; Mok Jik 'bird sp.'; KSR zik, zik 'a kind of bird'. Note that [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] is the expected reflex in the PON and MOK forms. Wuku- in CHK wuki-par) and PUL wuku-(hcha), wuku-(pak) seems to be the root of 'tail' (see PMc *iku 'tail') rather than this one.

PMC *mother 'mother': CHK iin, ina-(n) 'm., hisin.'; MRI clean. It is-; PUL yiin, yina-(y) 'm., my ind.'; CRL.iil, see (l); CRN iin, in-(n); STW iin, ina-; WOL. sila-(le) 'hisin.'; PUA-enemy, enemy-; PCK *Ink; PON iin, i [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'Mother, be i.'; MOK ina-(a) 'to be in.'; PNG ine's in.'; MRS jine-; KIR means (to be) 'to be m.'; PEO*mother (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ-mother; FIJ*mother; BUG-mother[s]; ARO-mother-[mother]; PNK*mother); PAN* Ink (Ross 1988). Cf. KSR ni, I am 'a mother'

PCMC *tinitini, tini-mi 'to roast, roast': PON iniin 'to cook, r., b., toast', ini-m 'to cook, etc. (s.t.)'; MOKiniin 'to cook', ini-m 'to cook (s.t.)'; PNG iniin 'tocook'; MRS (yik)-yin 'cook fish on stone', jin-(bahat) 'smoke, dirt', jin-(kadwel) 'b. on hot stones'; KIRtintin 'two r., b.', tini-ma 'two b. (coconut), for frying (s.t.)'. Cf. POC *tunu 'to fry' (Fu tunu, tunu-ma, tunu-ca 'to warm food'; PPN *tunu 'to cook over an open fire'; RED funu, funu- 'to cook [especially by cooking]' ; SAA uunu 'kindle a fire, r. on embers'; BUG tunu 'stain, blob, or scar caused by burning'; KWA unu-a 'cook vegetables by steaming in leaf-connected bamboo'; LAK tululu 'burn' [of a burn]', [e]-tululu 'hot taro'); UAN *tunu 'after r.'. Cf. also LAKsililu, sululu 'to sing'.

PMc *t[iu]p.sup.w]u 'to be born, to give birth': CHK[wuup.sup.w]", [wup.sup.w]u-(n) 'child, offspring (of male) nur), cēof', [wup.sup.w], [wuup.sup.w] 'be fertile, have growth, bear young', [wup.sup.w]u-(tiw) 'b be.' ; MRT [up.sup.sup.w]u-(tiw)'be b.'; PUL [wup.sup.sup.w]u-(tiw) 'be b.'; CRL[ub.sup.w ]u-( tiw) 'b to be'; STW' [up.sup.w]u-(to),[sup.w]u-(to) 'b to be.'; WOL subu 'b to be.'; ULI subu- 'b be';PCK *[tup.sup.w]u;PON [ip.sup.w][iip.sup.w] 'be descendant of descendants', [ip.sup.w]i- ( di) "b be."; MOK[ip.sup.w]-(di) "b be."; MRS [jib.sup.w]i- "grandmother, granddaughter"; KIR [tib.sup.w ] u-(na) 'his grandparents, his grandchild'; PEO *tubu 'to grow' (Geraghty (1983); POc *tubuq 'to grow' (Ross 1988) (FIJ tubu 'to grow'; PPN *tupu 'to grow; to jump up '; RED fupu 'grow, ascend'; SAA'upu, upu'upu 'to swell'; BUG tubu 'to swell', tubu-[gna] 'his mother's brother'; LAU ubuubu 'thick, be deep' ; ARo ubu 'to swell'; KWA ubu 'to swell, lift'; PKB *tubu 'to grow'); UAN *(tT)umpuq. Note that PON[dip.sup.w],[dip.sup.w]i-(n) 'exogamous matrilineal clan' is probably on loan.

PMC *tiro, tiro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to peer, have look': CHK (e)-yira 's. out, seek; MRI ir-ne to observe (s.t.)'; PUL yiro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'search for (s.t.)'; PCK *iro, iro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON iroyr 'to see in the distance or s. to see one's own reflection',iro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to s. on'; MOK iro-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to s. by (s.t.)'; MRS jejer 'to seek', (kap)-jer, (kap)-[jer.sup.w] 'mirror'; KSR you 'to visit, look', iro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], irior-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'look, look' peck at'; PEO *tiro (Fu tiro, tim-va 'saw s.t. reflected in water or a glass'; PPN *tiro 'to contemplate'; SAA 'iro, 'iro'iro 'see, seek, see'; BUGtiro 'see, mirror' ; ARO iro 'to see', iro-hi 'to look into'; KWA ilo 'to look at'); UAN *ti(n)Daw. KIRtiro-a 'to inspect, scrutinize (s.t.)' is a borrowing from a Polynesian source, e.g. SAM lilotilo 'look, look'. Note the unexpected absence of an initial consonant (t or s) in the KSR form, which may be a loan from PON. Cf. LAK tiloho 'to look around or search without being seen'.

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PWMc *tisi, tisi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'two point orface': CHK iti- 's., beward, f.,' iti-(if) 'p.away', itiit 'direction in which s.t. Faces or at which it points', on-his. or f. against (s.t.)'; MRTiti-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'on s. by (s.t.)'; PUL yiti- 'lie (like a stick), f. (like a house)', yiti-(wenewen) 'f. straight east or west', yitiit 'to pp. yitiiti-(wow) 'stick out', yiti-ni-iy 'top, out'; CRL init 'p., points to project'; STW' it, in- 'to p.', in-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'p.(s.t.) out'; WOL from 'to be straight, out out'; PCK *tidi,tidi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON idi- 'p.', idi-i 'to', idiidi-(da) 'to point out, identified'; png id 's.'; MRS jit, jite-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to go in a certain direction'. Cf. KIR tiri 'simply, merely, only, just', tiro-carefully examine or examine (s.t.)'; KSR srisrsrisr 'two p.,hint', srisr-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 's. to 'imply (s.t.)'. PEO *tuz[iu]'s. (Geraghty 1983) (PPN *nose; SAA nose; BUG nose; ARO nose; LAK ill, ill).

PMc *tiSaki 'to ask': PON (pe)-yd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to a. question', id[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to ask(see above)', (ke)-yd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k ' to a. (see above, honorable)'; MOK-idok; PNG-ID[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k; MRS jitek,ka-jjitek; KIR itiraki 'to ask, to make inquiries', (te)-titiraki 'a question, an inquiry'; KSR siy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'toa, request, query (so.)'. Cf. SAM 'aisi 'to a', from which a passive *'aisa'i could be derived. Cf. also PCK*[k[theta]a[t[theta]ieki 'to ask', PCK *katia, katitia 'to ask, a question'.

PMc? *to[ae] 'inherit': PUA due-ni 'follow, inherit'; PON sooso; MOK joojo 'i., souvenir, memory, memory'; Mrs. Jew (leave); ? KIR toa 'all inclusive, fully delivered'; PEO * for "the rest". Nor can the inclusion of WOL (shigi) “careful treatment, careful consideration” in this series (Bender et al. 1984, Geraghty 1990) be justified. There are problems here.

PMc *[toka.sub.1] 'to chop': MRS jek, jekjek 'to cut, to chop, to chop, to prune, to greet with hands'; Km oka-a (showing the loss of *t before *k) "cut off (pandanus fruit) with a leaf attached to a stick"; PEO (BUG toka 'to fell [a tree], [s.t.] to chop down').

PMc *[toka2] 'latte': MRS jek-(pad) 'latte(of a house)'; Km(te)-oka'r. (of a house)' (shows the loss of *t before k); PEO *[dt]oka (FLI doka 'first pole of the house'). Cf. CHKwoo 'vertical rafter'

PMc *toki 'to bite, to peck': PON sok 'to bite (used in relation to rats'); Km(te)-oki 'chisel' (shows the loss of *tfør k); POc *toki (FLI toki 'to peck [of birds]'; TON toki'adze'; SAA 'o'i 'to break (s.t.) into pieces'; ARO o'i 'to hit with an axe'; KWA o'i 'cut wood '; LAK toitoi 'a sawtooth pattern'). Note that the KIR doublet (te)-toki'meißel' seems to be a borrowing from SAM for 'adzc' since it doesn't show the loss of t before k.

PMC? *toko 'omen': CHK oo, woo 'omen',oo-su-ni 'to interpret or read (an omen) (probably oo-su- is a back-formation from an intransitive *oo-s derived from a transitive *oo- ; if-'warn'); UAN *teges.

PMc *tokolau 'north, from north': CHK weene 'name of island in north-easterly position in Chuuk Lagoon'; PULweele 'name of the same island'; MRS [jek.sup.w] lag, [jek.sup.w] elay 'wind from n.'; PEO *tokalau (PPN *tokelau 'n., north wind'; FIJ tokalau 'northeast wind'); UAN *tokalaud. Cf. SAAooru 'wind, blow (a loan)'; LAU oru "wind, blow"; BUG sokara lau "a south wind". See also PMC *lau 'pool, garden liquid'.

PMC *vi, vi-med 'stick, walking stick': PULL you, you; STW if-; WOL soup, meat; PUA door, dock; PCK *right; PON market-n;MRS [jek.sup.w] e-n; KIR ooko, (not)-oko (shows the loss of *t before k); PEO*[dt]oko, [dt]okon-a (FIJ toko 'stopper, strut, support rod', doko 'stick'; PPN *toko); UAN *character. Note: CHK, MRT and PULwook, Woku-n' Cane, ca von', may be related but are not inherited forms. Cf. YAP is a walking stick.


PMC *towu 'sugar cane': CHK woow, #wowu-; MRI wow; PULwoow; CRL wow wowu-; STW wow; WOL wou, wou-; PUA-dou 'sliced ​​pieces of breadfruit (counting classification)'; PCK*towu; PON sew, sew; KIR(te)-tou 'fruit of pandanus (chewed like sugar cane); KSRt [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] POC: *topu (SAA 'ohu; BUG ehu [a loan]; AROhu; KWA ofu; LAK tovu); PAN * CebuS (Blust 1984-85). See FIJ dovu; TON too (probably a loan). See MRS taw, probably a loan.

PCMC *tou 'dodge, parry (in battle)': CHK(fi)-yuuw, (fi)-wuuw 'fight', (e-fi)-yuuwu 'hamf do.'; PUL (fii)-yoow (sic) 'to f.'; CRL (fi)-yoow 'tof.s.o.'; KIR toutou 'dodge to one side (as a head)', toutou-a 'repel'. See also KIR(i)-tau 'to box, f. with fists'.

PCMC? *t[ou]wai 'future negative, won't': WOL-tewai; PUA towai 'w. n., not (in negative commands)'; KIR tuai 'no more'. Cf. PCK *-taa[i[theta]] 'no more' (aspect marker).

PMC *tuki 'tropical bird': see PMc *tiku.

PMC *tuki, tukituki 'to knock': CHK wusuus 's. ormash with pestle, wusi's. The'; MRI use 'to s. or mash(s.t.)'; PUL wuk (sic) 'to knock', wukuuk 'to p. (astaro)', wuki-i-(y) 'to (as poi)'; CRL ughuugh 'dopounding', ughu-w's. foodstuffs for pasta'; STW suku, yuku-(w)'p. The'; WOL sugu-u's. it, hit it, beat it, hammer it';PCK * tuki, tukituki; PON sighs 'two P. (s.t.)'; MOK juk 'to s., to hit', juki 'to s. (s.t.)'; MRS [jik.sup.w] [jik.sup.w]'p. Breadfruit or Taro', [jik.sup.w] [jik.sup.w]iy's. or with it'; KIR ikiiku 'to engage in mashing of breadfruit', (te)-ikiiku 'stone-shaper', ika 's. or porridge (food)', iku-a 'mashit'; KSR tuk, tuktuk 'two p.', tok 'pound'; POc*tuki, tukituki (FIJ tuki 'to hit, knock, hammer, press', PPN*tuki 'to hit'; ARO u'i-[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'i]'to hit [by rain]'; LAK tutu -a 'to swipe finger, type [like a tattoo needle]'); UAN *Tuk, TukTuk. Cf. WOL susu(sic) 's., hit, beat, hammer'; YAP tuguw 'butter, betel nut pillow'. Note that [theta] is the expected reflex in the PON and MOK forms.

PMC *[tT]ulu- 'young sapling, sprout': MRS [jil.sup.w] 'coconut tree core at upper end, growth from old root or branch, yēs, emerging, sprouting'; KSR sulu-(n)'y. S. of, offspring of'. KSR solo 'y. s., to sprout', sololo 'to be full of sprouts, covered with sprouts'. See also PEO *juli 'taro sucker' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ suli- 'banana or taro sucker'; PPN *suli 'young sprout'); UAN *sulih 'sprout, shoot'. Cf. PMc *ili 'sprout, scion (of plants)'.

PMC? *Do 'freshwater eel': KSR ton; PEO *tun (PPN*tun 'freshwater c.'); UAN *[tT]u[nn]a 'e.'; PAN *tuNa'c.' (Wolff 1993). MRS [ten.sup.w] 'Freshwater Eel' is an apparent loan from KSR - these eels are not found in the Marshalls but are known from the eastern Carolinas.

PMC? *[t]upa 'fish poison': WOL soup supa-(li)'f. s.', f.s. itself'; POc *beet (FU pigeon 'Derristrifoliata'); ON * Tuba 'Derris spp. (Blood 1984-85). See also PMc *upa 'on the vine', PMc? *iwu tree (Barringtoniaasiteca).

PMC *'turn 'house mail': CHK living, gold-(n)'supporting s. of a h., s. of'; MRI watch 'p.'; PUL gold n.p. from'; CRL uur 'main p.', bottom-(li) 'use or post'; STW clock 'h. p.', ura-ni 'put on post'; WOL-chapter, chapter-(li)'h. s., h. s. from', sura-a 'put a post under it'; PUA cloud, cloud (sic) 'h. P'; SNS campaign “h. P'; PCK *mother; PON uur'; MRS jewer,jiwre-(n) 'pillar, pillar, s., rod, s. of'; POc *tura (SAA'ure and ULA 'ura 'to get up'; ARO ura 'two teeth'; KWA ula 'to stand'; LAK tura 'vertical wall bar', tura-[kakavo] 'house post'). Cf. FIJ heavy 'p.'; UAN *Tour. The MRS length requires an explanation.

PMC? *turai 'barracuda': PON sur[epsilon]; MOK jurors Schlaganfall b.'; MRS [jir.sup.w]ey; KSR acquired. Vgl. PCMc *work'barracuda'.

PMc * turi 'to string': CHK wuri, #(e)-wuru's.(s.t.) together'; PON iirs. of St. (of flowers or fishes)'; MOK ir's. iron things, work while ironing”; PPC *turi;PEO *tuRi 'thread, lace (fish)' (Geraghty 1990).

PMc *turu 'drop': CHK surusur 'drop', ssur 'large drop (liquid)'; PUL huri-(tiw)'d. down'; CRL ssur 'to dribble', ssuru-(tiw) 'd. down, run down'; PCk *Turu Km tuu 'to trickle'; KSR tul 'd.,drop'; PEO 'to d.' (Geraghty 1983) (Fu turn 'd., drop [ofliquids]'; PPN *tulu; SAA 'uru'uru 'to spill, dribbleout'; BUG turu-(bel); PAN *tuDuq (Ross 1988). Cf. WOL sseru 'tip of a canoc paddle (ie d. point?)'; PON ker 'to curl'.

PMc *tu[sS]u 'Finger, Zeh': CHK e-wutu, e-wutu-(n)'f., be f.', e-wutu-(ros) 'with curved Fingers be',(if ) ; -ke-wutu-(Rose) 'Person with curly fingers', -wut 'f.(cc)'; MRT of-Wood-(n) 'Hand f.'; PUL of-wool-(n) 'hisf., -of-wool 'f (cc)'; CRL a-ya-wut, a-yuttu-(l) STW ya-wut'f.'; WOL ga-ttu 'f'-ga-ttu. -ge-ttu 'f.(cc)'; ULI ga-ddu(l) 'f. af'; PuA ka-ttu 'f.',-ka-ttu 'f. (cc)'; PCk *to-be-hearted; PEO *tuz[iu]'point' (Gerahgty 1983) (TON tuhu 'f., to point', tuhu'i 'to point at'; Fu dusi 'to point with thef.', i-dusi 'index f.' ' '; THAT 'used 'to point'; FEHLER gefunden 'to point'); UAN *[tu[n[theta]/Zuq 'Zum Point' Vgl. Mehr (ha)-ddiy 'f., tå'; KSR srisrsrisr 'outward, Hinweis', srisr-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'outward, Hinweis'.Vgl. also PWMc *tanisi 'Finger or Zeh'.

PMc *[tuu1], 'stand': CHK wu 's. upright, upright', wuu(ta)'s. up', (kke)-wu 'raise up, do. build', (e)-wuu-w 'do it s., build it'; PUL wuu-(ta)s. up, arise', (kka)-wu build (like a house)'; CRL uu-(ta)s. on', (a)-yuu-w 'to build (s.t.)'; WOL suu 's., assume an upright position'; PUA duu 's' PCK *tuu; PON uu 'stand'; MOK u's.', uu-(da)'s. high'; MRS jiw(thanks) is up'; KSR tu 'above'; PEO *tuqu (Fu tuu; PPN*tuqu; BUG tuu; KWA uu LAK tuhu-(mapa) nod head up); UAN*(tT)uquD. See KIR tei's.', tei-(rake)'s. high'. See also PMc *tuu 'stopped, stopped'.

PMc *[tuu2] 'stopped, stopped': CHK wu 'be s.,h. (from s.t. in motion)', (e)-wuu-w) 'to stop', (kke)-wu 'to stop, to pause', (kke)-wuu-(no) 'to stop completely, to cease, stop ', wuwi-(iti) 'stop until'; PUL (ka)-wuu-(lo) 'to stop', (ya)-wuu-we-(lo) 'to stop (s.t.)'; CRL uu-(lo)'stop', (a)-yuu-(lo) 'stop s.t., stop it';PuA duu 'stop'; PCK *tdii; PON uu-(di) 'to stop (from moving objects)'; KSR tu 'stop'; PEO *tuqu (FLU tuu 'to be in one place'; TON tu'u 'to stop, to stop'); UAN *(tT)uquD. See also PMc *tuu, 'to stand'.

PCMc *Te-i., -Te-a 'remove rough edges': CHK(e)-si-i-(y) 'remove or remove edges of pandan leaves'; KIR te-a tete-a 'smooth (s.t.) from, remove roughness from (s.t.), trim'.

PMC *Teka or *Tika 'penis': CHK see; PUL bee; PON siik'p. (of an infant)'; KSR is looking for. s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ka-(n)'stock, tree, s. of, pole of, bar of', s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ka-(l) 'his p.'.

PCMc *[Tep.sup.w]u 'drop': CHK #[sup.sup.w],sup[sup.w]u-n 'drop, i.e. from', [ssup.w] 'd. , i.e. below (asrain)', [ssup.sp.w]i-iti 'sprinkle or d. on (see above)'; CRL[ssub.w] 'drop (of liquid)' i.e. below'; WOL ssobu ssebu 'to drop, d., to trickle, to pour, to drip'; PuA [doop.sup.w][dop.sup.w]-u 'drops of water', [dop.sup.w]u 'two d.';PCK *[Toop.sup.w]u, [Top.sup .w]u-, [Top.sup.w]u or *[Teep.sup.w]u, [Tep.sup.w]u-, [Tep.sp.w]u; PON [sop.sup.w] 'to be saturated with pomade or hair tonic'; KIR [teb.sup.w] u-(nau) 'to spray (as heavy raindrops)'. Cf. Fu tobu 'pool of water, bathing hole'.

PWMc *Ter[ae] 'meet by chanee': CHK ser 'meet by chance', sere-ni 'meet (see above) by chance, by chance'; ARROW here-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'to meet, to meet'; WOL sere 'to hit, approach, run aground'; PCK*Tere,Tere-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r 'walk on the ground'; FRU jerah-(tah) "accident, bad luck". MRs yar 'canoe or ship to the beach'.

PCMc *Ti-'wir (inclusive, as subj. marker)': CHK si-; MRTsi-; PUL hello; CRL Si-; CRN ID; Srwsi-; WOL si-, ULI si-; PuA di-; PCK*'fl..,. PON see 'you (excl.)'; MRS je-(n) 'you (incl.) areto'; KIR you-.

PMc *Correct 'penis': see PMc *Incorrect


PMc *Tiri 'to squirt, to squirt': CHK siir siri-, sir 'urine, to urinate'; PUL. hiri-(n), hir 'urine of, to urinate';CRL. siir sir 'to urinate, to urinate'; STW Mr. Mr.; PCK *work; WOMAN? jjir-"smooth, lubrication"; KIR te 'splash, gush'; UAN*ciri Cf. Fu tiri 'drops, drops (of liquids)'; ARO iri, iri-si 'pour'; KWA siri 'drip through' Note that KIR mim 'to urinate' is either on loan from a PN source or an inherited reflex of POC *mimi (PPN *mimi; FIJ mii mimi); *UAN miRmiR.

PCMC *Toa or *Towa 'edge, side': CHK soo-(no) 'fars.', soosoo-(ne[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i]) 'be near, be on s.towards'; PUL hoo-(lo), hoohoo-(lo) 'be or move a short way'; WOL soowe, sowa-(li) 'eō, outside, back, over there, eōof'; PCK *Towa; KIR Toatoa "has four sides".

PMC *Toka 'to settle down, get off': CHK so, soo-(tiw) 'to fall out (as starch obtained from washing grated arrowroot or cassava), a., to come to rest, to land (from flying things) '; MRT soo (sic) "to land (of flying things)"; PUL hoo (sic) 'to land (like an airplane)', hoo-ni-(y) 'to lower it to the ground (as a fish trap)'; CRL soo-(tiw) and CRN hoo-(tiw) 'a., land (of flying things)', sooso 'to put a trap in the water'; STW so,soo-(tiw) 'land, disembark'; WOL sogo 'stay on the ground (as waste)'; PCK *Toka; PON sok 'to land (from s.t. that flies), touch the ground with your feet in the water'; MOK jok 'toswoop', jok-(di) 'to land (of birds or planes)'; MRS[jek.sup.w] 'to s. (of liquids), a, land'; POc *toka (FIJtoka 'to be placed, to be placed, take a boat'; PPN *toka 'to seat, settle, coagulate'; SAM til'a 'to be still, s, below [of a liquid], bottom'; SAA ' o 'a 'to settle down [of birds]'; ARO'o'a 'to s. [of birds], stay, dwell'; LAK toa 'to stamp down, [el-toa 'place where one jumps, lands') . KIR toka'be placed on, take passag e, get on' is clearly a borrowing from a Polynesian source.

PMC *Toko 'assemble, staple': PUL hole-in-(false-y)'to c. it'; PON (min)-soak 'to s. up',(not)-sok[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'top. (Ding) on'; FRAU? jewkay'p. von Kokosnüssen”; PEO *wie, wie (FIJ soqo, soqo-na; soqo-ni'gather'; BUG hogo-ni 'speichern'; KWA to'o[auch] 'gather, assemble'). See also PPC *uxo 'collective, collective'

PWMC *To[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'to try': CHK(ee)-sso[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to s.t. that is unattainable, reach and miss the goal, t. and fail',(ee)-sso[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-e-(y) 'suffice and fail'; PON so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to t., try, taste(s.t.)', so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oso[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'temptation'; MOK jo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]jo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to t., key', jo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't. or taste (s.t.)'; PNG so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'two t.'; MRS(yidah)-[je[KEYBOARD ICON].sup.w] [je[UNKEYBOARD ICON].sup.w]'to t., examine, inspect'. See FIJ saga 'to t. hard to do orget s.t.'.

PCMC? *For 'at rest': CHK se 'to be still (from fear, emotions, pain, wind), calm, from r., to set (from sun), (a)-se 'r., vacation, to rest (from the Work); PUL hee (sic) 'rest, be calm', (ya)-heehe 'to r.', (ma)-hee-(lo) 'calm down (like wind, sea or anger), be healed (as disease) )'; CRL se-(lo) 'be still, calm, relaxed', (a)-se 'to the right, take it easy', (a)-se-(w) '(reflexive) to r. take it easy, relax'; CRN (a)-heehe 'be restful, calm, relaxed', (a)-hi-(y)'tor. oneself'; WOL. (ga)-see "to the right, relax"; PUA dee'to r.'; PCK *T shirt; MRS Jew 'quiet (weather) troubles'; KIRtea 'lazy'.

PMC *For 'soak, saturate': CHK sooso 's., dive, set a fish trap', hav-ni 's. that, dip it'; PUL hoo (sic) 'to lower (as a fish trap)', buh-ni, hoo-naa-(lo) 'to lower (as a fish trap), pp. (as clothes)'; CRL sooso 'a fish trap for lowering the fish trap into the water', sea-li 'to catch (a fish or small animal)'; CRN hoo-ni to catch (a fish or small animal)'; STW soo-ni. it, dip it in water'; PCK *Too, TooToo, Too-nine; PON so full, sea-n'tos. (s.t.)'; MRS evjew'; KSR tw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]tw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],twetwe 'to wash, dip', twe-n 'to wash, s.'; POc *coo (FIJtoo 'filled, saturated with liquid, saturated', [vaka]-for-ra 'to be saturated or filled'). Cf. UAN *cemcem 'to moisten' (SAA toto, toto-hi 'to s. in, to be absorbed into (liquid)'; ULA toto-(qini) 's. in, s. up'); PMP *celeb'sink, submerge' (Blust 1989:131) and PMP *ceNeb'immerse' (Blust 1986:29). Cf. also PMC *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na 'to plant, bury'.

PMC *TooToo "holds, fastens": CHK sooso, soosoo- "holds, fastens"; PUL hooho 'Lashings'; CRL sooso'line attaches outrigger float to outrigger boom'; WOLsoosoo, hav-(ti-i) 'stringer pose lashing to canoe, tie or bindit'; PCK *TooToo; MRS Jew 'Connection between spars and booms'; KIR(te)-tcaoo 'the vertical bars of an outrigger (connecting floats to the outrigger)'.

PWMC *Toro-mi 'sucks up (s.t.)': PUL hom-mi-(y) 'sucks it up (like coffee), 'inhales it (like cigarette smoke)'; CRL soro-mi and CRN horo-mi 'to drink (liquid) through a straw, to siphon (liquid)'; WOL sossom 'suck, drink, sip', soro-mi-(i) 'drink, sip, suck'; PUA dolo-mi 'suck it, drink it with a straw'; PCK *Toro-mi-; MRS [jer.sup.w] e-m 'suck up, suck up, absorb'; KIR too-ma 'to taste, to slurp (s.t.)'. See KSRt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'to suck',t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL](s.ts.ts .ts SAA omi 'to suck (s.t.)', omi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'to suck', 'ono, 'ono-mi 'to swallow', tono, tono-hi 'to drink', BUG sono, sono-vi ' to swallow'; ARO ono-mi 'to swallow', gono, gono-hi 'to drink'; KwA ado-mi-(a),ono-mi-(a) 'to swallow'. Cf. PCMC *woro- 'to swallow'.

PCMC *Towa 'Lied, Seite': se PCMC *Toa.

PWMC *Towu 'to leave': CHK su, suu-(no) 'misfortune (on a journey), 1st, d.', (o)-suu-(w) 'to say goodbye (on a journey)' ; PUL how (sic) 'to cast off or sail'; CRL suu-(16)'I., d., go' WOL sou 'd., I., set up, start out',(ga)-sou-(vi) 'save to, see (him) off ' ; PCk * Towu; PON sou 'move, change residence'; MRS jiwe-(ney) 'go on a journey'. Cf. PCk *tuu 'to run away'.

PCMc *Tuu-ki 'to be open': CHK ssuu-k 'o. be, open, open', suu-ki 'o. it', (o)-ssuu-ku 'makes it alive.'; MRT suu-ke 'two o. (one door)'; PUL huuhu 'be o.', huu-ki-(y) 'o. The'; CRL suusu 'to open', suu-gh 'to be', suu-ghi 'of. (s.t.)'; CRN huu, huu-g, huu-gi; STW suu-ki'o. The'; WOL suu-gi-(i)'o. The'; PUAdu-ki (sic) 'o. (s.t.)'; PCk * put, put-to-; KIR uu-ki 'open', uu-ka 'o. (s.t.)' (shows the loss of *t before *k).

PWM? *Tuuru 'wade': PON suur 'sink in the mud, pull. in the mud'; MRS jiwir, jjiwir 'mount, put on, mount, step'. See PEO "tuRu (Geraghty 1990) (ARO uru; KWA ulu; LAK tulu).

PMC? *ua, 'icndon, come'; Kill CHK- ? 't', wuwo-(or) 'the shin, the front of the leg between the knee and the ankle'; KIR(te)-ia'v'.; PEO*uRat 'v. (Geraghty 1990) (Fu ua 'v., muscle'; SAA uleule and ULKA ulaula 'senew, t., v.'; *Ua-[p.sup.w]ut[iu] 'high tide': PON uu 't'.'mok u't';MRS yi-([h.sup.w]ij) 'h.t'.;KIR(te)-ia 'estate of t.', ia-[b.sup .w]uti 'be h.t.'; PEO *Rua 'h.t.' (Geraghty 1983, 1990) (Fu ua 'wave' sAA lue and ULAlua 'the rising wave'; KWA lua 'h.t.'. )

PMc *[ua.sub.3] 'neck': CHK die, die-(n); PUL wow,wow-(n); Blacklist uw, uw-(l); STW yay; WOL grass, hyle-(le); PUA Face (in); PCk*ua; PEO *Root (PPN *root; SAA lue; ULA lua; BUG lua-l gnaj; Kwa lua-[na]); UAN * Rugan. See MRS (and) of (her)-. See Poc*Kohle (Ross 1988).

PMc *-ua 'general classifier by counting (appended to digits)': See for example PMc *rua 'two', PMc *ru[ao]-ua 'two (general class of objects)'; PMc *telu, telu-ua 'three, three (general)'; PMc *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-nawulu 'five, five (general), five (living), fifty'; PMc *walu, walu-ua 'eight, eight (general)', PCMc *Siwa-ua 'nine (general class of things)'.

PCMc *uae, ka-uae 'to be changed (by men)'; CHK he-was 'to w.', he-was-(ri) 'w. to so.)'; MRI a-wee; PULyo-of, yakko-of (sic); CRL a-uwa, he-was-(li); CRN a tree; WOL ga-uwaa, ga-uwaa-(li-I); PCk *ka-uae; PON on the go; FRU wwey, control way, wewwey; KIR(te)-ka-uae 'the root of the tooth' Cf. MOK woj, wojwoj 'to drag.'; KSR you, bears. Osi 'w., w. at or until'; SAA Wadis.'; Kwa read 'w' Cf. også fu wood, wood-va 'tow.

PMc *ucuucu, ucu-ki 'small': CHK wuchuuch 's. raus, be broken (like a stick)', wuchu-ki's. it is out', wuchuk, wuchukuchuk 'to be thrown out'; MRT ushuush 'shakint', ushu-ke's. Das'; PUL wuRu-ki-(y)'s. es (like a Cockroach or a Kind)'; CRL ushu-gu and CRN uRu-gi 'two sides (s.t.)'; STWuRuur'to ss.', uRu-ki's. Das'; WOL ushuushu 'to s., to gather fruit (by cutting)', ushu-(peu) 's. Hand', ushu-gu-(u)'s. it, sammle it'; ushu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]egi'sich shütteln, assemble'; PUA usuusu 'two Seiten', usu-ku's. it', usu-keki 'Drink, Drink (as bei one's Grain), Grain'; PCk * inside, inside, inside-you; PON uut 'shakes', iu-k 'to s. (s.t.)', iti-(p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'two s.hands'; MOK isiis's.', isi-k's. (s.t.)'; PNGisi-ks. (s.t.)'; MRS widdid 'to jitter, s., to jitter, to vibrate, to stir, to frost', yidi-k 'to s.', yidi-kiy 's.(s.t.)'; KSR usrusr 'p., usru-k 'zwei p. (s.t.)' Vgl. KIRruru 's., zittern', ka-ruru-a 'machen (s.t.) s.'; LAKlugu-a, lugugu-a. it is (as Kopf).

PCMc *ulafi 'fish species': MRT ulef 'k. from'; STW Wulefparagei f.'; WOL ulefi 'a k. from.'; PCk*ulafi; KIR (te)-inai 'k. from.'.

PCMc *ulafi 'fish species': MRT ulef 'k. from'; STW wulef 'parrot f.'; WOL ulefi 'a k. from f.';PCk *ulafi; KIR (te)-inai 'k. from.'.

PMc *ulo 'Made': CHK lives, breathes; MRI wool; PUL wool, STW wool, yellow; WOL uule, uule-; ULI II (Bender et al. 1984); PUA iina, mother-;PCk *wool; KIR(te)-ino; PEO *[q[theta]]head (fixed head; ARO head); UAN *head. Also note CRL [m.sup.w]uul 'maggot', [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ul 'affected by maggots'; KSR ule 'made', ul[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'infested with maggots'.

PMc *ulu 'extremity, tip, tip, head': CHK wuun,wunu-(n), wunuun, wunuunu-(n), wunuune-(n) 'e., top, e. of',(wunu-( n chuuk), wunuune-(n chuuk) 'mountaintop', wunu-(n ewu),wunuune-(n ewu) 'imprint', wunu-(n fenu), wunuune-(n fenu )'cape, point of land', wunu-(n ira), wunuune-(n ira) 'treetop', wunu-(n nwchew) 'spearhead', wunuuno-(wu) 'project, stick out, long projection'; PUL wul, wulu- (n) (she) 'sprouting leaf, treetop, bj of'; CRL ulu-(l) 'leaf of', uli-(l), yuli-(l), 'his head (respect of the usage)'; WOL uulu , un-(ni)-leaf of a tree, I. of'; PCk *ulu; MRS wili-(yej) 'graveyard; head (respect usage) (-yej 'upper, castern' < PMc *ata 'upper part , above')'; KIR uni-([m.sup.w]aane), unn-(aune) 'old man, old woman, elderly'; KSR olo-(l) , ulu-( n) 'its top, its top, its top (of a tree), t. of'; PEO *qulu (FIJ ulu 'head, top'; PPN *qulu 'head, hair'; BUG ulu 'head, top, end '; KWA ulu 'twig, frond'); UAN *qulu. Cf. PLK *uru 'big' old'. Cf. also PMC *uluulu 'pillow, use a pillow', PMC *ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL ]a pillow' .

PMC *ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'pillow': CHK wuun,wuuna-; PUL wulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n) 's. from'; CRLulu[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a- 's.'; WOLilu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e; PUA unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PCK*unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PON ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'his/herp.'; KIR (te)-uni[UNKEYBOARD SYMBOL]a; KSR ilu-n 'support, support (s.t.), rest (head on a s.)'; PEO *[q[theta]uluna(SAA ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'to serve as p.'; BUGulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; KWA uluna 'to recline'); PAN*qulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aq (Blust 1970:137). Cf. PMc *ulu 'extremity, tip, tip, head', PMC *uluulu 'pillow, use a pillow'.

PMC *uluulu 'pillow, use a pillow': PUL wuluul 'pillow'; CRL uluul 'use a pillow'; STW uluul 'cushion'; WOL iluulu 'cushion'; PCK*uluulu; PON uluul 'cushion, little hill'; MOK uluul 'heap (as of sand), dune'; KSR ilul 'to cushion, to rest, to support'. Cf. PMC *uluna 'cushion', PMC *ulu 'limb, tip, tip, head'.

PMC *[um.sup.w]a,[im.sup.w]a 'house': CHK [iim.sup.w],[im.sup.w]a(n) 'h., his h. ', [im.sup.w]e-ni 'acquire ah.', [im.sup.w][eyim.sup.w] 'use or live in a h.'; PUL[yiim.sup.w], [yim.sup.w]a-(n), [yim.sup.w]a-ni-(y), [yim.sup.w][ayim.sup.w ];CRL[iimw], [imw]a-(l); STW[iimw], [imw]a-(n); WOL[iim.sup.w]e, [im.sup.w]a-(le), [im.sup.w]e-li-(i), [im.sup.w][eim.sup. w]e;PUA [iim.sup.w]a, [im.sup.w]a-(for); CORT yun and; PCK*[imw]; PON[iim.sup.w], [im.sup.w]e-; MOK [im.sup.w]e-(n); PNG [iim.sup.w]; MRS[yemw], [yimw]e-, [mw]e-(n); KIR[ulunw]a,(te)-[umw]a, [umw]a-(to); KSR yuwe-, iwe-; PEO*[Rum.sup.w]a (Geraghty 1990); POC *[Rum.sup.w]aq (Ross 1988) (TON una' take light, protect yourself'; SAA nume and ULA numa; BUG lana'cave'; ARO numa; KWA hama; PKB *Luma); UAN *Roman. Note that KSRIom is a probable loan (source?).

PMC *en, brotherhood, one-fi 'hair, feather, scales, remote (hair or scales);: CHK wuun, wuun-(n) 'h. (of head or body), fur, feathers, scales (of fish); MKT uun, du-(n); PUL wunu(sic), wunu-(n) 'um f., f., s., be h. to remove; CRL ileila- 'f., fur, body', ileil 'to be hairy', ili-(as) 'head h.', ulu-(yaraw) have thick, black, shiny h.'; CRN una- "f., fur, body", brotherhood "to be hairy"; STW yul, yula-(n), snow, snow, snow-fi; WOL uule, uule-(li), uuleule, uule-fi-(i); PUA uuna, one; PCK *one, first, one-fi; PON vin' his h. etc.', kaa-win, kaa-wina, ka-wna 'pick, peel'; MRS win 'fish scales', auto-win, auto-wine-like 'To Scale (Fish)'; KIR (te) name 'fish scale, cataract in the eye', name 'the scale'; KSR une-(n) 'feather, hair, shed, fur off', unon 'pick, shed', une 'pick or shed (s.t.)'; PEO *give-f (PPN *give, give-fi; ROTuna, one-hi; SAA unahi; KWA brother-(mit), una-fi-(a)); UAN *give.

PMC? *uni 'kokosdug': Mach PMC *inu.

PMC *unu 'coco stuff': PUL wun, wunu-(n) 'c. c., si from c. c., si of or for', wunu-u-(w) 'to stem(s.t)'; CRN uun sicve', un-ni 'to aim (s.t.); WOL uulu,un-(ni) 'coconut sieve, coconut shell, ca. i.e. f'; PCK *unu; PONini-(pal) 'fibrous, cloth-like material from the coconut palm', iin(wini) 'medicine wrapped in coconut cloth'; MRS in-(pel) 'cc'; PEO *unu (TON wnu 'to scour, to slough off skin, hide, or husk that has been shed'; SAA unu 'fibrous spatula of a coconut frond'); UAN *hunus (TAG hunos 'skin'). Cf. KIR(te)-i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'fibrous, porous covering at the base of the coconut leaf or leaves that helps bind it to the tree'. See also PMC?*unu-[sS]i 'extract'.

PMC? *unu-[sS]i 'extract': CHK wut-ti 'pull out', #wuttuut 'pull out, go'; PUL #wuttutt 'choose, choose'; STW yunu-ti 'pull it out'; PUA unu-tu 'pull it out'; PCK *unu-di; PEO *unu-z (Geraghty 1983) (Fu ucu, ucu-na (shows metath.); PPN *unu-si; ARO unu, unu-si); UAN *hunus. Cf. WOLutuu-we 'pinch it, pull it out'.

PMC *upa 'derris vine': CHK wuup, wupe-(n) 'v. (D.elliptica) used for fish poison, v. of', wupe-(ni-pot) 'vine (D.trifoliata, used as a drag line)', wup 'to fish with fish poison'; PUL wuup, wupa-(n) 'shrub (D. elliptica) used as a fish poison', wupe-e-(y) 'to poison (a fish or a human)'; CRL up'D. elipica v. (used for fish poison)”; STW yuup, upu-(l) 'fish poison, eg from'; WOL upeupe 'cheat (between man and woman), betray, blackmail'; PCK *upa; PON uup 'plant (D.elliptica) for poisoning fish', uupa-wp 'for poisoning fish'; MOKip[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yp 'use deterrent to force fish to hide'; MRS wep 'a tree (Barringtonia asiatica, seeds for fish poison)'; KSR op 'plant used as a fish poison to poison or kill with the sap of this plant', opop 'poisoning in various places (method of catching)'. Cf. PMP *upas "venomous, like a snake" (Blust1986:111). See also CHK wuun 'D. elipica v.',wune-(neuntopf)'D. trifoliata v.'; and cf. KWA ufa-'i 'fish with bow and arrow'. See also PMC? *[T]upa 'fish poison', PMC?*iwu 'tree (Barringtonia asiatica).

PMc *ura 'langusta, lobster': CHK alive, gold-(n) MRI ur,ure(n) PUL alive, gold-(n); CRI, respiration; STW your, your- (1); WOL odor, ura-(li); PUA odor, ula-; PCK *below; PON your, your [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(me); MOK worry (me); woman who; KSR ol-(pipe) 'a kind 1.'; PEO *grass (PPn *grass; FIJ urn; ULA lower 'crab, shrimp'; BUG lower 'lobster'; KWA ula 'shrimp'); UAN *quDa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Note that KIR(te)-ura is an obvious borrowing from SAM ula.

PMc *uri, uruuru 'pull, drag, drag': CHK wuri 'dēit, h. it, t. es', wuruur 'h., to pull, hoist, t., to be towed, to be hauled, to hoist sail, to drop', (e)-wuru 'd., h., hoist (s.t.)'; MRTure 'd., to pull'; PUL wuri-(i-y) 'd. it, tow it', wuruur'dā, to hoist, lift, lower (of the sail), fall'; CRL uru 'to d.or pull (st.)'; STw yuruur 'd.'; WOL uru-u 'pull,, fire', uruuru 'd., pull, fire, push'; PCK *ur[iu],uruuru; KsR ulul 'to pull, cover, stretch', ul 'to pull etc.(s.t.)'; PEO *fuRu 'd., pull' (Geraghty 1990). Cf. KSR tal, tali 'h. or draw (on a net)'.

PMc *u[sS]a 'rain': CHK wheat, wheat-(n) 'r., r.of', wheat 'to r.', (seme)-wheat 'god of r.'; MRTuut, house-(n); PUL wool, wool-(n) (sic); CRL output; STW youth 'r.' (archaic); WOL uute, house-'r.',(yaro-i)-ute 'rain'; PUA house, domestic; SNS comes from; PCK *off; MOK tree 'r., after r.'; MRS wet, with r. whitey 'to r. on'; PEO *lake (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ uca; PPN*lake; SAA ute 'heavy r.'; BUG uha; LAU house; ARO house; KWA house'r.', house-ni-[a], house-fi -[a] 'to the right'; PNK *huza); UAN*quZan. See POC *man 'r.' (Ross 1988) Cf. PCMc *water, wash 'splash water on (s.t.)'. See also Marck (1994-312) PMc *u[sz]a.

PMc? *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na 'load, load': PULwuta-n, wuta-na-(n) 'to be loaded, c. or 1st, c .of'; CRL(a)-wut' are loaded, s.t. inside', (a)wuta 'to pack, s.t. inside'; STW (a)-yut 1. S.t.', (a)-yuta '1. The'; Wol uta-le'1ā, load, package, freight, c.'; PCk *uta-na; PON (pe)-ydayd 'to carry, to carry in a vehicle', ida-n 'to carry (s.t.) in a vehicle', awdawd 'to be filled, can be loaded, by almost anything', awd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to fill , I. (s.t.)';MOK idayd 'to take in a vehicle transport', ida-n 'transport(s.t.)', (a)-wdood 'to 1., fill', (a)-wdo 'to 1 .,fill(s.t.)'; PEO Raja '1st, c.' (Geraghty 1983) (Fu usa; usa-a;usa-na 'carry a.c. by boat'; SAA lude 'carry c.', luda-a'cargo', luda-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to carry c.' ;ULAluda-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'c., luda-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'c carry.'; BUG luluja "c.", luja-[gini] 'to 1.c.'; KWA luda'1 . in a canoe'); PMP *Rujan, usan, lujan (Blust1989:162). Cf. PMc *u-Ti, u-Taki 'to carry', PMc *wua, wuawua, wua-ti,wua-ta 'cany, to convey, to transport', PMc *waxa, 'a framework', PPC *waa 'to carry "carry, transport".

PMc? *us[ei] 'make fire with fire plough': CHK. I am angry. f. with the fire plough', wutu-u(w) make (out,)'; PUL wutuut; WOL utuutu 'to be wiped out, wiped out, wiped out'; PCK *uduudu, udu-u; PONid m. f. from the ildploven', idi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] tomake(af.)';MOK id 'start an f. with the ildploven', idi'start (a f.); MRS yit 'to make an f. by rubbing sticks'; KIRire-a 'to rub or wash (s.t.)', ire-(ai) 'process of creating fire (at) by rubbing two sticks together'. Cf. SAA Vi "to rub, polish", usu-ri "to rub"; BUG uju-ri 'to rub the skin while bathing'; LAU usu 'dry, anoint'; ARO uses "torub, grat"; UAN *ujus 'to rub'.

PMc *u[sS][ou]-'core, interior': CHK wuut,wutu-(n)'c,, i., inside, its c.', (nee)-wut, wutu (n) 'c ., at c., its c., at its c.'; MRI wutu-; CRL. (lee) -yutu-(l) 'the inside'; STW' (lee)-utu 'within the body'; PCK*out[ou]-; PEO *u[sz]O (SAA uto- 'Pferber, c.'; ARo uto 'core of the breadfruit'; KWA uto-[na] 'middle of the breadfruit'). Cf. FIJ uto 'heart, marrow of a tree'. See also PCK *wudu 'piece of cooked breadfruit'.

PMc *uS[iu] 'a tree': STW wtau 'a small T. with fragrant flowers'; WoL uuta utu- 'a kind of coastt. (Guetarda sp.)'; PCK *udu; PON iid 'plant species'; MOK id 't.species with white flowers'; MRS with "plant (common culture hedge), general term for hedge plants and their flowers, garland of flowers"; KIR (te-uri)'t. with white flowers'; KSR i'art of tree'; PEO *uzi (FIJ uci 'herb Evodia, used in perfume'). Cf. KSR it[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'a kind of t.'.

PMc *from 'domestic': MOK (e)wij; MRS (yi-ye)-wej, (ya)-waj 'within an island', (na)-waj 'within an island only from the lagoon side'; KSR w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t; PEO *sø (PPN*sø 'in.'; LAK hutahuta 'general term for small plants'); UAN *qu[iT]an 'forest' See also Marck (1994;322)PMc *house.

PMc *u-Ti, u-Taki 'to carry': PON wi-sik 'to bear a burden'; MOK wi-uk 'c., bring, take things'; KSR a-s'c. (st.)', ivus 'c. (s.t.) ainund with s.o.',u-t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'be canying', #utut[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'be canying around'. Cf. kix (dh) -u-mid 'repeated transport', a-raid 'carry stones, planks, etc. to a certain place to collect'; and cf. SAA fu'e'toe, hung up by the head'; ARO hua 'two C. hung by the head'; KWA fua 'to carry a burden'; PEO*futa; and cf. BUG sutu'to c. (s.t.) turned upside down'; PNK *hudu (< *qunsu) 'c. on the head'; POC *qusu, qunsu; UAN *[q[theta]]usu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. See also PMC? *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na 'cargo, cargo', PMC *wua,wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta 'carry, convey, transport', PPC *waa'carry it, transport it, transport it', PMC *grow 'a frame'.

PMC *Pumice Wall: CRL Wall; STW without; WOLuwaali; PUA who; PCK *[u[theta]]; PON thing (pay); MOK ween; KIR substance (Bender et al. 1984); KSR (yot) wet 'small black stone'. Cf. YAPwaar 'rock, big rock' Cf. also CHK mattos. S.'; MRStilahan's.'. See Marck (1994:318) PMC *tail.

PMC? *wae 'leg, foot': CHK waasaas (?<*waa-asa-as) 'quick, quick (moving)' (lit. ? 'with high feet or legs'); PON was "stuck, having trouble standing," vi-(yd) "going in a certain direction"; MOKwa-(jejjej) 'jump over the water'; MRS wa-n- 'to go up', wey-([lak.sup.w]) 'to go away'; KIR (te)-wae 'l., f.' (could be from Polynesian), wae-(tata) 'to walk or go quickly'; KSR o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'go, arrive, sail',o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-('tu) 'go down a slope'; PEO ?*waqe (PPN *waqe 'f., l.'). Cf. SAA 'ae 'ae'ae 'leg, foot'; BUG (n)-ae (<*[na]-ae?) 'leg, foot'; LAUae 'foot, leg'; KWA 'ae 'foot, base, source, leg'. See also PMC *faa- 'underside, below'.

PCMC? *wai 'to impale, stab, pierce': MRS way 'to impale, stab, give an injection, receive an injection, an injection or shot', wayi-k 'to stab, spear, (see above) give an injection'; KIR(te)-wai 'fish spear', wai 'to engage in spearing fish', wae-a 'to pierce, pierce, sew, sever (s.t.)'. One of these could be a loan from the other.

PMC *waka 'vein, tendon': CHK waa, waa-(n) 'v., artery, tendon, nerve, s., v. from'; PUL waa-(n) 'v. or arteryof'; CRL. waa, waa-(l) 'veins, arteries, be v.', waawa 'to have varicose veins or severely swollen veins'; WOL waaga, waga- 'v., s., blood vessel, artery' PUA waaka, waka- 'root, v., s., artery'; SNS waka (sic) "mess"; PCK *waka; MRS yekey 'v., artery, blood vessel'; KIR wakawaka 'fibrous, fibrous (as pandanus fruit)'; KSR aelko (<*okael?) 'blood vessel'. See FIJ RE”; PPN *uaua 'v., artery, tendon, s.'; BUG ula'sene, s., v.'; KWA ula 'blood vessel, v.'; LAK et al 'radial roots of a tree'; UAN *bad advice. There is no basis for Geraghty's (1990) reconstruction of PMC *aka "vein, tendon". See also PMC? *[ua.sub.1], 'tendon, vein', PMC *waka, wakara 'root'.

PMC *ko, ko 'root': CHK. waar, waar[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'r., its r.'; MRI warm[epsilon]-(n); PUL persistence-(n); CRL waw waara-(l) 'roots, r. self'; STW warm, warm-(n);WOL warm, hot-(li); PUA stem 'r., stem' (shows metathesis); SNS walaga (shows meesis); PCK calf; Mrs. Wekar; KIR(te)-wakaa 'r., one who gives support'; KSR DkDk 'mangrove root', okae 'root'; POC *wakaR "root" (Ross 1988) (FIJ waka "root"; BUG oga "root"); UAN *ko[rR]. See also PMC *ko 'vein, tendon'.

PMC *walu 'vegetation, forest': CHK wenuwen 'V., bush', wenu-*([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aw) 'useless plant, weed'; MRT Waliwel 'f.'; PUL waal, wali-(n) 'f., jungle, f. of', Waluwal 'plant, trees, f., are wooded'; CRL Waluwal,#walawal 'f., jungle'; STW waniwan 'f., area of ​​vegetation'; WOL waalu walu- 'f., bush, forest', waluwelu 'plant, tree'; PUA waanu wanu- 'green branch used as a hair ornament', wonuwonu 'jungle, f., bush'; PCK *waalu, walu-, waluwalu; PON waal 'jungle, f.'; MOK w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'f.'; PNGw[epsilon]l 'f., forests'; PPC *walu; PEO Walu (KWA kwalu 'useless bush'). Cf. SAA walu-(malau) 'the world, all islands'; ARO waruwaru 'the inhabited world in general, all known islands'. See also Marek (1994:322) PPC *walu and PCK *waluwalu.

PMC *walu, walu-ua 'eight, eight (general)': CHK waan, wanu-, wanu-uw 'eight' and wani-ik 'eight'; MRI wall; PUL wall. walu-, walu-uw and wali-ik; CRL waal, walu-, walu-uw, andwali-igh; WOL waali, wali-, walu-uwe and wali-ige, PUA wanu- and wanu-iki, PCK, *walu, walu-uwa and *walu-ike; PON ([UNKEYBOARDABLESSYMBOL])-w[UNKEYBOARDABLESSYMBOL]l, w[UNKEYBOARDABLESSYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLESSYMBOL]-, w[UNKEYBOARDABLESSYMBOL]li-, wali-, walu-u; MOK (a)-go, go, help-w; MRS (is)-was-(took); KIR wani-, dung rain; KSR Dl,al, Dl-,al-; PEO*eight (Geraghty 1983); POC *otte (Ross 1988) (PMP *otte; FIJ otte; SAA otte; PNK *wa[IL]u); UAN *otte(h). See PMC *ua- 'general classifier optælling (attached to numbers)'.

PCMc *w[ao][p.sup.w]o 'hit, hit with an object': CHK [wop.sup.w] 'be b., hit, hit', [wop.sup.w] u - ni'b., to beat, to whip (see above with a stick or a whip)'; PUL [yoop.sup.w](sic) 'to hit', [yop.sup.w]u-li-(y) 'to b., hit, move (like a bat or like a ball); MRS [webb.sup.w][ab.sup.w] 'shattered'; KIR [ob.sup.w]o 'to be broken off, broken in strength, decrepit', [ob.sup.w]o-ra 'fate, desolate, devastating, damage(s.t.)'.

PMC *house, household 'balloon fish, puffer fish, belarge'; CHK wat-(until) be great, 1.', wat-(until-not) 'grow, grow tall'; CRL Watts' sp. from b. f.'; WOL-time, time- 'king of f. (not eaten)'; PCK department; PON department 'p.f.'; MOK wed 'boxfish'; MRS was 'p.f.'; KIR-penge 'to be great' (not)-penge(no-[b.sup.w]unii) 'a f.' (te-[b.sup.w]unii'a p.f. of the genus Arothron); KSR otwot' type f. cf. KSR e 'type f. with white fat'.

PMC *waSe, waSe-ki 'to count': WOL watewate 'to c., count, enumerate', weta-gi-(I) 'c or count'; SNS wet'to c.'; PCK *wade; PON wadawad 'to read, c.',wad[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 'r. or c. (s.t.)', wad 'multiply (in mathematics)', wadi-ki 'multiply'; MOK wadwadto read', wade-k 'to c. or read (s.t.)'; MRS watwat 'c.up, estimate by counting', wate-k 'c. high (s.t.)'; KIR ware'to c., read', (te)-wareware 'count, read', ware-ka'c. or read (s.t.)'; KSR o[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'c., enumerate', oe-k 'c. (s.t.)'; PEO *wase 'divide' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ wase 'to divide', wasewase 'divide, partition'; PPN *wase 'divide, separate'; SAA wate, wa'ewate 'for food at a convenient time thereafter to give a speech"; ARO wate "to give"; KWA kwate,kwate-a "to contribute, to give").

PMC *watu 'towards or towards the accused': CHK -wow, PUL waw; PCK *wa[tw]u; PON -w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y; MRS waj,wej; Km wati 'against person who has just spoken'; POC *watu'hence' (Ross 1988:464) (BUG atu 'go away, go on'). Cf. SAA wau 'adverb of place there'; BUG au 'out, away'. See also PMC *wotu 'outgoing'.

PMC *wa[w[empty set]]u 'wealthy': CHK wew 'to be rich, wealthy', wewu-(n) 'wealth of', (e)-wewu make (s.o.)rich'; PON waaw 'respect, honor', waw-n 'respectable, respectable, honorable'; MOK wow-n 'respectful'; KIR wauwau 'well equipped with amenities or appropriate clothing'; KSR "Precious, Good Quality, Excellent".

PMC *[waxa1], 'a frame': CHK waa-, waa-n 'f.,f. from'; STW waa-(n); WOL waa; PCK *waa; PON waar, w[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] body (of a person), his b.'; PEO*wa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ke- 'frame' (Geraghty 1983) (Fu waqa 'box, case, cover'; TOK waqawaka 'frame cover' [Benderet at. 1984]). Cf. KSR Dko aki 'erect, erect, erect (s.t.)', cf. also PCMC *wa[x[theta]]a 'crosspiece', PPC *waa 'carry, transport, transport it', PMC *wua, wuawua , wua-ti, wua-ta 'carry, transport, transport'.

PMC *[waxa.sub.2], 'canoe': CHK waa, waa-n, waa-n, waa-ni 'canoe, his canoe, canoe of, 'caught as a canoe'; PUL wa, wa-n, wa-n, wa-ni-(y); CRL comes, comes-is; CRN come, come-is; STW boat, boat; WOL wa, wa-le, woo-li, woo-li-i; PUA waa, woo-; SNS time (sic); PCK*was; PON war; MOK War; PNG War; MRS wah "owning classification canoes, ships, boats, or carriers"; km(te)-what, one size, one size, a-nn-a (<*like-a); KSR Dr.; STEMME *from[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]your (Geraghty1983); POC *Year (Ross 1988) FIJ crack; PPN *Invoice; ARO cow 'strangeness' [obs.]; PKB *tom); UAN *of[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]of[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].

PCMC *wa[x[theta]]a 'cross piece': CHK waa-, waa-(n) 'stick, tie, tie-rod, s. of', waa-(yi-so) 'distal board over cantilever booming'; PUL waa-(ni-yan) 'yoke stringer connecting the cantilever tree'; CRL waa,-(li-yan) 'transom connecting the outriggers of a sailing canoe'; WOL waa-(li-yeni) 'floatstringer of Acanoe', waa-(s-soosoo) (< *waa-li-soosoo) 'outrigger boomstringer'; waa-(li pauree) 'stick for scraping the inner part of the banana layer'; PCK *waa; MRS wahwah 'over', waha-(n car) 'launch pad rolls'; Km(te)-waa 'sleeps on a floor'. Cf. PMC *waxa, 'a frame'.

PMC *wece or 'hit, hit, hit': CHK wech 'hit, h., hit, b.', wechewech 'hit, hit, hit, hit', wache-e-(y) 's., b. , H. (so.)'; KIR oro 'Thursday, h.' ore-a 'to h.,s. (s.o.)', (te)-oro 'ah., blow', (te)-orooro 'a repeated blow'; PEO *wede(<wense), wese (SAA wete 'to h.'; ARO wete, wete-'i 'to hurt true'; KWA kwete 'h. to be of a foreign [supernatural] object causing local pain' ). Cf. LAU gwegwe 'to buffet (like the wind)'. See also PCK *wici, wici-i 'to hit, whip, hit'.

PMC *wee 'be similar, equal, equivalent': CHK weewe'be a., s., equal, equivalence'; PUL we-(y) (sic) 'look like (s.t.)'; CRL weewe 'be s.', wee-(y) 'to resemble, look like (s.t.)'; WOL weewee 'be one. in appearance, be s, like', wee-(ye) 'like, be s. like it'; PUA is like, a'; PCK *wee; MRS wayweye- 'shape, form, kind (of), like'; KSR we-(n), we-(n) generation of'. See LAK can be 'belike'. See also PPC *weewee 'understand'.

PMC *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki- 'changed': CHK win,wini-(no), winiwin 'be c.,changed,shifted,shifted,turned',wini- (iti ) 'C. in', wini-k 'turn over', wini-ki 'turn over (s.t.) to', wini-si 'displace, remove, transplant (s.t.)', (refl.) 'c. its position', (sii)-win 'swap, swap, swap, swap', (sii)-wini-i-(v) 'replace, take the place of (s.t.)', (ni)-win, (ni ) )-wini-(n) 'return, return, return or exchange for', (ni)-wini-i-(y) 'return, return, return to him'; PUL weli-(iti) 'become (s.t.)', weli-(fehann) 'difference, be different, strange', (lii)-wel 'to c., replace, exchange, translate', (lii)-weli- (n) 'revenge for, repay'; CRLweli-ghi and CRN weli-(gi) 'to turn over (something) until (the earth),(lii)-wel 'c., prey', (lii)-weli 'to c. (something), enter the place of (see above)'; WOL weli 'c., be different', កាង 'keep change', (lii)-weli 'c. be, replaced', (lii)-weli-i-(ye) 'c. es, replace it', (lii)-wen-(ne) 'his substitute, his substitute', (suu)-weli 'change, swap, swap'; PCK *weli, awe, weli-ki-; PON weli- 'to be turnover', weli-k 'to turn (s.t.)', weli-(di) 'to be rejected'; MOK well 'c. the leaves of a breadfruit fermenter', wili-k 'c. (the leaves), open (a book), turn (a page)'; KIRoni-ka, onioni-ka 'two ca. (s.t.)', oni-ki-(a) 'to c. it'; KSR (ay)-ol 'c., replace, act for s.o.', (ae)-ol 'c. or replace (s.t.), act for (s.a.)". Cf. SAA 'oli' 'to return, relapse', 'olie-si 'to c., change (s.t.)'; BUG oli 'toc.', oli-hi 'to exchange (s.t.)'; LAU oli 'to return, go back', oli-si 'to answer (see above)'; ARO ori, oriori 'to c., change', ori-si 'to c., change, exchange (s.t.)'; KWA oli'to return for s.t., come back to', oli-si-(a) 'to replace(s.t.)'. See also LAK di 'dig'.

PMc *w[eo]n[eo] 'lie down, sleep': CHK won's.', wonto-(wut) 's. in the meeting house', wono-([yim.sup.w]) 's. in the family home'; PUL woon (sic)'I. d.', wono-(ccip)'s. restless'; CRL Wool; CRN a;STW wolo-(tiw); WOL wolo 'to 1st d., stretch out'; PUA wono-(tic); SNS-Woro-; PCK *wono; PON wen-(Tuesday); KIR wene, wenewene; KSR ona'to l. d.', on-(kiy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki 'be prone,l.'. Cf. POc *qeno 'l. d.' (Ross 1988:462) (SAA eno, enoeno'to l. d.'; BUG e [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL ) ]go 'l.d., s.'; ARO eno 'l.d., rest'; KWA eno 's.'). See also FIJ no'to l. (of thing)', (i)-nono 'place where s.t. lies' and cf. UAN *inep

PWMc *were, werewere 'to flash, to shine': CHK wer 'f. (of a light or flashlight)', were-e-(y) 'f. (a light) shines'; PULweres. hell', weri-(n) 'brightly shining from'; CRL werwwer 'be enlightened', werwer 'lightning'; WOL. weere, were- 'light, firelight, gleam, f.', were 'to s., sparkle, glitter', werewere 'lightning, s., light, f.'; PCK *goods, goodsgoods; MRS wirwir 'b. Flame'. Cf. PON pir 'to f.'.

PMc *weSe 'sæd, sperm': CHK weet, weta-(n) 's., his s.'; PUL. våd (sic); CRL weet, weti-(l) 's., hans s.', wetiwet 'at onanere'; WOL. weete wete-(l), PCK *wede; KSR WAi (?*hvh).

PWMc *wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ae] 'fat, be fat': CHK iwi,#iwii-(n), twiye-(n) (<*wiwiy[ae]) 'rich or fat taste, r. t.of '; PUL. yiwiya, yiwiya-(n) 'fatty or oily substance (as in some fish), etc. of'; CRL. we are f. (of animals and fish)' wii'f.'; WOL uwiye 'to be greasy, to be oily'; PCK *wiiy[ae],wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ael; PON wii 'f., bold'; MOK iwi 'to be moist (of meat), f. (of fish)'; MRS wiy, wiywiy 'b. in Tutle Shell, Lard'.

PCMc *woca 'coral reef': CHK wooch, week-n, wocho-(fenu) 'coral reef, c. R. of, margin r.'; MRI Woosh; PULwooR, wora-n; CRL woosh, wosho-; CRN ooR, oRo-; STW wood; WOL. woosho, wosho-; PUA woosa, wosa-; PCK *woca; PON oot; MOC where; MRS wed, wede-(n); KIRoora, (te)-ora. See also Marek (1994: 314) PMc ot'a, which he associates with Proto-Central Pacific *voda 'rock in the sea'.

PMc *woco 'hit, hit, hit': hav PMc *wecc.

PMc * woki, woki-si- 'turn s.t. top, reverse direction':CRL. woghowowh 'to t. Eat while cooking', wogho-ti, weghe-ti 'turn over (s.t.) to', woghe-tagh 'to t. and turn in the opposite direction'; WOL wegi-ti-(i)'t. it, change it, transfer it, transform it', wegi-tegi 'in t. round, turn'; PUAweki 'to t., change direction', weki-ti 't. it over, t. itaround'; PCK *weki, weki-di, weki-daki; PON wiki-d'to t. (s.t.)over, to change (s.t., as an opinion)', wiki-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'to t., change direction'; MOK uku-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'be rotated'; PNG weke-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'past two hours'; MRS wikwek 'turn, turn, revolt, retaliate; change, translate, interpret', wike-t, [wik.sup.w] e-t 'change, translate, interpret (s.t.)', wikwek-tak 'alternate, fluctuate, be in constant change'; KIR oki 'to return', (te)-okioki frequent return', oki-ra 'to return to (a place)'; KSR ek 'tot., t. about 'capsize', ekyek 'varying, constantly changing', eka-s 'unveil, unveil, reveal, t. about (s.t.)'; PEO *foki (Fuvoki 'to change, of the wind; P PN *foki 'to return, to change'; ROT hc'i 'to go back, to return'). See MRS Wike-j'turn s.t. over', which forms a doublet with the transitive variants wike-t and [wik.sup.w] e-t above. Cf. also CHK (a)-wiiwi 'take turns, exchange, take turns', wii-(y) 'take the place of (s.t.), be successful (see above)'; and cf. KSR ik 'to rock or roll (of aship)', iki-l 'rock it, make it roll, change its position, t. it over'; FIJ vuki 'change, t., rebellion, vuki-ca 't. (s.t.) over'; PPN *fuke 'to reveal'.

PMC *de- 'six': CHK der, de-, de-, de-, de-de-; MRI one, one; PUL that, that-; CRL tool, alt-; CRN the, ono-; stool, white; WOOL wool, wool, wool; PUA ono-; SNS Worship; PCK *da, da-;PON even, das, w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-; MOK du-; KIR en-; KSR on; POC *de (Ross 1988) (FIJ that; PPN that; SAA that; BUG that; LAU that; ARO that; KWA that; PKB *Thesis); UAN *four.

PMc *wonu 'skildpadde': CHK wiin, wini-; MRT woon, wone-, wuni-; PUL woo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n, wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; CRLwoo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-, #wo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-; Srw woo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; WOLwoon, woni-; PUA woonu, wonu-; PCK *wonu; PON weey; MOK woy, wey-; MRS wen;KIR (te)-auf, oni-; KSR (ik) w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'Kunst der Schildkröte'; POC*ponu (Ross 1988) (ROT hoi; SAA honu; BUG vognu; PKB*bonu); PMP *penu (Blust 1984-85). Jf. KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oe'art of turtle'.


PMc *[woro.sub.1] 'gills': CHK woor, wora-n 'fish gills, his g.'; CRL (bold)-oru-(l) 'his fish g.'; WOL(fati)-woro 'fish g.'; PCK-Woro; MOK wol, w[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]- 'g.' (Loan?); MRS were 'fishg.'; KIR(te)-oo 'fish g.'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lo(sic) 'g.', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'has many g.'. See also PMC*[woro.sub.2] 'wall, fence', PCMc *woro- 'swallow'.

PMC *[wro.sub.2] 'wall, fence'CHK wo,wr 'stone wall, stone pillar, stone dam'; MRI or via 'wall'; PULworoor 'pier, dock'; Western STW 'pier, wall, breakwater'; Northern WOL 'fence, barrier to prevent encroachment'; PCK *close;MRS werwer 'stall, fence, pen'; KIR(te)-oo 'fence'; PEO *oRo 'k. of fences” (Geraghty 1990). Cf. FIJ gold, gold-ta, odro 'to buckle', (i)-gold 'waist band'.

PCMC *swallow- 'swallow': CHK swallow-me 'two'; PUL adore-me-(y); CRL in uru, in gold; STW in the north; WOL adore me (i); PCK*North-Central-; KIR oh and it. (s.t.)' See KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLES SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLES SYMBOL], l[UNKEYBOARDABLES SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLES SYMBOL]we- 's. (s.t.)' Cf. also SAA 'this', 'this'this, 'this-me' to s.'; BUG different, different-we 'to pp. (alone?); ARO ono, ono-mi 'to p.'; KWA ono-my-(a) (also odo-my(a))'to pp. (s.t.)'; PEO * ton, ton-mi; but note POC *what is.' (Ross 1988). See also PWMc *Toro 'suck up(s.t.)', PMC *[woro.sub.1] 'gills'.

PMc *wos[ao] 'Colocasia taro': CHK woot, wote-(n)'C. t.', C.t. from'; MRT yoot 'elephant ear t.'; PULwoot 'C. t.', woto-([p.sup.w]eR) 'a kind of C.t.'; CRLoot, woot 'C. t.', woto-(shell) 'a kind of C.t.'; STWoot; WOL says 'C. t.', woto-(shalo) 'a kind of C.t.'; PUA woota, wota- 'sweet t.' grown on dry land”; PCK*wod[ao]-; PONood, w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d 'Alocasia t.'; MOK wod 'sum'; MRS wet 'Alocasia t.'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] it's kinda t'.

PMC *wotu 'outwards': CHK -wu, -wuu- 'o., to the north'; MRI-wew; PUL -wow 'o., towards the sea'; CRL -wow 'o., to the west'; STW - wow; WOL -wau, -weu 'o., to the north or south (i.e. towards the open sea)'; PUA -wow 'outside, seaward' PCK *-wowu; KSR -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t, -wot 'of'; POC *potu "sea beyond the reef" (Ross 1988:462). Cf. PON -yey 'outwards'. Cf. also PMC *watu 'toward or towards the accused'.

PCMc *woTo 'halved': CHK var, wosoos 'be c. half, c. in t.', wose-e-(y) 'c. the half'; PUL wohe-e-(y)'c. the half'; CRL wose-e-(y) 'two C. and gather (burn)'; CRN ohe-(y) 'after c. and gather firewood'; PCK*woT[ao]; KIR otomoto 'participate in breaking or folding', oto-(ua-a) '(s.t.) to break in two', ote-a 'to fold (s.t.)', ([m.sup.w]a)-oto 'broken (like a stick)'. Cf. PON pos 'to explode' and UAN *pocaq 'to pieces.

PMC *wife, wife 'graues Haar': CHK wife, wife-(n)'g. h., being g. h.'; MRS animal 'grauhaarig'; KIR (te)-ia'g. h.', iaia 'grave'; KSR fry[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-l 'his g. h.'; Prä-PMC *to blow, to blow; PEO *cup, cup-of(NGG grape 'g.h.'); UAN *finger 'grauhaarig'. There is an offensive problem with the approach of KSR.

PMC *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta 'carry, carry, carry': CHK wuwe-yi, wuwe-e-y) 'c., carry, t. (s.t.)', wuwe-ya-a-( to), wuwe-e-(ye-to) 'to transmit here', wuwoow,wuwoowo-(no) (< *wuwawuwa) 'to transmit, c., t. 'dead', wuwa-s,wuwa-se. (n) "grass cover on foodstuffs that have already been covered with leaves in an earth oven (item transported), grass cover of"; MRI uwa'c., uwa-a-(y)'c. The'; PUL wuwa-(y)'c., t. (s.t.)', wuwa-a-(to) 'c. that hitherto', wuvow (sic) 'to c.', wuwa-h, wuwa-ha-(n) 'load, carried object, b.of', wuwowo (sic) 'to carry'; CRL uwa-s 'scent or aroma (pleasant or unpleasant) in the air'; CRN uwa-h 'scent or aroma in the air'; WOL uwa-te 'burden, possession'; PCK *wuwa, wuwawuwa,wuwa-ti-, wuwa-ta; PON wwa 'to carry'; MRS wiwey, yiwwey (Western dialect), wiwwey (Eastern dialect) 'board, ride, board, board, mount, raise (batter); KIR uaua 'carry a child', uo-ta 'to c. (s.t), s.t. carried', uo-ta-na 'carry along'; ua-(aki) 'to be engaged in dragging or towing', ua-(kaakaa) 'to be burdened with many packages', ua-(roko) 'to bring gifts as for a chief', ua-(ruru[eta] ) ' Displacement from acargo', ua-(tou) 'participate in bearing pandanus fruit'; KSRw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-n 'two c., t. (s.t)', wiw[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'carry'; POC *pua-ti, pua-ta (Fu vua 'to shoulder two loads [one at each end of a stick]', vua-ta 'to harvest, reap'; TON fua 'to lift, to carry with a stick on one shoulder', fue -si-[a] 'carry, carry [a burden]'; KWA fua 'carry a burden', fua-'a-[gu] 'thing imparted to me'); UAN *buhat. See also PMC? *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na 'cargo, load', PMC *u-Ti, u-Taki 'carry', PPC *waa 'carry, carry, transport it', PMC *waxa, 'a frame'.

PMC *wuaa 'fruit': CHK wuwa, wuwaa-(n) 'f., berry, its f.'; MRI scream; STW scream; PUL wuwa 'f., flower, cage'; CRL uwawwa uwaa-(l) 'f., flower, be f.'; WOL uawaa 'f, carry.'; PUA raina (sic) 'f., flower'; SNS network; PCK *defective; PON waa'f., flower'; MOK waa, wee-(n) 'his f., f. of', uuwa 'be i f.'; MRS wiwah 'carries much f. or many flowers'; KIR(te)-uaa, uaa-(na) 'f., it is f.'; POC *Blume (Ross 1988) (FIJ vua'fruit'; PPN *fua; SAA hue, huehue, ULA hua; ARO hua; PKB *vua'seed, fruit, berry'); UAN *buaq. See KIR uee 'flower'.

PMC *wuci 'Banana': CHK wuuch, wuchu-(n); MRT whish,whistle-(n); PUL wuuR, wuRu-(n); CRL. wunsch, wunsch-wunsch-; CRL. uuR; STW wiiR,wiRi-(l); WOL will, will (l); PUA-Whiskey, Whiskey-(n); PCK *tot; PON out, out-; MOK Rauch, Rauch-(n); PNG-Show; KIR (te)-uri 'in a garden'; KSR usr;POC *Ziege (Ross 1988) (PPN *foot Fu mel; SAA hat; PKB *Blume); PMP *Points (Blust 1984-85).

PMC *wuko 'to go early in the morning': CHK wuk wuko-(no) 'to go out of the house for the first time in M.'; Putwuke-e-(y) 'come or go to (s.t.) in e.m. to do', wuko-(16) 'go in c.m.', wukook 'come or go repeatedly in e.m.'; CRL ugh 'e. be in m.', ughu-(ta) 'e.i.m. travel'; CRN ug 'much e. in them.'; WOL ugo 'to go.'; PCK *wuko; PEO *fuko (SAA hu'o 'come e. in m.', [ma]-hu'ohu'o 'c. m., dawn'; BUG vugo-i 'to be c, foot in m.' ; ARO hu'o 'begin very e., before sunrise', hu'o-[rodo] 'set out e.').

PMC *wuko, wuko-si- 'to follow': KIR uko-ra, ukouko-ra 'to seek (s.t.)'; KSR dk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'follow the trail, chase', uke 'hunt, s., drive away (see above)'.

PMC *wuko, wuko-ti- 'fishnet, catch in a net': CHK wuuk, wuko-(n), wukowuk or wukowuk wuke-(ey) 'f., f. of, caul or spider's web, catch in a net '; MRI live 'f.'; PUL wood fabric, Web, m. of'; STW Death-(1) 'b. from'; WOL smell, smell (li), smell 'f., f. of, swim bladder'; PUA net, net "fishing net"; PCK * sore; PON uuk 'net'; MOK dk 'round net'; MRS wok week- 'net'; KIR? iko-ta 'gather, gather, gather (s.t.)'; POC *pukot (PEO *fuko-t; SAA from 'f. net, net'; ARO from 'large net, net'; KWA fu'o 'place of an ambush'; PKB *vuqo 'f.'); UAN *puket'dragon'. Also note the KSR-News 'net'

PMC *wuku, wuuku 'to blow': MRT wike-(y) 'b.(s.t.); PUL wuki-(y) 'to b. (s.t.) as in wind or person', wuka-a-(ta) 'b. (s.t.) up'; CRL ughu-u-(w) 'to wind up (by a person or wind)'; WOL ugu-u'b. (a musical instrument)',uguugu 'b. with the mouth'; PUA uku (sic) 'b. on it'; ULIyugu(-u); SNS wuugu 'to b.'; PCK *wuku; PON? dk 'inhale, take a deep breath, take in'; MOK uk 'to b., to smoke'; MRSwiwik 'to f. (as wind)' wiwiki-(y) 'b. on (s.t)'; KIR uki'um after a ro' with b. KSR dk 'to b. (a bugle), b.(s.t.) away', ukuk 'to b., to blow'. See PEO *ufu-C'b.' (Geraghty 1983:153-154) (FIJ uvu, uvu-ca, uvu-sa 'b. with the mouth'; ARO uhu. uhu- 'i' to b., b. up'; PKB *pupu'to b .'); UAN *puput 'to b.'. Also note CHK [p.sup.w]u'be blown (like a trumpet)' (< PMc *[p.sup.w]uu < POc *mpupu(TON pupuu 'to sound like a conch when blown, topffeifen ', PPN*[ma]pu 'to whistle, to blow hard'; LAK pu-[su] 'to b. [like a conch], to b. s.t. out of the mouth'). Cf. SAA 'uhi 'to b. with the mouth'; BUG ifu 'b. with the mouth'; LAU ufi 'b.'; ARO uhi 'to b.'; KWA fulu 'b. with the mouth', ufi 'to play the panpipe', ufi-a 'to blow '.

PWMc *wul[ae] 'penis': CHK wuun wunu-(n) 'testicles and scrotum, its t.'; PON becomes [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hispenis'; MOK becomes [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], 'his penis'; MRS wel,wile- 'penis'.

PMc *[einsiedler.sup.w]en 'hermit cancer': CHK[einsiedler.sup.w][einsiedler.sup.w], [einsiedler.sup.w][einsiedler.sup.w]e-(n) ; 'H. CH'; PUL [false W][false W], [false W][false W]a-(n); CRL[umw]a-(l), [umw]e-(l); PUA hoved-(anna) (sic) 'h. C. I peel'; PCK *[kill.sup.w]; MRS [wem.sup.w] 'h. c'; PEO*[qum.sup.w]a (FIJ uga; TON qu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'stor h.c.'); PMP *give (Blust 1984-85). Jf. PON [mp.sup.w]a 'h. c.';MOK [um.sup.w] [p.sup.w]a) 'h. c'; KWA er en krabbe.

PMc *[wum.sup.w]u, [wum.sup.w]u-ni- 'earth oven, to bake in the oven': CHK [wuum.sup.w], [wum.sup.w]u-( n ) 'e. o., o. of', [wum.sup.w] 'put in a clay oven', [wum.sup.w]u-ni 'to cook(s.t.) in an e. Ah.'; MRT [wum.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(sic); PULwuumw, [wum.sup.w]u-med-(y); CRL. [um.sup.w], [um.sup.w]u-li; STW[; WOL [um.sup.w]u, [um.sup.w]u- 'e. o', [um.sup.w]' to prepare food in an e. Ah.'; WHITE [um.sup.w]u; PCK *[ww[ww], [ww]u-with-; PON [uum.sup.w] 'e. Ah. bake [um.sup.w]' in an e. o.', [wn.sup.w]u-n 'to bake (s.t.) in an e.o.'; MOK [um.sup.w] 'to bake', [um.sup.w]u-n 'to bake(s.t.)'; MRS[cloud.sup.w], [cloud.sup.w][cloud.sup.w], [cloud.sup.w]i-n; KIR[umw][uumw], [umw]u-na; KSR um. o.', #thes'tilbered (food) in a land o.'; PEO *qumu (PPN *qumu; SAA umu; AROumu; KWA umu 'oven'; LAK humu).

PCMC *[wum.sup.w]u-lau 'en revfisk værdsat som mad': CHK[wum.sup.w]u-ne; PUL [wum.sup.w]u-le; CRL [um.sup.w]u-le; WOL[wum.sup.w]u-lee; PCK *[wum.sup.w]u-lau; PON [um.sup.w]u-le; KIR[im.sup.w]u-nai 'a f.'. Jf. PMC *[wum.sup.w]u, [wum.sup.w]u-ni-'jordovn, bage i ovn'.


PMc *wu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'fruit cluster': KIR-u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'heap pandanus f. (in count)'; KSRu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'c., flock', u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (sic) 'with many clusters'; PEO*fu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u (SAA hu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u,hu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uhu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'bear f.'; BUGvu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'ABOARD hu. ]u 'to f. , a heap or c. of f.'; KWA fu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u 'heap of f., carrying f.'); PMP *pu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u and PAN *pu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uN (Blust 1980:131). Compare PPC*[wum.sup.w]u 'fruit cluster'.

PMC *[wup.sup.w]a 'stomach, abdomen, torso': CHK[wuup.sup.w], [wup.sup.w]a-(n) 'b., a, be b.'; PUL [wuup.sup.w],[wup.sup.w]e-(er) 'b., belly, her b.'; CRL [uup.sup.w],[up.sup.w]a-(l) 'a., stomach, be a.;' WOL uube uba-(l) 'chest, his c.'; PUA [uup.sup.w]a, [up.sup.w]a-'stomach'; PCK*[wupw]a; PON [iip.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'his t.'; MOK [up.sup.w], [up.sup.w]e-(n) part of back, scapula, s. from b. from'; MRS [web.sup.w], [wib.sup.w]e-'chest'; KIR (te)-[ub.sup.w]a 'part of upper chest above sternum', [ub.sup.w]a-(ete) 'suffering from dyspepsia'. See KSR (in)-y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-'chest, bosom'; FIJ uma 'trunk of a tree to become a canoe'; PEO*[tob.sup.w]a- 'b.' (Geraghty 1983) (SAA 'oqa ​​and ULA 'opa 'b., intestine, stomach'; LAU oga 'stomach, b.'; ARO obaoba 'bosom'; KWA oga 'b.').

PMC *[wup.sup.w]u 'young coconut': WOL uubu, ubu-'y. c., y. c) meat”; PUA [uup.sup.w]u, [up.sup.sup.w]u- 'green c.,c. Milk'; PCK *[wupw]u; PON [uup.sup.w] 'drinks c.', MOK [up.sup.w] 'immature c.'; MRS [wib.sup.w] 'soft, immature c., tender skin of a baby', (meje)-[wib.sup.w] 'c., almost mature'; KIR (te)-[ub.sup .w]u 'softer end of a green c.', [ub.sup.w]u 'be in early development as a fruit'; KSR uf 'yc'. Cf. PCMC *[wupw][u-1], 'young coconut leaf'.

PCMC *[wup.sup.w][u-1] 'young coconut leaf': CHK[wup.sup.w]u-t, [wup.sup.w]u-te-(n) 'y. c.l., l.of', (o)-[wup.sup.w]u-ta'set y. c. goes up (s.t.)'; PUL [wup.sup.w]u-t 'new upright shoot of pandanus or c.l.'; CRL [up.sup.w]u-t 'shoot of a c.-leaf'; WOL ubu-te 'immature c. sheet, white y.c. l'; PCK *[wup.sup.w]u-da; MOK [up.sup.w]u-d 'c. leaf shoot'; PPC *[wup.sup.w]u-da'y. cl.; KIR [ub.sup.w][uub.sup.w]u'soft and tender as a sprout', (te)-[ub.sup.w][uub.sup.w]u'the tender sprout tip of a C. Wood'. See PMC *[wup.sup.w]u 'young coconut'.

PCMC *[wupw][u-2] 'chest': CHK-[wupw]'b. (in count)', (o)-[wup.sup.w], -wupu-(n) 'b., harsh.', [wup.sup.w]u-ri 'approaching (other) with b. forward'; CRL(o)-[ub.sup.w] 'chest, teat'; PCK *[wupw]u; KIR[ub.sup.w]u-(harken) 'too forward, impolite to begin with'. Note that the KIR form could also be derived from KIR (te)-[ub.sup.w]u 'nose, snout'. Cf. PMC *[wup.sup.w]a 'stomach, abdomen, torso'.

PMC *wuro, wuro-mata 'to wash the face': WOLuru-mate; PuA ulo, uloulo; MRS who-I; PEO *furo (KWA fulo-a 'nibble, dry, polish, clean up'). Cf. BUG ujuri 'to rub the skin while bathing', gnujuri 'to rub with the hand (s.t.)'; and cf. PEO *fuRi "Pour water, rinse" (Geraghty 1990).

PCMc *wusi, wuwusi 'splash water on (s.t.)': CHK wuti'throw or s.w. on (st.)', wutuut's. with w', wutu-mas'. w. in the face'; MRT uute 'to s. (s.t.)'; PULwuti-(y) 'Throw w. on (str.)'; CRL uuti 'pour or sprinkle.'; PCK *wudu, wudi, wuwudi; PON iid 'to fetch or draw liquids', MOK id 'w. pull', idi-p 'pull (w.)'; KIR uura 'Tothrow Salt m.on (a groove to scare the fish), uri 'for sprinkling. as in religious ablution” (Bender et al. 1984). See PMc *u[sS]a'rain'.

PMc *wuti 'pull up, uproot': CHK wi, wiiwi 'pull up, extract (from s.t. planted), extract, s. pull up, weed (a garden)',wii-(y) 's. on (plants)'; PUL Wiiwis. up with hands (Astaro or Tang)', wii-(y) 'pull up, pull up'; CRL wi'to pōup or uproot a plant', wii-sagh 'to be uprooted, to be uprooted'; CRN wi 'erect or uproot a plant', wii-heg 'rooted, pulled up'; STW wiiwi 'pick grass'; WOL wiiwi'to pp. up, wipe out, extract', wii-(ye) 's. tear it up, uproot it'; PUA udu 'pick, harvest by pulling'; PCK *wuti; PON os 'pull out, pluck'; MOK wij' p. (s.t.) up or out'; MRSwij, wijwij 'p. from the earth, uprooted'; PEO *futi (SAA hisu 'to pluck leaves, to draw fruit'; BUG vuti 'to pick up with roots'; ARO husi 'to pluck, tear down [as fruit]'; KWA fusi 'aborted, extinct [of a family group]' ); UAN * put put's. out, choose', *puput 'pick up'. See KSR fif 'to p. out', fi-s 'to extract (s.t.), s. (s.t.) out'. Cf. also KIRauau 'participate in pulling forward', au-ta 'pull or pluck (st.) out'.

PMC *wuu 'trap': CHK wuu 'w. f.t., lobster pot', wuu-ni 'catch (s.t.) in a f.t.'; MRI he; PUL CRL uu;] STW uu, WOL uu; PCK *er; His PON; WOMAN. be KIR; for KSR; POC*pupu (FU-vuvu; LAK-vuvu), UAN*bubu. See also YAP wup 'chicken trap'.

PMc *xawu 'rafter': CHK surrounds 'vertical r.'; PULwoo 'vertical r.'; WOL weeu, weu-(li) 'house on the right, to the right of';PCK *wawu; PON reew, rew-(lap) 'bar or r.', raaw 'minorr.'; KSR kwe-(srik) 'staple'. Cf. BUG gaho 'r.', cf. PCK *[kau-cam.sup.w]a 'connecting bar'.

PMC *-xu (suf. possibly prn.) 'me, of me': CHK -y, -yi-,MRT -y; PUL-y; CRL-y; STW-y; WOL-i; PUA-i; PCK-yielding; Pony; MOC -y; PNG-y; MRS -hi (Vowel not distinguished, but held the preceding Vowel an); Teeth; KSR-k; POC*-gu (FU -qu; SAA -on; BUG -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]gu; ARO -gu; KWA-gu PKB *-gu); PAN *-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]on (Ross 1988).

PMc *ya[KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'edderkoppeskal (Strombidae):se PMc *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][a.sub.2].

PCMc *yuwe 'to sail': CRL uuw, yuuw; WOL cry, cry (li);PUA uua, ua-; MAP ii; PCK *yuw[yes]; Mok in 'a sail'; KIR(te)-dh 'a s.', i.e. dhie 'to s.', i.e. for or to (in one place)' i.e. -aki-na 'two sides (one craft)'. Cf. PON lii 'Boomsheet, pp. rope'; MOK li 'canoe line, sheet'; Fu liwa 'to pull (by the wind)'. See also PMC *Luuwe, Luwe-, Luwe 'sailed' suggested by Goodenough (1995:76).

TABLE 1KOSRAIC VOWEL SYMBOLS LEE 1976 OUR SUBSTITUTIONS: FRONT CENTRAL BACK FRONT CENTRAL BACK HIGH i ih u i i UPPER MIDDLE e uc o e a oLOWER MID a uh oh e A eLOW ah a OAOR AC a 2SONDS , AND GLIDESPOC (1) smp mp, . [ UNTASTATURFÄHIG SYMBOL] p (2)PMC p [pw]KSR p fPCMC p [pw]KIR b [bw]PWMC p p (2)MRS p [bw]PPC p [ pw]PPON p (9) [pw]PON p [pw]MOK p [pw]PNG p [pw ]PCK p [p. sup.w]MRT p [pw]CHK p [pw]PUL p [pw]CRN p [b.sup.w]CRL p [b.sup.w]STW p [p.sup.w]WOL p bPUA p [p.sup.w]SNS p [b.sup.w]ULI p bPOC (1) p (3) m m,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] m (2)PMC f m [mw]KSR θ (4) mw,m ( . 5)PCMC fm [mw]KIR θm [mw]PWMC fm [mw] MRS y m [mw]PPC fm [mw]PPON p,&thgr; (10) m [mw]DOOR p,&thgr; (10) m [mw]PPON p,&thgr; (10) m [mw]PPON p,&thgr; w]MOK p,θ (10) m [mw]PNG p,θ (10) m [mw]PCK f m [mw ]MRT f m [m. w]CHK fm [mw]PUL fm [mw]CRN fm [mw]CRL fm [mw]STW fm [mw]WOL f m [m.sup.w]PUA d[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]] m [m.sup. w]SNS f m [m.sup.w]ULI f m [m.sup.w]POC ( 1) k nk [KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PMC k x [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]KSR k k,[theta] (6) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PCMC k x [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]KIR k,[theta] (7) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE k x [KEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]MRS k,[ k.w] (8) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] [[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] .sup.w8] . PPC k r,[theta] (11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] ,[theta] (11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] PON k r,[theta] (11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]MOK k r,[theta] (11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] PNG k r,[theta](11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE PCK k [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]MRT k,[theta](12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]CHK k,s{_i},[theta](12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] [n.sup .13]PUL k,[theta] (12) [ theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]CRN g,[theta] (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]CRL gh,[ theta] (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] ]STW k,o (12) [theta] [ UNTASTATURFÄHIGES SYMBOL]WOL g (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PUA k (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL ]SNS k (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] ]ULI g (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]POC (1) y wPMC y wKSR [theta] [theta]PCMC y wKIR [theta] wPWMC y wMRS y wPPC y wPPON y wPON [theta],y wMOK [theta ],y wPNG [theta],y wPCK [theta], y wMRT [theta], y wCHK [theta], y wPUL [theta], y wCRN [theta]. , y wCRL [theta], y wSTW [theta], y wWOL [theta], y wPUA [theta] ,y wSNS [theta],y wULI [theta],y w(1)See Ross (1988) for further discussion POC and for detailed Constructions.(2)POC *mp and *m became labials in PMC for round vowels and in some other Forms.(3)POC *p as lost in PMC for round vowels.(4)See Jackson 1983:329 -330 for explanations of apparent exceptions.(5)PMC *[ m.sup.w] deleted together with * m in final position (when it stood before a last vowel that was lod) to give KSR -m; see Jackson 1983;332-334.(6)PMC *x is normally lost in KSR for *u; see Jackson 1983:331.(7)ONC *k is sometimes lost in KIR morphemes that also reflect PMC *t(see footnote 7 to table 3 and Jackson 1983:310).(8)When PMC *k and *; [UNKEYBOARD SYMBOL ] is initiated and/or followed by*o or *u, their MRS reflexes are rounded ([k.sup.w] and [[UNKEYBOARDSYMBOL ].sup.w], respectively), except in disyllables where * u in one of the syllables is the only conditional factor (the vowel in the other syllable is *i, *e or *a,). )PMC *f is often lost in PPON for *i; see Jackson 1986:202.(11)PMC *x is r before *a, and [theta] elsewhere.(12)PMC *k is often reflected as CHK s for *i (and occasionally ++u), and is regular reflected as [theta] for low and middle vowels when there is also no high vowel in front. “The geminate reflex of [PMC] *k is extended velar stop kk in all [Chu]ukian languages” (Jackson 1983:175). See Jackson 1983:175-185 for more on these complex developments in all the Chuukian languages.(13 )PMC *[UNKEBOARDABLE SYMBOL] sometimes becomes CHK n for *i; seJackson 1983:171.TABLE 3CONSONANT CORRESPONDENCE: CORONALSPOC t s, nj (1) ns, j (1)PMC t T (4) s SKSR t,S (5) s t,s (5) [theta]PCMC t T s SKIR t , [theta] (7) t r rPWMC t T s sMRS j j t tPPC t T d dPPON j,[theta] (9) j d (10) d (10)PON s,[theta]{_i,u,e} ( ) s d (10) d (10)MOK j,θ{_i,u,e} (11) j d (10) d (10)PNG s,θ{_i,u,e} (11) s d (10) d (10)PCK t T d dMRT s{_a},θ s{_[Vlow]} t tCHK s{_a},θ s{_[V.sub. -low]} t tPUL h{_a},θ h{_[V-low]} t tCRN s{_a},θ h{_[V-low]} t tCRL s{_a},θ s{_[ V-low]} t tSTW s,t{_a},θ s{_[V-low]} t tWOL d,t{_a},[theta] s t tPUA d,t{_a},[theta] d t tSNS d,t{_a},[theta] d t tULI s,t{_a},[theta] s th thPOC j(2)nt ,nd d,R(3) lPMC Z c r lKSR s sr I,r (6) IPCMC Z c r IKIR r r &thgr; nPWMC &thgr; c r lMRS &thgr; d r,[r.sup.w] (8) I ,l,[l.sup.w] (8)PPC [theta] c r lPPON [theta] c r lPON [theta] t (10) r lMOK [theta] s r lPNG [theta] s r lPCK [theta] c (12) r lMRT [theta] sh;shsh r lCHK [theta] ch;chch r nPUL [theta] R;cch r lCRN [theta] R;tch r lCRL [theta] sh;tch r lSTW [theta] R;chch r l, n;nn (13)WOL [theta] sh;eeh r l;nnPUA [theta] s;ss l nSNS [theta] s;ss l r;nnULI [theta] c ;cc r lPOC n nPMC n nKSR n [theta]PCMC n nKIR n nPWMC n nMRS n,n,[nw] (8) nPPC n nPPON n &thgr;,nPON n &thgr;MOK n &thgr;,n{[V+ hi_]} PNG n [theta],n{[V.sub.+hi_]}PCK n nMRT n nCHK n nPUL n nCRN n nCRL l lSTW n,l;nn (13) nWOL l;nn lPUA n nSNS r; nn rULI l l (1)Refers for PEO Grounds (see Jackson 1983:342-348 and Geraghty 1983).(2)Refers for PEO *j reconstructed by Geraghty (1983:149-153); PMC *Z is used only in two etyma in this compilation: PMC *kiaZo and PMC*laZe.(3)The conditions as to when POC *R fused with POC *r and when it became lost are unclear; see Jackson (1986:203).(4)See PMC *T in Jackson 1983:326 and 1986:203 and see fn. 5 in Goodenough 1992:112.(5)KSR reflects PMC *t and *s as s before *i and *e; siehe Jackson1983:338-342.(6)KSR l is the regular reflex of PMC *r; KSR r is diagnostic of lean;see Jackson 1983:335-338.(7)PMC *t is sometimes lost in KIR morphemes that also reflect PMC *k(see Footnote 7 bis Table 2 und Jackson 1983:310). (8) The three sets of MRS consonants (light, heavy, and rounded) are discussed in Bender 1969:xii-xxi. light consonants (e.g. l and n) are unmarked or standard set. Heavy l and n reflect *I and *n, respectively, when followed by *a (or, rarely, *o), unless the vowel is a contiguous syllable *i or *u. The heavy consonants r, l, and n can be rounded to [r.sup.w], [l.sup.w], and [n.sup.w], respectively, with the same conditioning factors that round k and n to [, respectively. k.sup.w] and[n.sup.w] (see footnote 8 bis table 2).(9)In the Pohnpeian languages, geminate obstruents are realized ashomorganic nasal-obstruent clusters.(10)In the Pohnpeian languages. d stands for a vowel-like apico-dental stop, while t in Pohnpeian stands for a vowel-like laminoalveolar stop.(11)The reflex is sporadically 0 for PMC *e.(12)The spelling of geminate reflexes in each of the Chuukie languages ​​is given after the semicolons below.(13)PMC *1 and *n are denoted as STWl and n respectively in most cases; However, the reflexes of the two are changed by about 25% without light conditioning factors, or variants of both findings. As in WOL and SNS is geminator of the two soldered together as now.

(2.) Includes PCMC and PWMC as well as PMC.

Language abbreviations and sources: ARE, 'are' is (Geerts 1970) (not found in the PMC section); ARO, Arosi (Fuchs 1970); BEETLE, Beetle (Ivens 1940); CHK, Chuukese or Trukese (Goodenough and Sugita 1980, 1990; Goodenough 1963, 1992); CHM, Chamorro (Topping, Ogo, and Dungca 1975); CRL and CRN, Carolinian and Carolinian Highlands (Jackson and Mark 1991); FIJ, Fiji (Capell 1957; Geraghty 1983); JAR Jabem; Kirkiribati or Gilbertese (Bingham 1908); KSR, Kosraean or Kusaican (Lee 1976), KWA, Kwaio (Keesing 1975); LAK, Lakalai or West Nakanai (Chowning and Goodenough, undated); KAU, Lau (Fox 1974); MAP, Old Mapian (January 1889); MOK, Mokilese (Harrison and Albert 1977); MRS, Marshallese (Abo et al. 1976); MRI, Mortlockese (Bender et al. 1984); NGG, Nggela (Fuchs 1955); NGK, Ngatcikese (Bender et al. 1984); PAL, Palauan (Josephs 1950); PAN, Proto-Austronesian (Blust 1980-89); PCK, Proto-Chuukic or Proto-Trukic (Jackson 1983, Marek 1994); PCM, Proto-Central Micronesian (in classifications by Jackson 1983 and March 1994; PCP, Proto-Central Pacific (Marck 1994); PEO, Proto-Easternnceanic, including PCO (Geraghty 1983, 1990); ;PLK, Proto-Lakalai 1997) ; PMc, Proto-Micronesian (Benderet. 1984; Bender and Wang 1985; Jackson 1983; Marek 1991, 1994); PMP, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (Blust 1980-1989), also UAN; Lake Pingelape (Lake Pingelape) (Bender et al. 1984); PNK, Proto-Nakanai (Goodenough 1997); PON, Pohnpeian or Ponapeian (Rehg and Sohi 1979; Sohi, Rehg and Andreas, forthcoming); POc, Proto-Oceanic (Ross 1988; Blust 1970, 1978; Grace 1969); PPC, Proto-Pohnpeic-Chukic; PPN, Proto-Polynesian (Walsh and Biggs 1966; Biggs, Walsh, and Waqa 1970); PPoN, Porto's PuA, 1970; Pulo-Annan (Oda 1977); PUL, Puluwatese (Elbert 1972); PWM, Proto-Willaumez (Goodenough 1997); PWMc, P1010-Western Micronesian (Jackson 1983; Marck 1994), see PPC; RED, Rotuman (Churchward 1940, Roviana); ;Roy, Roviana; dog (Ivens 1918); SAM, Samoan (Milner 1966); SNs, Sonsorolese (Order 1977; Bender et al. 1984); STW, Satawatese (Bender et al. 1984); TAG, tagalog; TOB, Toby (Kubary 1989); TOK, Tokelau (Bender et al. 1984); TON, Tongan (Churchward 1959); UAN, unaustronesian (Dempwolf 1934-38; Dyen 1951, 1953), also PMP; ULA, Ulavan (1920's 1918); UtI, Ulithian (Bender et al. 1984); WOL, Woteaian (Son and Tawerilmang 1976); YAP, Yapisch (Jensen 1977).

L refers to the section on loans to be included in Part 2.

V is sometimes used for a reconstructed vowel of indefinite similarity.

Vowel-critical signs are ignored in literacy.

Square brackets enclose two possibilities for protophones when the evidence is ambiguous or contradictory (e.g. [sS]); the first is used for literacy purposes.

"(sic)" 'so, therefore' may take a form somewhat different from the expected reflex to assert that the copying error did not occur.


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Byron W. Bender, Ward H. Goodenough, Frederick H. Jackson, JeffreyC. Marck, Kenneth L. Rehg, Ho-min Sohn, Stephen Trussel, Judith W. Wang (1)

(1.) One name, Robert W. Hsu, really belongs here, but he hesitated. Without his initiative and help for every tom, this article and many of the dictionaries on which it is based would certainly not have appeared in their current form - if they appeared at all.

Bender, Byron W.^Goodenough, Ward H.^Jackson, Frederick H.^Marck, Jeffrey C.^Rehg, Kenneth L.^Sohn, Ho-min^Trussel, Stephen^Wang, Judith W.

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